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1.  Human rabies, a disease of the poor — also in travelers? 
Pathogens and Global Health  2013;107(7):338-339.
doi:10.1179/2047772413Z.000000000167
PMCID: PMC4083152  PMID: 24392675
2.  Immunogenicity of Simulated PCECV Postexposure Booster Doses 1, 3, and 5 Years after 2-Dose and 3-Dose Primary Rabies Vaccination in Schoolchildren 
Objectives. To assess the immunogenicity of intradermal (ID) booster doses of Purified Chick Embryo Cell rabies vaccine (PCECV, Rabipur) administered to Thai schoolchildren one, three and five years after a primary ID pre-exposure (PrEP) vaccination series. Methods. In this follow-up study of a randomized, open-label, phase II clinical trial, two simulated post-exposure booster doses of PCECV were administered on days 0 and 3 intradermally to 703 healthy schoolchildren, one, three or five years after primary vaccination with either two or three ID doses of 0.1 mL PCECV. Blood was drawn immediately before and 7, 14 and 365 days after the first booster dose to determine rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations. Results. An anamnestic response of approximately 30-fold increase in RVNA concentrations was demonstrated within 14 days after booster. All children (100%) developed adequate RVNA concentrations above 0.5 IU/mL. No vaccine related serious adverse events were seen in any of the vaccinees. Conclusion. ID rabies PrEP with PCECV is safe and immunogenic in schoolchildren and the anamnestic response to a two booster dose vaccination series was found to be adequate one, three, and five years after a two- or three-dose primary PrEP vaccination series.
doi:10.4061/2011/403201
PMCID: PMC3170734  PMID: 21991438
3.  Angiotensin II antagonism and plasma radioreceptor-kinetics of candesartan in man 
Aims
The pharmacodynamic properties of the angiotensin II antagonist candesartan in humans were assessed from the rightward shifts of angiotensin II dose-effect curves (Schild regression technique). The pharmacokinetic characteristics were determined by radioreceptor assay (r.r.a.) and h.p.l.c.
Methods
Twelve healthy male volunteers received single oral doses of 4, 8 and 16 mg candesartan cilexetil and placebo. Plasma was obtained for h.p.l.c. and r.r.a. (receptors: rat lung; radioligand: [125I-Sar1Ile8]-angiotensin II).Before and up to 24 h post dosing angiotensin II was infused in ascending dose steps until blood pressure (systolic and/or diastolic) increased by +25 mmHg. Individual angiotensin II dose-effect curves were fitted according to an Emax model and dose ratios (DR) calculated from the antagonist induced rightward shifts.
Results
Candesartan, the active metabolite of candesartan cilexetil, declined from peak concentrations at about 4 h with a t1/2 of about 6 h. A linear relation (slope 1) between h.p.l.c. and r.r.a. data revealed that there is no other active metabolite. DR at 6–9 h post dosing reached a maximum of about 30 and at 24 h still amounted to 4–7, indicating the persistence of a relevant antagonistic effect in vivo. The apparent Ki-doses (derived from Schild regression plots) indicated a high potency (1.9 mg at 24 h) and slow decline of effect. Between plasma concentrations and antagonistic effect a counterclockwise hysteresis was visible.
Conclusions
A longer persistence of the antagonistic effect at the receptor site than expected by the presence in plasma indicates a slow off-rate of candesartan cilexetil from in vivo receptors. This provides an additional rationale for the observed 24 h therapeutic activity of candesartan cilexetil.
doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.1998.00722.x
PMCID: PMC1873652  PMID: 9663812
angiotensin II antagonists; candesartan dose-effect curves; radioreceptor assay; Schild regression technique

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