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1.  Hyperspectral Imaging in Diabetic Foot Wound Care 
Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication of diabetes and afflicts as many as 15 to 25% of type 1 and 2 diabetes patients during their lifetime. If untreated, diabetic foot ulcers may become infected and require total or partial amputation of the affected limb. Early identification of tissue at risk of ulcerating could enable proper preventive care, thereby reducing the incidence of foot ulceration. Furthermore, noninvasive assessment of tissue viability around already formed ulcers could inform the diabetes caregiver about the severity of the wound and help assess the need for amputation. This article reviews how hyperspectral imaging between 450 and 700 nm can be used to assess the risk of diabetic foot ulcer development and to predict the likelihood of healing noninvasively. Two methods are described to analyze the in vivo hyperspectral measurements. The first method is based on the modified Beer-Lambert law and produces a map of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations in the dermis of the foot. The second is based on a two-layer optical model of skin and can retrieve not only oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations but also epidermal thickness and melanin concentration along with skin scattering properties. It can detect changes in the diabetic foot and help predict and understand ulceration mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC2956800  PMID: 20920429
diabetic foot ulcer; hyperspectral imaging; tissue oximetry; wound care
2.  Wound Inflammatory Index: A “Proof of Concept” Study to Assess Wound Healing Trajectory 
Diabetes around the globe results in one major limb amputation every 30 seconds, over 2500 limbs lost per day. The underlying pathophysiology sometimes leads to a chronic inflammatory stage, which may prevent appropriate healing, and therefore, the need for a clear strategy for assessing and classifying wounds and wound healing cannot be overstated. Temperature is a surrogate marker for inflammation. Quantitative thermography using a numerical index provides a useful way to assess wound healing. Advances in technology have afforded the availability of low-cost, high-resolution thermal imaging systems, which can be used to quantify sensitive changes on the skin surface and may be particularly useful to develop monitoring strategies for wounds. This article provides a standardized technique for calculating a thermal index (TI) supported with a case report from assessment of a diabetic foot ulcer. In this single case study, the TI/wound inflammatory index indicates a shift from negative to positive (p < .05) before it reaches zero.
PMCID: PMC2909505  PMID: 20663437
diabetic foot ulcers; thermal index; thermography; thermometry; wound healing
3.  Evaluation of Diabetic Foot Ulcer Healing With Hyperspectral Imaging of Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin 
Diabetes Care  2009;32(11):2056-2061.
Foot ulceration remains a major health problem for diabetic patients and has a major impact on the cost of diabetes treatment. We tested a hyperspectral imaging technology that quantifies cutaneous tissue hemoglobin oxygenation and generated anatomically relevant tissue oxygenation maps to assess the healing potential of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs).
A prospective single-arm blinded study was completed in which 66 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes were enrolled and followed over a 24-week period. Clinical, medical, and diabetes histories were collected. Transcutaneous oxygen tension was measured at the ankles. Superficial tissue oxyhemoglobin (oxy) and deoxyhemoglobin (deoxy) were measured with hyperspectral imaging from intact tissue bordering the ulcer. A healing index derived from oxy and deoxy values was used to assess the potential for healing.
Fifty-four patients with 73 ulcers completed the study; at 24 weeks, 54 ulcers healed while 19 ulcers did not heal. When using the healing index to predict healing, the sensitivity was 80% (43 of 54), the specificity was 74% (14 of 19), and the positive predictive value was 90% (43 of 48). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values increased to 86, 88, and 96%, respectively, when removing three false-positive osteomyelitis cases and four false-negative cases due to measurements on a callus. The results indicate that cutaneous tissue oxygenation correlates with wound healing in diabetic patients.
Hyperspectral imaging of tissue oxy and deoxy may predict the healing of DFUs with high sensitivity and specificity based on information obtained from a single visit.
PMCID: PMC2768226  PMID: 19641161

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