One efficient approach to assigning function to unannotated genes is to establish the enzymes that are missing in known biosynthetic pathways. One group of such pathways is those involved in coenzyme biosynthesis. In the case of the methanogenic archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii as well as most methanogens, none of the expected enzymes for the biosynthesis of the β-alanine and pantoic acid moieties required for coenzyme A are annotated. To identify the gene(s) for β-alanine biosynthesis, we have established the pathway for the formation of β-alanine in this organism after experimentally eliminating other known and proposed pathways to β-alanine from malonate semialdehyde, l-alanine, spermine, dihydrouracil, and acryloyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Our data showed that the decarboxylation of aspartate was the only source of β-alanine in cell extracts of M. jannaschii. Unlike other prokaryotes where the enzyme producing β-alanine from l-aspartate is a pyruvoyl-containing l-aspartate decarboxylase (PanD), the enzyme in M. jannaschii is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent l-aspartate decarboxylase encoded by MJ0050, the same enzyme that was found to decarboxylate tyrosine for methanofuran biosynthesis. A Km of ∼0.80 mM for l-aspartate with a specific activity of 0.09 μmol min−1 mg−1 at 70°C for the decarboxylation of l-aspartate was measured for the recombinant enzyme. The MJ0050 gene was also demonstrated to complement the Escherichia coli
panD deletion mutant cells, in which panD encoding aspartate decarboxylase in E. coli had been knocked out, thus confirming the function of this gene in vivo.
In Drosophila, protein trap strategies provide powerful approaches for the generation of tagged proteins expressed under endogenous control. Here, we describe expression and functional analysis to evaluate new Ubx and hth protein trap lines generated by the Cambridge Protein Trap project. Both protein traps exhibit spatial and temporal expression patterns consistent with the reported endogenous pattern in the embryo. In imaginal discs, Ubx-YFP is expressed throughout the haltere and 3rd leg imaginal discs, while Hth-YFP is expressed in the proximal regions of haltere and wing discs but not in the pouch region. The UbxCPTI000601 line is semilethal as a homozygote. No T3/A1 to T2 transformations were observed in the embryonic cuticle or the developing midgut. The homozygous survivors, however, exhibit a weak haltere phenotype with a few wing-like marginal bristles on the haltere capitellum. Although hthCPTI000378 is completely lethal as a homozygote, the hthCPTI000378/hthC1 genotype is viable. Using a hth deletion (Df(3R)BSC479) we show that hthCPTI000378/Df(3R)BSC479 adults are phenotypically normal. No transformations were observed in hthCPTI000378, hthCPTI000378/hthC1, or hthCPTI000378/Df(3R)BSC479 embryonic cuticles. We have successfully characterised the Ubx-YFP and Hth-YFP protein trap lines demonstrating that the tagged proteins show appropriate expression patterns and produce at least partially functional proteins.
We characterize here the MJ1541 gene product from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, an enzyme that was annotated as a 5′-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine deaminase (EC 18.104.22.168/22.214.171.124). The MJ1541 gene product catalyzes the conversion of 5′-deoxyadenosine to 5′-deoxyinosine as its major product but will also deaminate 5′-methylthioadenosine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and adenosine to a small extent. On the basis of these findings, we are naming this new enzyme 5′-deoxyadenosine deaminase (DadD). The Km for 5′-deoxyadenosine was found to be 14.0 ± 1.2 μM with a kcat/Km of 9.1 × 109 M−1 s−1. Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes account for nearly 2% of the M. jannaschii genome, where the major SAM derived products is 5′-deoxyadenosine. Since 5′-dA has been demonstrated to be an inhibitor of radical SAM enzymes; a pathway for removing this product must be present. We propose here that DadD is involved in the recycling of 5′-deoxyadenosine, whereupon the 5′-deoxyribose moiety of 5′-deoxyinosine is further metabolized to deoxyhexoses used for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in methanogens.
The paired box gene 6 (PAX6) is a powerful mediator of eye and brain organogenesis whose spatiotemporal expression is exquisitely controlled by multiple mechanisms, including post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). In the present study, we use bioinformatic predictions to identify three candidate microRNA-7 (miR-7) target sites in the human PAX6 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) and demonstrate that two of them are functionally active in a human cell line. Furthermore, transient transfection of cells with synthetic miR-7 inhibits PAX6 protein expression but does not alter levels of PAX6 mRNA, suggesting that miR-7 induces translational repression of PAX6. Finally, a comparison of PAX6 3′-UTRs across species reveals that one of the functional miR-7 target sites is conserved, whereas the second functional target site is found only in primates. Thus, the interaction between PAX6 and miR-7 appears to be highly conserved; however, the precise number of sites through which this interaction occurs may have expanded throughout evolution.
miR-7; PAX6; miRNA; 3′-UTR
To explore the association of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and Alzheimer disease (AD) in the Einstein Aging Study, an epidemiologic study of aging in New York City.
Community-residing volunteers aged 70 years or older were assessed annually, followed by multidisciplinary diagnostic consensus. Cancer status and type was obtained by self-report. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test associations between NMSC and subsequent risk of developing a neurocognitive disorder. To deduce a biologically specific association between AD and NMSC, we considered 3 nested outcomes groups: only AD (probable or possible AD as the sole diagnosis), any AD (probable AD or possible AD, as well as mixed AD/vascular dementia), and all-cause dementia.
We followed 1,102 adults with a mean age of 79 years at enrollment. Prevalent NMSC was associated with reduced risk of only AD (hazard ratio = 0.21; 95% confidence interval = 0.051–0.87; p = 0.031) among subjects after adjustment for demographics, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. APOE ε4 genotypes were available in 769 individuals. The association was similar in magnitude, but nonsignificant, when the number of APOE ε4 alleles was included in the model. No significant association was found between NMSC and subsequent development of any AD or all-cause dementia.
This population-based longitudinal study shows that individuals older than 70 years with NMSC have a significantly reduced risk of developing AD compared with individuals without NMSC. We deduce Alzheimer-specific neuroprotection, because the effect is attenuated or eliminated when considering less-specific diagnoses such as AD with another diagnosis (any AD) or all-cause dementia.
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease with a wide spectrum of vascular malformations involving multiple organs. Nine-16% of patients with HHT harbor brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), which can cause intracranial hemorrhage. Our objective was to study clinical manifestations of brain AVM in patients with HHT and correlate these with the specific gene mutated. We reviewed records of 171 patients with HHT and brain AVMs. A history of intracranial hemorrhage was found in 27% (41/152) patients, with a mean (range) age of 26 +/− 18 (0–68) years. All patients with intracranial hemorrhage were neurologically asymptomatic prior to intracranial hemorrhage. Multiple brain AVMs were found in 23% (170/39) of patients on initial examination. Genetic test results were available in 109 (64%) patients. Mutations in ENG, ACVRL1, and SMAD4 were present in 75 (69%), 18 (17%) and 2 (2%), respectively. A history of intracranial hemorrhage was reported in 24% of patients with an ENG mutation and 27% of patients with an ACVRL1 mutation, with a mean (range) age of 26 +/− 16 (2–50) and 18 +/− 21 (0–48) years, respectively. No statistically significant differences in age at first brain AVM diagnosis, prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage history, age at intracranial hemorrhage, or other manifestations of brain AVMs were observed among gene groups. In conclusion, no evidence for differences in brain AVM characteristics was observed among HHT gene groups, although we cannot exclude clinically important differences. Larger studies are needed to further guide brain AVM screening decisions in patients with HHT.
Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia; Brain Arteriovenous Malformation; Genotype; Intracranial Hemorrhage
The Drosophila spermatogenesis cell differentiation pathway involves the activation of a large set of genes in primary spermatocytes. Most of these genes are activated by testis-specific TATA-binding protein associated factors (tTAFs). In the current model for the activation mechanism, Polycomb plays a key role silencing these genes in the germline precursors, and tTAF-dependent activation in primary spermatocytes involves the displacement of Polycomb from gene promoters. We investigated the genome-wide binding of Polycomb in wild type and tTAF mutant testes. According to the model we expected to see a clear enhancement in Polycomb binding at tTAF-dependent spermatogenesis genes in tTAF mutant testes. However, we find little evidence for such an enhancement in tTAF mutant testes compared to wild type. To avoid problems arising from cellular heterogeneity in whole testis analysis, we further tested the model by analysing Polycomb binding in purified germline precursors, representing cells before tTAF-dependent gene activation. Although we find Polycomb associated with its canonical targets, we find little or no evidence of Polycomb at spermatogenesis genes. The lack of Polycomb at tTAF-dependent spermatogenesis genes in precursor cells argues against a model where Polycomb displacement is the mechanism of spermatogenesis gene activation.
How are developmental gene expression programs activated? An interesting activation mechanism has been suggested by studies of the switch-on of the genes required for sperm differentiation in Drosophila; the spermatogenesis genes. These studies indicated that removal of the Polycomb protein from spermatogenesis genes was a key event in their activation. This was interesting because Polycomb is a central component of a gene regulatory complex that works at the level of chromatin and is best known for its role in stable heritable gene silencing. We have further analysed this system by examining Polycomb binding at the genome-wide scale and specifically in the precursor cells where Polycomb is proposed to repress the spermatogenesis genes. Surprisingly, this cell-specific analysis found no clear evidence for Polycomb binding at the spermatogenesis genes before their activation. This argues against the current model where Polycomb removal is the key mechanism involved in the activation of these genes. Further work is needed to identify the actual mechanism of gene activation in this system; however, our results fit with previous work suggesting that lamin-association rather than Polycomb binding may be responsible for repression of spermatogenesis genes prior to their activation.
Skeletal muscle retains a resident stem cell population called satellite cells, which are mitotically quiescent in mature muscle, but can be activated to produce myoblast progeny for muscle homeostasis, hypertrophy and repair. We have previously shown that satellite cell activation is partially controlled by the bioactive phospholipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and that S1P biosynthesis is required for muscle regeneration. Here we investigate the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) in regulating murine satellite cell function. S1PR3 levels were high in quiescent myogenic cells before falling during entry into cell cycle. Retrovirally-mediated constitutive expression of S1PR3 led to suppressed cell cycle progression in satellite cells, but did not overtly affect the myogenic program. Conversely, satellite cells isolated from S1PR3-null mice exhibited enhanced proliferation ex-vivo. In vivo, acute cardiotoxin-induced muscle regeneration was enhanced in S1PR3-null mice, with bigger muscle fibres compared to control mice. Importantly, genetically deleting S1PR3 in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy produced a less severe muscle dystrophic phenotype, than when signalling though S1PR3 was operational. In conclusion, signalling though S1PR3 suppresses cell cycle progression to regulate function in muscle satellite cells.
•Expression of S1PR3 is associated with non-cycling myoblasts.•Constitutive expression of S1PR3 leads to reduced cell proliferation.•Satellite cells lacking S1PR3 have enhanced proliferation.•Muscle regeneration is improved in the absence of S1PR3.•The dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice is improved by the absence of S1PR3.
Stem cell; Satellite cell; Skeletal muscle; Sphingosine-1-phosphate; S1PR3; Muscular dystrophy; mdx; Regeneration; Cell cycle; Proliferation; Quiescence
Giant magnetoresistive (GMR) nanosensors provide a novel approach for measuring protein concentrations in blood for medical diagnosis. Using an in vivo mouse radiation model, we developed protocols for measuring Flt3 ligand (Flt3lg) and serum amyloid A1 (Saa1) in small amounts of blood collected during the first week after X-ray exposures of sham, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, or 6 Gy. Flt3lg concentrations showed excellent dose discrimination at ≥ 1 Gy in the time window of 1 to 7 days after exposure except 1 Gy at day 7. Saa1 dose response was limited to the first two days after exposure. A multiplex assay with both proteins showed improved dose classification accuracy. Our magneto-nanosensor assay demonstrates the dose and time responses, low-dose sensitivity, small volume requirements, and rapid speed that have important advantages in radiation triage biodosimetry.
The present study investigated if T-cells infiltrating the periapical lesion produce RANKL and whether bacteria infecting the root canal can activate T-cells to produce RANKL.
Using a mouse model of periapical lesion induced by artificial dental pulp exposure, the presence of RANKL-positive T-cells and osteoclasts in the periapical lesion was examined by an immuno-histochemical approach. The bacteria colonizing the exposed root canal were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis. The isolated endodontic bacteria were further immunized to normal mice, and sRANKL production by the T-cells isolated from the immunized mice was evaluated by ex vivo culture system.
RANKL-positive T-cells, along with TARP+ osteoclasts, were identified in periapical bone resorption lesions. The Gram-negative bacterium Pasterurella pnumotropica (P. pnumotropica), which was most frequently detected from root canal of exposed pulp, showed remarkably elevated serum IgG antibody response in pulp-exposed mice compared to control non-treated mice. Immunization of mice with P. pneumotropica induced not only serum IgG antibody but also primed bacteria reactive T-cells that produced sRANKL in response to ex vivo exposure to P. pneumotropica.
T-cells infiltrating the periapical region express RANKL, and the endodontic bacteria colonizing the root canal appear to induce RANKL expression from bacteria-reactive T-cells, suggesting the possible pathogenic engagement of immune response to endodontic bacteria in the context of developing boneresorptive periapical lesions.
To explore the role of p16INK4a as an intrinsic barrier to B cell transformation by EBV, we transformed primary B cells from an individual homozygous for a deletion in the CDKN2A locus encoding p16INK4a and p14ARF. Using recombinant EBV-BAC viruses expressing conditional EBNA3C (3CHT), we developed a system that allows inactivation of EBNA3C in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) lacking active p16INK4a protein but expressing a functional 14ARF-fusion protein (p14/p16). The INK4a locus is epigenetically repressed by EBNA3C – in cooperation with EBNA3A – despite the absence of functional p16INK4a. Although inactivation of EBNA3C in LCLs from normal B cells leads to an increase in p16INK4a and growth arrest, EBNA3C inactivation in the p16INK4a-null LCLs has no impact on the rate of proliferation, establishing that the repression of INK4a is a major function of EBNA3C in EBV-driven LCL proliferation. This conditional LCL system allowed us to use microarray analysis to identify and confirm genes regulated specifically by EBNA3C, independently of proliferation changes modulated by the p16INK4a-Rb-E2F axis. Infections of normal primary B cells with recombinant EBV-BAC virus from which EBNA3C is deleted or with 3CHT EBV in the absence of activating ligand 4-hydroxytamoxifen, revealed that EBNA3C is necessary to overcome an EBV-driven increase in p16INK4a expression and concomitant block to proliferation 2–4 weeks post-infection. If cells are p16INK4a-null, functional EBNA3C is dispensable for the outgrowth of LCLs.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent of several types of B cell lymphoma. In human B cells, EBV reduces protein levels of at least two tumour suppressors that would otherwise be activated in response to over-expressed oncogenes. These proteins are BIM, which induces cell death and p16INK4a, which prevents cell proliferation. Repression of both is via epigenetic methylation of histones and is dependent on expression of both EBNA3A and EBNA3C – two EBV proteins required for the transformation of normal B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). In this report we have used EBV with a conditionally active EBNA3C – active only in the presence of 4-hydroxytamoxifen – together with B cells from an individual carrying a homozygous deletion of p16INK4a to confirm that regulation of p16INK4a expression is a major function of EBNA3C and demonstrate that if B cells lack p16INK4a, then EBNA3C is no longer required for EBV-driven proliferation of LCLs. Furthermore we show that early after the infection of normal B cells, EBV induces p16INK4a accumulation that – if unchecked by EBNA3C (and EBNA3A) – prevents LCL outgrowth. Formal proof that p16INK4a is the main target of EBNA3C comes with the production of p16-null LCLs that have never expressed functional EBNA3C.
The biosynthesis of GTP derived metabolites such as tetrahydrofolate (THF), biopterin (BH4), and the modified tRNA nucleosides queuosine (Q) and archaeosine (G+) relies on several enzymes of the Tunnel-fold superfamily. A subset of these proteins include the 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin (PTPS-II), PTPS-III, and PTPS-I homologs, all members of the COG0720 family, that have been previously shown to transform 7,8-dihydroneopterin triphosphate (H2NTP) into different products. PTPS-II catalyzes the formation of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin in the BH4 pathway. PTPS-III catalyzes the formation of 6-hydroxylmethyl-7,8-dihydropterin in the THF pathway. PTPS-I catalyzes the formation of 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin in the Q pathway. Genes of these three enzyme families are often misannotated as they are difficult to differentiate by sequence similarity alone. Using a combination of physical clustering, signature motif, and phylogenetic co-distribution analyses, in vivo complementation studies, and in vitro enzymatic assays, a complete reannotation of the COG0720 family was performed in prokaryotes. Notably, this work identified and experimentally validated dual function PTPS-I/III enzymes involved in both THF and Q biosynthesis. Both in vivo and in vitro analyses showed that the PTPS-I family could tolerate a translation of the active site cysteine and was inherently promiscuous, catalyzing different reactions on the same substrate, or the same reaction on different substrates. Finally, the analysis and experimental validation of several archaeal COG0720 members confirmed the role of PTPS-I in archaeosine biosynthesis, and resulted in the identification PTPS-III enzymes with variant signature sequences in Sulfolobus species. This study reveals an expanded versatility of the COG0720 family members and illustrates that for certain protein families, extensive comparative genomic analysis beyond homology is required to correctly predict function.
Queuosine; archaeosine; tetrahydrofolate; biopterin; tRNA modification; riboflavin; 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase
It is a well-established fact that the tRNA genes in yeast can function as chromatin barrier elements. However, so far there is no experimental evidence that tRNA and other Pol III-transcribed genes exhibit barrier activity in mammals. This study utilizes a recently developed reporter gene assay to test a set of Pol III-transcribed genes and gene clusters with variable promoter and intergenic regions for their ability to prevent heterochromatin-mediated reporter gene silencing in mouse cells. The results show that functional copies of mouse tRNA genes are effective barrier elements. The number of tRNA genes as well as their orientation influence barrier function. Furthermore, the DNA sequence composition of intervening and flanking regions affects barrier activity of tRNA genes. Barrier activity was maintained for much longer time when the intervening and flanking regions of tRNA genes were replaced by AT-rich sequences, suggesting a negative role of DNA methylation in the establishment of a functional barrier. Thus, our results suggest that tRNA genes are essential elements in establishment and maintenance of chromatin domain architecture in mammalian cells.
barrier elements; tRNA genes; Pol III-transcribed genes
Si nano-well arrays, with precisely controlled undercut Si sidewall profiles and flat bottomed pockets, enable uniform nanoscale pattern transfer from resists to metal deposits without degradation of the initial lithographic resolution, as verified by formation of arrays of Au nano-dots with 10 nm diameter. An additional functionality of the Si nano-wells as local nano-reactors, where the patterned material is enclosed in a Si pocket during high temperature reaction, is demonstrated by thermally inducing a phase transformation of the as-deposited A1 phase of FePt nano-dots to the high coercivity, chemically ordered L10 phase.
Detailed analyses of the chromatin around the BIM promoter has revealed that latent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) triggers the recruitment of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) core subunits and the trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at this locus. The recruitment is absolutely dependent on nuclear proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C; what is more, epitope-tagged EBNA3C could be shown bound near the transcription start site (TSS). EBV induces no consistent changes in the steady-state expression of PRC2 components, but lentivirus delivery of shRNAs against PRC2 and PRC1 subunits disrupted EBV repression of BIM. The activation mark H3K4me3 is largely unaltered at this locus irrespective of H3K27me3 status, suggesting the establishment of a ‘bivalent’ chromatin domain. Consistent with the ‘poised’ nature of these domains, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy was not altered by EBV at the BIM TSS, but analysis of phospho-serine 5 on Pol II indicated that EBNA3A and EBNA3C together inhibit initiation of BIM transcripts. B cell lines carrying EBV encoding a conditional EBNA3C-oestrogen receptor-fusion revealed that this epigenetic repression of BIM was reversible, but took more than 3 weeks from when EBNA3C was inactivated.
Genome-wide occupancy profiles of five components of the RNA Polymerase III (Pol III) machinery in human cells identified the expected tRNA and non-coding RNA targets and revealed many additional Pol III-associated loci, mostly near SINEs. Several genes are targets of an alternative TFIIIB containing Brf2 instead of Brf1 and have extremely low levels of TFIIIC. Strikingly, expressed Pol III genes, unlike non-expressed Pol III genes, are situated in regions with a pattern of histone modifications associated with functional Pol II promoters. TFIIIC alone associates with numerous ETC loci, via the B box or a novel motif. ETCs are often near CTCF binding sites, suggesting a potential role in chromosome organization. Our results suggest that human Pol III complexes associate preferentially with regions near functional Pol II promoters and that TFIIIC-mediated recruitment of TFIIIB is regulated in a locus-specific manner.
RNA polymerase III (pol III) transcription of transfer RNA (tRNA) genes is essential for generating the tRNA adapter molecules that link genetic sequence and protein translation. By mapping pol III occupancy genome-wide in the livers of mouse, rat, human, macaque, dog and opossum, we found that pol III binding to individual tRNA genes varies substantially in strength and location. However, taking into account tRNA redundancies by grouping pol III occupancy into 46 anticodon isoacceptor families or 21 amino acid-based isotype classes shows strong conservation. Similarly, pol III occupancy of amino-acid isotypes is almost invariant among transcriptionally and evolutionarily diverse tissues in mouse. Thus, synthesis of functional tRNA isotypes has been highly constrained, though the usage of individual tRNA genes has evolved rapidly.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persistently infects more than 90% of the human population and is etiologically linked to several B cell malignancies, including Burkitt lymphoma (BL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Despite its growth transforming properties, most immune-competent individuals control EBV infection throughout their lives. EBV encodes various oncogenes, and of the 6 latency-associated EBV-encoded nuclear antigens, only EBNA3B is completely dispensable for B cell transformation in vitro. Here, we report that infection with EBV lacking EBNA3B leads to aggressive, immune-evading monomorphic DLBCL-like tumors in NOD/SCID/γc–/– mice with reconstituted human immune system components. Infection with EBNA3B-knockout EBV (EBNA3BKO) induced expansion of EBV-specific T cells that failed to infiltrate the tumors. EBNA3BKO-infected B cells expanded more rapidly and secreted less T cell–chemoattractant CXCL10, reducing T cell recruitment in vitro and T cell–mediated killing in vivo. B cell lines from 2 EBV-positive human lymphomas encoding truncated EBNA3B exhibited gene expression profiles and phenotypic characteristics similar to those of tumor-derived lines from the humanized mice, including reduced CXCL10 secretion. Screening EBV-positive DLBCL, HL, and BL human samples identified additional EBNA3B mutations. Thus, EBNA3B is a virus-encoded tumor suppressor whose inactivation promotes immune evasion and virus-driven lymphomagenesis.
The design of immunologic interventions to prevent postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will require identification of protective immune responses in this setting. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs), a species that develops an AIDS-like illness following experimental infection, transmit the virus at a high rate during breastfeeding. In contrast, postnatal transmission of SIV occurs rarely or not at all in natural, asymptomatic primate hosts of SIV. These contrasting transmission patterns provide a unique opportunity to study mechanisms that evolved to protect suckling infants from SIV infection. We compared the virologic and immunologic properties of milk of SIV-infected and uninfected natural hosts of SIV, African green monkeys (AGMs), to that of RMs. Interestingly, despite a low number of milk CD4+ T lymphocytes in uninfected AGMs, milk virus RNA load in SIV-infected AGMs was comparable to that of SIV-infected RMs and that in AGM plasma. This observation is in contrast to the relatively low virus load in milk compared to that in plasma of SIV-infected RMs and HIV-infected women. Milk of SIV-infected AGMs also displayed robust virus-specific cellular immune responses. Importantly, an autologous challenge virus-specific neutralization response was detected in milk of five of six SIV-infected AGMs that was comparable in magnitude to that in plasma. In contrast, autologous challenge virus neutralization was not detectable in milk of SIV-infected RMs. The autologous virus-specific adaptive immune responses in breast milk of AGMs may contribute to impedance of virus transmission in the infant oral/gastrointestinal tract and the rarity of postnatal virus transmission in natural hosts of SIV.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic herpesvirus that causes human malignancies, infects and immortalizes primary human B cells in vitro into indefinitely proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines, which represent a model for EBV-induced tumorigenesis. The immortalization efficiency is very low suggesting that an innate tumor suppressor mechanism is operative. We identify the DNA damage response (DDR) as a major component of the underlying tumor suppressor mechanism. EBV-induced DDR activation was not due to lytic viral replication nor did the DDR marks co-localize with latent episomes. Rather, a transient period of EBV-induced hyper-proliferation correlated with DDR activation. Inhibition of the DDR kinases ATM and Chk2 markedly increased transformation efficiency of primary B cells. Further, the viral latent oncoproteins EBNA3C was required to attenuate the EBV-induced DNA damage response We propose that heightened oncogenic activity in early cell divisions activates a growth-suppressive DDR which is attenuated by viral latency products to induce cell immortalization.
The ability to perform de novo biosynthesis of purines is present in organisms in all three domains of life, reflecting the essentiality of these molecules to life. Although the pathway is quite similar in eukaryotes and bacteria, the archaeal pathway is more variable. A careful manual curation of genes in this pathway demonstrates the value of manual curation in archaea, even in pathways that have been well-studied in other domains.
We searched the Integrated Microbial Genome system (IMG) for the 17 distinct genes involved in the 11 steps of de novo purine biosynthesis in 65 sequenced archaea, finding 738 predicted proteins with sequence similarity to known purine biosynthesis enzymes. Each sequence was manually inspected for the presence of active site residues and other residues known or suspected to be required for function.
Many apparently purine-biosynthesizing archaea lack evidence for a single enzyme, either glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase or inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase, suggesting that there are at least two more gene variants in the purine biosynthetic pathway to discover. Variations in domain arrangement of formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide synthetase and substantial problems in aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase and inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase assignments were also identified.
Manual curation revealed some overly specific annotations in the IMG gene product name, with predicted proteins without essential active site residues assigned product names implying enzymatic activity (21 proteins, 2.8% of proteins inspected) or Enzyme Commission (E. C.) numbers (57 proteins, 7.7%). There were also 57 proteins (7.7%) assigned overly generic names and 78 proteins (10.6%) without E.C. numbers as part of the assigned name when a specific enzyme name and E. C. number were well-justified.
The patchy distribution of purine biosynthetic genes in archaea is consistent with a pathway that has been shaped by horizontal gene transfer, duplication, and gene loss. Our results indicate that manual curation can improve upon automated annotation for a small number of automatically-annotated proteins and can reveal a need to identify further pathway components even in well-studied pathways.
This article was reviewed by Dr. Céline Brochier-Armanet, Dr Kira S Makarova (nominated by Dr. Eugene Koonin), and Dr. Michael Galperin.