Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-25 (74)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
more »
1.  FJU-C4, a New 2-Pyridone Compound, Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Systemic Inflammation via p38MAPK and NF-κB in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82877.
Despite advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive care, the mortality caused by systemic inflammatory response syndrome and severe sepsis remains high. The use of anti-inflammatory agents to attenuate inflammatory response during acute systemic inflammatory reactions may improve survival rates. Here we show that a newly synthesized 2-pyridone compound (FJU-C4) can suppress the expression of late inflammatory mediators such as iNOS and COX-2 in murine macrophages. The pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, were dose-dependently suppressed by FJU-C4 both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the expression of TNFα was inhibited from as early as 2 hours after exposure to LPS stimulation. The production of mature pro-inflammatory cytokines was also suppressed by pretreatment with FJU-C4 in either cell culture medium or mice serum when stimulated by LPS. FJU-C4 prolongs mouse survival and prevents mouse death from LPS-induced systemic inflammation when the dose of FJU-C4 is over 5 mg/kg. The activities of ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK were induced by LPS stimulation on murine macrophage cell line, but only p38MAPK signaling was dramatically suppressed by pretreatment with the FJU-C4 compound in a dose-dependent manner. NF-κB activation also was suppressed by FJU-C4 compound. These findings suggest that the FJU-C4 compound may act as a promising therapeutic agent against inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the p38MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway.
PMCID: PMC3871526  PMID: 24376600
2.  The ability of LCRMP-1 to promote cancer invasion by enhancing filopodia formation is antagonized by CRMP-1 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2011;121(8):3189-3205.
Metastasis is a predominant cause of death in patients with cancer. It is a complex multistep process that needs to be better understood if we are to develop new approaches to managing tumor metastasis. Tumor cell invasion of the local stroma is suppressed by collapsin response mediator protein-1 (CRMP-1). Recently, we identified a long isoform of CRMP-1 (LCRMP-1), expression of which correlates with cancer cell invasiveness and poor clinical outcome in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we report that LCRMP-1 overexpression in noninvasive human cell lines enhanced filopodia formation, cancer cell migration, and invasion via stabilization of actin. This effect required a highly conserved N-terminal region of LCRMP-1 as well as the WASP family verprolin-homologous protein-1/actin nucleation pathway (WAVE-1/actin nucleation pathway). Furthermore, LCRMP-1 appeared to act downstream of Cdc42, a Rho family protein known to be involved in actin rearrangement. In addition, LCRMP-1 associated with CRMP-1, which downregulated cancer cell metastasis by interrupting the association of LCRMP-1 and WAVE-1. Finally, we found that high-level expression of LCRMP-1 and low-level expression of CRMP-1 were associated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival in patients with NSCLC. In sum, we show that LCRMP-1 and CRMP-1 have opposing functions in regulating cancer cell invasion and metastasis and propose that this pathway may serve as a potential anticancer target.
PMCID: PMC3148721  PMID: 21747164
3.  Trends and predictors of changes in pulmonary function after treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis 
Clinics  2011;66(4):549-556.
The present study aimed to investigate the trends in changes in pulmonary function and the risk factors for pulmonary function deterioration in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis after completing treatment.
Patients usually have pulmonary function abnormalities after completing treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. The time course for changes in pulmonary function and the risk factors for deterioration have not been well studied.
A total of 115 patients with 162 pulmonary function results were analyzed. We retrieved demographic and clinical data, radiographic scores, bacteriological data, and pulmonary function data. A generalized additive model with a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing technique was used to evaluate the trends in changes in pulmonary function. A generalized estimating equation model was used to determine the risk factors associated with deterioration of pulmonary function.
The median interval between the end of anti-tuberculosis treatment and the pulmonary function test was 16 months (range: 0 to 112 months). The nadir of pulmonary function occurred approximately 18 months after the completion of the treatment. The risk factors associated with pulmonary function deterioration included smear-positive disease, extensive pulmonary involvement prior to anti-tuberculosis treatment, prolonged anti-tuberculosis treatment, and reduced radiographic improvement after treatment.
After the completion of anti-tuberculosis TB treatment, several risk factors predicted pulmonary function deterioration. For patients with significant respiratory symptoms and multiple risk factors, the pulmonary function test should be followed up to monitor the progression of functional impairment, especially within the first 18 months after the completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment.
PMCID: PMC3095809  PMID: 21655745
completion of treatment; disease extent; pulmonary function; pulmonary tuberculosis
4.  Role of the renin‐angiotensin system in ventilator‐induced lung injury: an in vivo study in a rat model 
Thorax  2007;62(6):527-535.
Injurious mechanical ventilation can cause a pro‐inflammatory reaction in the lungs. Recent evidence suggests an association of the renin‐angiotensin system (RAS) with lung inflammation. A study was undertaken to investigate the pathogenic role of the RAS in ventilator‐induced lung injury (VILI) and to determine whether VILI can be attenuated by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition.
Male Sprague‐Dawley rats were mechanically ventilated for 4 h with low (7 ml/kg) or high (40 ml/kg) tidal volumes; non‐ventilated rats were used as controls. Lung injury and inflammation were measured by the lung injury score, protein leakage, myeloperoxidase activity, pro‐inflammatory cytokine levels and nuclear factor (NF)‐κB activity. Expression of the RAS components was also assessed. Some rats were pretreated with the ACE inhibitor captopril (10 mg/kg) for 3 days or received a concomitant infusion with losartan or PD123319 (type 1 or type 2 angiotensin II receptor antagonist) during mechanical ventilation to assess possible protective effects on VILI.
In the high‐volume group (n = 6) the lung injury score, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein concentration, pro‐inflammatory cytokines and NF‐κB activities were significantly increased compared with controls (n = 6). Lung tissue angiotensin II levels and mRNA levels of angiotensinogen and type 1 and type 2 angiotensin II receptors were also significantly increased in the high‐volume group. Pretreatment with captopril or concomitant infusion with losartan or PD123319 in the high‐volume group attenuated the lung injury and inflammation (n = 6 for each group).
The RAS is involved in the pathogenesis of ventilator‐induced lung injury. ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor antagonists can attenuate VILI in this rat model.
PMCID: PMC2117227  PMID: 17234658
5.  Phenanthrene-based tylophorine-1 (PBT-1) inhibits lung cancer cell growth through the Akt and NF-κB pathways 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2009;52(7):1903-1911.
Tylophorine and related natural compounds exhibit potent antitumor activities. We previously showed that PBT-1, a synthetic C9-substituted phenanthrene-based tylophorine (PBT) derivative, significantly inhibits growth of various cancer cells. In this study, we further explored the mechanisms and potential of PBT-1 as an anticancer agent. PBT-1 dose-dependently suppressed colony formation, induced cell cycle G2/M arrest and apoptosis. DNA microarray and pathway analysis showed that PBT-1 activated the apoptosis pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. In contrast, PBT-1 suppressed the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) pathway and focal adhesion. We further confirmed that PBT-1 suppressed Akt activation accelerated RelA degradation via IκB kinase-α, and downregulated NF-κB target gene expression. The reciprocal recruitment of RelA and RelB on COX-2 promoter region led to downregulation of transcriptional activity. We conclude that PBT-1 induces cell cycle G2/M arrest and apoptosis by inactivating Akt and by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. PBT-1 may be a good drug candidate for anticancer chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC2670969  PMID: 19284764
Phenanthrene-based tylophorine derivatives; apoptosis; cell cycle arrest; NF-κB; lung cancer
6.  Infection Control and SARS Transmission among Healthcare Workers, Taiwan 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(5):895-898.
This study found infrequent transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus to healthcare workers involved in the care of the first five case-patients in Taiwan, despite a substantial number of unprotected exposures. Nonetheless, given that SARS has been highly transmissible on some occasions, we still recommend strict precautions.
PMCID: PMC3323237  PMID: 15200825
Infection-control measures; serologic assays; SARS-CoV
7.  Microbiologic Characteristics, Serologic Responses, and Clinical Manifestations in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Taiwan1 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2003;9(9):1163-1167.
The genome of one Taiwanese severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) strain (TW1) was 29,729 nt in length. Viral RNA may persist for some time in patients who seroconvert, and some patients may lack an antibody response (immunoglobulin G) to SARS-CoV >21 days after illness onset. An upsurge of antibody response was associated with the aggravation of respiratory failure.
PMCID: PMC3016775  PMID: 14519257
8.  A Prospective, Molecular Epidemiology Study of EGFR Mutations in Asian Patients with Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer of Adenocarcinoma Histology (PIONEER) 
Journal of Thoracic Oncology  2014;9(2):154-162.
PIONEER (NCT01185314) was a prospective, multinational, epidemiological study of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in patients from Asia with newly diagnosed advanced lung adenocarcinoma.
Eligible patients (aged ≥20 years) had untreated stage IIIB/IV adenocarcinoma. The EGFR mutation status (primary end point: positive, negative, or undetermined) of tumor samples (biopsy, surgical specimen, or cytology) was determined (Scorpion amplification refractory mutation system). EGFR mutation frequency was calculated and compared between demographic and clinical subgroups.
Of 1482 patients from seven Asian regions, 43.4% of patients were female, median age was 60 years (range, 17–94), and 52.6% of patients were never-smokers. EGFR mutation status was evaluable in tumors from 1450 patients (97.8%) (746 [51.4%] positive; 704 [48.6%] negative). Country, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years (all p < 0.001), disease stage (p = 0.009), and histology type (p = 0.016) correlated significantly with EGFR mutation frequency. Mutation frequency was 61.1% in females, 44.0% in males; lower in patients from India (22.2%) compared with other areas (47.2%–64.2%); highest among never-smokers (60.7%); and decreased as pack-year number increased (>0–10 pack-years, 57.9%; >50 pack-years, 31.4%) (similar trend by sex). Ethnic group (p < 0.001) and pack-years (p < 0.001) had statistically significant associations with mutation frequency (multivariate analysis); sex was not significant when adjusted for smoking status.
PIONEER is the first prospective study to confirm high EGFR mutation frequency (51.4% overall) in tumors from Asian patients with adenocarcinoma. The observed high mutation frequency in demographic/clinical subgroups compared with white populations suggests that mutation testing should be considered for all patients with stage IIIB/IV adenocarcinoma, even males and regular smokers, among Asian populations.
PMCID: PMC4132036  PMID: 24419411
Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation; epidemiology; Asian; Adenocarcinoma; Non–small-cell lung cancer
9.  International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma 
Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies.
An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach.
The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection, will have 100% or near 100% disease-specific survival, respectively. AIS and MIA are usually nonmucinous but rarely may be mucinous. Invasive adenocarcinomas are classified by predominant pattern after using comprehensive histologic subtyping with lepidic (formerly most mixed subtype tumors with nonmucinous BAC), acinar, papillary, and solid patterns; micropapillary is added as a new histologic subtype. Variants include invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (formerly mucinous BAC), colloid, fetal, and enteric adenocarcinoma. This classification provides guidance for small biopsies and cytology specimens, as approximately 70% of lung cancers are diagnosed in such samples. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), in patients with advanced-stage disease, are to be classified into more specific types such as adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, whenever possible for several reasons: (1) adenocarcinoma or NSCLC not otherwise specified should be tested for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations as the presence of these mutations is predictive of responsiveness to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, (2) adenocarcinoma histology is a strong predictor for improved outcome with pemetrexed therapy compared with squamous cell carcinoma, and (3) potential life-threatening hemorrhage may occur in patients with squamous cell carcinoma who receive bevacizumab. If the tumor cannot be classified based on light microscopy alone, special studies such as immunohistochemistry and/or mucin stains should be applied to classify the tumor further. Use of the term NSCLC not otherwise specified should be minimized.
This new classification strategy is based on a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma that incorporates clinical, molecular, radiologic, and surgical issues, but it is primarily based on histology. This classification is intended to support clinical practice, and research investigation and clinical trials. As EGFR mutation is a validated predictive marker for response and progression-free survival with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced lung adenocarcinoma, we recommend that patients with advanced adenocarcinomas be tested for EGFR mutation. This has implications for strategic management of tissue, particularly for small biopsies and cytology samples, to maximize high-quality tissue available for molecular studies. Potential impact for tumor, node, and metastasis staging include adjustment of the size T factor according to only the invasive component (1) pathologically in invasive tumors with lepidic areas or (2) radiologically by measuring the solid component of part-solid nodules.
PMCID: PMC4513953  PMID: 21252716
Lung; Adenocarcinoma; Classification; Histologic; Pathology; Oncology; Pulmonary; Radiology; Computed tomography; Molecular; EGFR; KRAS; EML4-ALK; Gene profiling; Gene amplification; Surgery; Limited resection; Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma; Lepidic; Acinar; Papillary; Micropapillary; Solid; Adenocarcinoma in situ; Minimally invasive adenocarcinoma; Colloid; Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma; Enteric; Fetal; Signet ring; Clear cell; Frozen section; TTF-1; p63
10.  Pathway-based gene signatures predicting clinical outcome of lung adenocarcinoma 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:10979.
Lung adenocarcinoma is often diagnosed at an advanced stage with poor prognosis. Patients with different clinical outcomes may have similar clinico-pathological characteristics. The results of previous studies for biomarkers for lung adenocarcinoma have generally been inconsistent and limited in clinical application. In this study, we used inverse-variance weighting to combine the hazard ratios for the four datasets and performed pathway analysis to identify prognosis-associated gene signatures. A total of 2,418 genes were found to be significantly associated with overall survival. Of these, a 21-gene signature in the HMGB1/RAGE signalling pathway and a 31-gene signature in the clathrin-coated vesicle cycle pathway were significantly associated with prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma across all four datasets (all p-values < 0.05, log-rank test). We combined the scores for the three pathways to derive a combined pathway-based risk (CPBR) score. Three pathway-based signatures and CPBR score also had more predictive power than single genes. Finally, the CPBR score was validated in two independent cohorts (GSE14814 and GSE13213 in the GEO database) and had significant adjusted hazard ratios 2.72 (p-value < 0.0001) and 1.71 (p-value < 0.0001), respectively. These results could provide a more complete picture of the lung cancer pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC4455286  PMID: 26042604
11.  Highly specific in vivo gene delivery for p53-mediated apoptosis and genetic photodynamic therapies of tumour 
Nature Communications  2015;6:6456.
Anticancer therapies are often compromised by nonspecific effects and challenged by tumour environments’ inherent physicochemical and biological characteristics. Often, therapeutic effect can be increased by addressing multiple parameters simultaneously. Here we report on exploiting extravasation due to inherent vascular leakiness for the delivery of a pH-sensitive polymer carrier. Tumours’ acidic microenvironment instigates a charge reversal that promotes cellular internalization where endosomes destabilize and gene delivery is achieved. We assess our carrier with an aggressive non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in vivo model and achieve >30% transfection efficiency via systemic delivery. Rejuvenation of the p53 apoptotic pathway as well as expression of KillerRed protein for sensitization in photodynamic therapy (PDT) is accomplished. A single administration greatly suppresses tumour growth and extends median animal survival from 28 days in control subjects to 68 days. The carrier has capacity for multiple payloads for greater therapeutic response where inter-individual variability can compromise efficacy.
Alterations of p53 are associated with more than half of all human cancers. Here the authors present a new pH-sensitive nanoparticle that is delivered via systemic circulation and combines gene delivery to restore p53 with expression of Killerred protein to induce photosensitization.
PMCID: PMC4366491  PMID: 25739372
12.  Identification of Five Driver Gene Mutations in Patients with Treatment-Naïve Lung Adenocarcinoma in Taiwan 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(3):e0120852.
It is important to select appropriate targeted therapies for subgroups of patients with lung adenocarcinoma who have specific gene alterations.
This prospective study was a multicenter project conducted in Taiwan for assessment of lung adenocarcinoma genetic tests. Five oncogenic drivers, including EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and EML4-ALK fusion mutations, were tested. EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and HER2 mutations were assessed by MALDI-TOF MS (Cohort 1). EML4-ALK translocation was tested by Ventana method in EGFR-wild type patients (Cohort 2).
From August 2011 to November 2013, a total of 1772 patients with lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled. In Cohort 1 analysis, EGFR, KRAS, HER2 and BRAF mutations were identified in 987 (55.7%), 93 (5.2%), 36 (2.0%) and 12 (0.7%) patients, respectively. Most of these mutations were mutually exclusive, except for co-mutations in seven patients (3 with EGFR + KRAS, 3 with EGFR + HER2 and 1 with KRAS + BRAF). In Cohort 2 analysis, 29 of 295 EGFR-wild type patients (9.8%) were positive for EML4-ALK translocation. EGFR mutations were more common in female patients and non-smokers and KRAS mutations were more common in male patients and smokers. Gender and smoking status were not correlated significantly with HER2, BRAF and EML4-ALK mutations. EML4-ALK translocation was more common in patients with younger age.
This was the first study in Taiwan to explore the incidence of five oncogenic drivers in patients with lung adenocarcinoma and the results could be valuable for physicians in consideration of targeted therapy and inclusion of clinical trials.
PMCID: PMC4366385  PMID: 25789627
13.  The Antitumor Agent PBT-1 Directly Targets HSP90 and hnRNP A2/B1 and Inhibits Lung Adenocarcinoma Growth and Metastasis 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2014;57(3):677-685.
Natural products are the major sources of currently available anticancer drugs. We recently reported that phenanthrene-based tylophorine derivative-1 (PBT-1) may be a potential antitumor agent for lung adenocarcinoma. We therefore examined the direct targets of PBT-1 and their effects in inhibiting lung adenocarcinoma. We found that PBT-1 reduced the level of Slug and inhibits the migration, invasion, and filopodia formation of lung adenocarcinoma CL1-5 cells in vitro. In addition, PBT-1 displayed in vivo antitumor and antimetastasis activities against subcutaneous and orthotopic xenografts of CL1-5 cells in nude mice. Chemical proteomics showed that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) bound PBT-1 in CL1-5 cells. Inhibition of HSP90 and hnRNP A2/B1 reduced the activation of AKT and Slug expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that PBT-1 binds to HSP90 and/or hnRNP A2/B1 and initiates antitumor activities by affecting Slug- and AKT-mediated metastasis and tumorigenesis.
PMCID: PMC3983378  PMID: 24428777
14.  FOXF1 mediates mesenchymal stem cell fusion-induced reprogramming of lung cancer cells 
Oncotarget  2014;5(19):9514-9529.
Several reports suggest that malignant cells generate phenotypic diversity through fusion with various types of stromal cells within the tumor microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is one of the critical components in the tumor microenvironment and a promising fusogenic candidate, but the underlying functions of MSC fusion with malignant cell have not been fully examined. Here, we demonstrate that MSCs fuse spontaneously with lung cancer cells, and the latter is reprogrammed to slow growth and stem-like state. Transcriptome profiles reveal that lung cancer cells are reprogrammed to a more benign state upon MSC fusion. We further identified FOXF1 as a reprogramming mediator that contributes not only to the reprogramming toward stemness but also to the p21-regulated growth suppression in fusion progeny. Collectively, MSC fusion does not enhance the intrinsic malignancy of lung cancer cells. The anti-malignant effects of MSC fusion-induced reprogramming on lung cancer cells were accomplished by complementation of tumorigenic defects, including restoration of p21 function and normal terminal differentiation pathways as well as up-regulation of FOXF1, a putative tumor suppressor. Such fusion process raises the therapeutic potential that MSC fusion can be utilized to reverse cellular phenotypes in cancer.
PMCID: PMC4253450  PMID: 25237908
cell fusion; mesenchymal stem cell; lung cancer cell; reprogramming; FOXF1; p21
15.  Genome-wide association analysis identifies new lung cancer susceptibility loci in never-smoking women in Asia 
Lan, Qing | Hsiung, Chao A | Matsuo, Keitaro | Hong, Yun-Chul | Seow, Adeline | Wang, Zhaoming | Hosgood, H Dean | Chen, Kexin | Wang, Jiu-Cun | Chatterjee, Nilanjan | Hu, Wei | Wong, Maria Pik | Zheng, Wei | Caporaso, Neil | Park, Jae Yong | Chen, Chien-Jen | Kim, Yeul Hong | Kim, Young Tae | Landi, Maria Teresa | Shen, Hongbing | Lawrence, Charles | Burdett, Laurie | Yeager, Meredith | Yuenger, Jeffrey | Jacobs, Kevin B | Chang, I-Shou | Mitsudomi, Tetsuya | Kim, Hee Nam | Chang, Gee-Chen | Bassig, Bryan A | Tucker, Margaret | Wei, Fusheng | Yin, Zhihua | Wu, Chen | An, She-Juan | Qian, Biyun | Lee, Victor Ho Fun | Lu, Daru | Liu, Jianjun | Jeon, Hyo-Sung | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Sung, Jae Sook | Kim, Jin Hee | Gao, Yu-Tang | Tsai, Ying-Huang | Jung, Yoo Jin | Guo, Huan | Hu, Zhibin | Hutchinson, Amy | Wang, Wen-Chang | Klein, Robert | Chung, Charles C | Oh, In-Jae | Chen, Kuan-Yu | Berndt, Sonja I | He, Xingzhou | Wu, Wei | Chang, Jiang | Zhang, Xu-Chao | Huang, Ming-Shyan | Zheng, Hong | Wang, Junwen | Zhao, Xueying | Li, Yuqing | Choi, Jin Eun | Su, Wu-Chou | Park, Kyong Hwa | Sung, Sook Whan | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Chen, Yuh-Min | Liu, Li | Kang, Chang Hyun | Hu, Lingmin | Chen, Chung-Hsing | Pao, William | Kim, Young-Chul | Yang, Tsung-Ying | Xu, Jun | Guan, Peng | Tan, Wen | Su, Jian | Wang, Chih-Liang | Li, Haixin | Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon | Zhao, Zhenhong | Chen, Ying | Choi, Yi Young | Hung, Jen-Yu | Kim, Jun Suk | Yoon, Ho-Il | Cai, Qiuyin | Lin, Chien-Chung | Park, In Kyu | Xu, Ping | Dong, Jing | Kim, Christopher | He, Qincheng | Perng, Reury-Perng | Kohno, Takashi | Kweon, Sun-Seog | Chen, Chih-Yi | Vermeulen, Roel | Wu, Junjie | Lim, Wei-Yen | Chen, Kun-Chieh | Chow, Wong-Ho | Ji, Bu-Tian | Chan, John K C | Chu, Minjie | Li1, Yao-Jen | Yokota, Jun | Li, Jihua | Chen, Hongyan | Xiang, Yong-Bing | Yu, Chong-Jen | Kunitoh, Hideo | Wu, Guoping | Jin, Li | Lo, Yen-Li | Shiraishi, Kouya | Chen, Ying-Hsiang | Lin, Hsien-Chih | Wu, Tangchun | Wu, Yi-Long | Yang, Pan-Chyr | Zhou, Baosen | Shin, Min-Ho | Fraumeni, Joseph F | Lin, Dongxin | Chanock, Stephen J | Rothman, Nathaniel
Nature genetics  2012;44(12):1330-1335.
To identify common genetic variants that contribute to lung cancer susceptibility, we conducted a multistage genome-wide association study of lung cancer in Asian women who never smoked. We scanned 5,510 never-smoking female lung cancer cases and 4,544 controls drawn from 14 studies from mainland China, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. We genotyped the most promising variants (associated at P < 5 × 10-6) in an additional 1,099 cases and 2,913 controls. We identified three new susceptibility loci at 10q25.2 (rs7086803, P = 3.54 × 10-18), 6q22.2 (rs9387478, P = 4.14 × 10-10) and 6p21.32 (rs2395185, P = 9.51 × 10-9). We also confirmed associations reported for loci at 5p15.33 and 3q28 and a recently reported finding at 17q24.3. We observed no evidence of association for lung cancer at 15q25 in never-smoking women in Asia, providing strong evidence that this locus is not associated with lung cancer independent of smoking.
PMCID: PMC4169232  PMID: 23143601
16.  GSK3β controls epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis by CHIP-mediated degradation of Slug 
Oncogene  2013;33(24):3172-3182.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) is highly inactivated in epithelial cancers and is known to inhibit tumor migration and invasion. The zinc-finger-containing transcriptional repressor, Slug, represses E-cadherin transcription and enhances epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we find that the GSK3β-pSer9 level is associated with the expression of Slug in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). GSK3β-mediated phosphorylation of Slug facilitates Slug protein turnover. Proteomic analysis reveals that the C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) interacts with wild-type Slug (wtSlug). Knockdown of CHIP stabilizes the wtSlug protein and reduces Slug ubiquitylation and degradation. In contrast, nonphosphorylatable Slug-4SA is not degraded by CHIP. The accumulation of nondegradable Slug may further lead to the repression of E-cadherin expression and promote cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Our findings provide evidence of a de novo GSK3β-CHIP-Slug pathway that may be involved in the progression of metastasis in lung cancer.
PMCID: PMC4096338  PMID: 23851495
GSK3β; Slug; CHIP; post-translational modification
17.  Genome-wide association study of genetic predictors of overall survival for non-small cell lung cancer in never smokers 
Cancer research  2013;73(13):4028-4038.
To identify the genetic factors that influence overall survival in never smokers who have non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we performed a consistency meta-analysis study utilizing genome-wide association approaches for overall survival in 327 never smoker NSCLC patients from the MD Anderson Cancer Center and 293 cases from the Mayo Clinic. We then performed a two-pronged validation of the top 25 variants that included additional validation in 1,256 NSCLC patients from Taiwan and assessment of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and differential expression of genes surrounding the top loci in 70 tumors and matched normal tissues. A total of 94 loci were significant for overall survival in both MD Anderson and Mayo studies in the consistency meta-analysis phase, with the top 25 variants reaching a p-value of 10−6. Two variants of these 25 were also significant in the Taiwanese population: rs6901416 (HR:1.44, 95%CI:1.01-2.06) and rs10766739 (HR:1.23, 95%CI:1.00-1.51). These loci resulted in a reduction in median survival time of at least 8 and 5 months in three populations, respectively. An additional six variants (rs4237904, rs7976914, rs4970833, rs954785, rs485411, and rs10906104) were validated through eQTL analysis that identified significant correlations with expression levels of six genes (LEMD3, TMBIM, ATXN7L2, SHE, ITIH2, and NUDT5, respectively) in normal lung tissue. These genes were also significantly differentially expressed between the tumor and normal lung. These findings identify several novel, candidate prognostic markers for NSCLC in never smokers, with eQTL analysis suggesting a potential biological mechanism for a subset of these observed associations.
PMCID: PMC3719971  PMID: 23704207
18.  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with inhaled medium- or high-dose corticosteroids: a prospective and randomized study focusing on clinical efficacy and the risk of pneumonia 
Complications of pneumonia development in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) receiving inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy have been documented. The aim of this study was to focus on clinical efficacy and the incidence of pneumonia between COPD patients receiving medium and high doses of ICS.
Patients and methods
This prospective, randomized study included COPD patients identified from three tertiary medical centers from 2010 to 2012. The patients were randomized into two groups: high dose (HD; fluticasone 1,000 μg + salmeterol 100 μg/day) and medium dose (MD; fluticasone 500 μg + salmeterol 100 μg/day). Lung function with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity, and COPD-assessment test (CAT) were checked every 2 months. The frequency of acute exacerbations and number of pneumonia events were measured. The duration of the study period was 1 year.
In total, 237 COPD patients were randomized into the two treatment arms (115 in the HD group, 122 in the MD group). The FEV1 level was significantly improved in the patients in the HD group compared with those in the MD group (HD 103.9±26.6 mL versus MD 51.4±19.7 mL, P<0.01) at the end of the study. CAT scores were markedly improved in patients using an HD compared to those using an MD (HD 13±5 versus MD 16±7, P=0.05). There was a significant difference in the percentage of annual rates in acute exacerbations (HD 0.16 versus MD 0.34, P<0.01) between the two groups. The incidence of pneumonia was similar in the two groups (HD 0.08 versus MD 0.10, P=0.38).
COPD patients treated with high doses of ICS had more treatment benefits and no significant increases in the incidence in pneumonia. Higher-dose ICS treatment may be suitable for COPD therapy.
PMCID: PMC4044992
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; pneumonia; inhaled corticosteroids
19.  MicroRNA-133a Suppresses Multiple Oncogenic Membrane Receptors and Cell Invasion in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e96765.
Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) cause high mortality worldwide, and the cancer progression can be activated by several genetic events causing receptor dysregulation, including mutation or amplification. MicroRNAs are a group of small non-coding RNA molecules that function in gene silencing and have emerged as the fine-tuning regulators during cancer progression. MiR-133a is known as a key regulator in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, and it acts as a tumor suppressor in various cancers. This study demonstrates that miR-133a expression negatively correlates with cell invasiveness in both transformed normal bronchial epithelial cells and lung cancer cell lines. The oncogenic receptors in lung cancer cells, including insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), TGF-beta receptor type-1 (TGFBR1), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), are direct targets of miR-133a. MiR-133a can inhibit cell invasiveness and cell growth through suppressing the expressions of IGF-1R, TGFBR1 and EGFR, which then influences the downstream signaling in lung cancer cell lines. The cell invasive ability is suppressed in IGF-1R- and TGFBR1-repressed cells and this phenomenon is mediated through AKT signaling in highly invasive cell lines. In addition, by using the in vivo animal model, we find that ectopically-expressing miR-133a dramatically suppresses the metastatic ability of lung cancer cells. Accordingly, patients with NSCLCs who have higher expression levels of miR-133a have longer survival rates compared with those who have lower miR-133a expression levels. In summary, we identified the tumor suppressor role of miR-133a in lung cancer outcome prognosis, and we demonstrated that it targets several membrane receptors, which generally produce an activating signaling network during the progression of lung cancer.
PMCID: PMC4016005  PMID: 24816813
20.  Long-term booster schedules with AS03A-adjuvanted heterologous H5N1 vaccines induces rapid and broad immune responses in Asian adults 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:142.
The pandemic potential of avian influenza A/H5N1 should not be overlooked, and the continued development of vaccines against these highly pathogenic viruses is a public health priority.
This open-label extension booster study followed a Phase III study of 1206 adults who had received two 3.75 μg doses of primary AS03A-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted H5N1 split-virus vaccine (A/Vietnam/1194/2004; clade 1) (NCT00449670). The aim of the extension study was to evaluate different timings for heterologous AS03A-adjuvanted booster vaccination (A/Indonesia/5/2005; clade 2.1) given at Month 6, 12, or 36 post-primary vaccination. Immunogenicity was assessed 21 days after each booster vaccination and the persistence of immune responses against the primary vaccine strain (A/Vietnam) and the booster strain (A/Indonesia) was evaluated up to Month 48 post-primary vaccination. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed.
After booster vaccination given at Month 6, HI antibody responses to primary vaccine, and booster vaccine strains were markedly higher with one dose of AS03A-H5N1 booster vaccine in the AS03A-adjuvanted primary vaccine group compared with two doses of booster vaccine in the non-adjuvanted primary vaccine group. HI antibody responses were robust against the primary and booster vaccine strains 21 days after boosting at Month 12 or 36. At Month 48, in subjects boosted at Month 6, 12, or 36, HI antibody titers of ≥1:40 against the booster strain persisted in 39.2%, 61.2%, and 95.6% of subjects, respectively. Neutralizing antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses also showed that AS03A-H5N1 heterologous booster vaccination elicited robust immune responses within 21 days of boosting at Month 6, 12, or 36 post-primary vaccination. The booster vaccine was well tolerated, and no safety concerns were raised.
In Asian adults primed with two doses of AS03A-adjuvanted H5N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, strong cross-clade anamnestic antibody responses were observed after one dose of AS03A-H5N1 heterologous booster vaccine given at Month 6, 12, or 36 after priming, suggesting that AS03A-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccines may provide highly flexible prime–boost schedules. Although immunogenicity decreased with time, vaccinated populations could potentially be protected for up to three years after vaccination, which is likely to far exceed the peak of the a pandemic.
PMCID: PMC4008266  PMID: 24628789
H5N1; Pandemic influenza; AS03A-adjuvant; Prime–boost
21.  Overcoming EGFR T790M-based Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Resistance with an Allele-specific DNAzyme 
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the main therapeutic agents used to treat non–small-cell lung cancer patients harboring EGFR-activating mutations. However, most of these patients will eventually develop resistance, 50% of which are due to a secondary mutation at T790M in the EGFR. In this paper, we describe the development of an allele-specific DNAzyme, DzT, that can specifically silence EGFR T790M mutant messenger RNA while leaving wild-type EGFR intact. Allele-specific silencing of EGFR T790M expression and downstream signaling by DzT triggered apoptosis in non–small-cell lung cancer cells harboring this mutant. Adding a cholesterol-triethylene glycol group on the 3′-end of DzT (cDzT) improved drug efficacy, increasing inhibitory effect on cell viability from 46 to 79% in T790M/L858R-harboring H1975TM/LR non–small-cell lung cancer cells, without loss of allele specificity. Combined treatment with cDzT and BIBW-2992, a second-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, synergistically inhibited EGFR downstream signaling and suppressed the growth of xenograft tumors derived from H1975TM/LR cells. Collectively, these results indicate that the allele-specific DNAzyme, DzT, may provide an alternative treatment for non–small-cell lung cancer that is capable of overcoming EGFR T790M mutant-based tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance.
PMCID: PMC3982196  PMID: 24594844
22.  Antitumor Agents 295. E-ring Hydroxylated Antofine and Cryptopleurine Analogs as Antiproliferative Agents: Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Studies 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2012;55(15):6751-6761.
Various E-ring hydroxylated antofine and cryptopleurine analogs were designed, synthesized, and tested against five human cancer cell lines. Interesting structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations were found among these new compounds. The most potent compound 13b was further tested against a series of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, in which it showed impressive antiproliferative activity. Mechanistic studies revealed that 13b is able to down-regulate HSP90 and β-catenin in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a potential use for treating Hedgehog pathway-driven tumorigenesis.
PMCID: PMC3422873  PMID: 22823514
23.  Rapid single cell detection of Staphylococcus aureus by aptamer-conjugated gold nanoparticles 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:1863.
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important human pathogens, causing more than 500,000 infections in the United States each year. Traditional methods for bacterial culture and identification take several days, wasting precious time for patients who are suffering severe bacterial infections. Numerous nucleic acid-based detection methods have been introduced to address this deficiency; however, the costs and requirement for expensive equipment may limit the widespread use of such technologies. Thus, there is an unmet demand of new platform technology to improve the bacterial detection and identification in clinical practice. In this study, we developed a rapid, ultra-sensitive, low cost, and non-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for bacterial identification. Using this method, which measures the resonance light-scattering signal of aptamer-conjugated gold nanoparticles, we successfully detected single S. aureus cell within 1.5 hours. This new platform technology may have potential to develop a rapid and sensitive bacterial testing at point-of-care.
PMCID: PMC3659324  PMID: 23689505
24.  The Motor Protein KIF14 Inhibits Tumor Growth and Cancer Metastasis in Lung Adenocarcinoma 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e61664.
The motor protein kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are involved in cancer progression. The depletion of one of the KIFs, KIF14, might delay the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, resulting in a binucleated status, which enhances tumor progression; however, the exact correlation between KIF14 and cancer progression remains ambiguous. In this study, using loss of heterozygosity and array comparative genomic hybridization analyses, we observed a 30% loss in the regions surrounding KIF14 on chromosome 1q in lung adenocarcinomas. In addition, the protein expression levels of KIF14 in 122 lung adenocarcinomas also indicated that approximately 30% of adenocarcinomas showed KIF14 down-regulation compared with the expression in the bronchial epithelial cells of adjacent normal counterparts. In addition, the reduced expression of KIF14 mRNA or proteins was correlated with poor overall survival (P = 0.0158 and <0.0001, respectively), and the protein levels were also inversely correlated with metastasis (P<0.0001). The overexpression of KIF14 in lung adenocarcinoma cells inhibited anchorage-independent growth in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo. The overexpression and silencing of KIF14 also inhibited or enhanced cancer cell migration, invasion and adhesion to the extracellular matrix proteins laminin and collagen IV. Furthermore, we detected the adhesion molecules cadherin 11 (CDH11) and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) as cargo on KIF14. The overexpression and silencing of KIF14 enhanced or reduced the recruitment of CDH11 in the membrane fraction, suggesting that KIF14 might act through recruiting adhesion molecules to the cell membrane and modulating cell adhesive, migratory and invasive properties. Thus, KIF14 might inhibit tumor growth and cancer metastasis in lung adenocarcinomas.
PMCID: PMC3633961  PMID: 23626713
25.  Genome-wide analysis of three-way interplay among gene expression, cancer cell invasion and anti-cancer compound sensitivity 
BMC Medicine  2013;11:106.
Chemosensitivity and tumor metastasis are two primary issues in cancer management. Cancer cells often exhibit a wide range of sensitivity to anti-cancer compounds. To gain insight on the genetic mechanism of drug sensitivity, one powerful approach is to employ the panel of 60 human cancer cell lines developed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Cancer cells also show a broad range of invasion ability. However, a genome-wide portrait on the contributing molecular factors to invasion heterogeneity is lacking.
Our lab performed an invasion assay on the NCI-60 panel. We identified invasion-associated (IA) genes by correlating our invasion profiling data with the Affymetrix gene expression data on NCI-60. We then employed the recently released chemosensitivity data of 99 anti-cancer drugs of known mechanism to investigate the gene-drug correlation, focusing on the IA genes. Afterwards, we collected data from four independent drug-testing experiments to validate our findings on compound response prediction. Finally, we obtained published clinical and molecular data from two recent adjuvant chemotherapy cohorts, one on lung cancer and one on breast cancer, to test the performance of our gene signature for patient outcome prediction.
First, we found 633 IA genes from the invasion-gene expression correlation study. Then, for each of the 99 drugs, we obtained a subset of IA genes whose expression levels correlated with drug-sensitivity profiles. We identified a set of eight genes (EGFR, ITGA3, MYLK, RAI14, AHNAK, GLS, IL32 and NNMT) showing significant gene-drug correlation with paclitaxel, docetaxel, erlotinib, everolimus and dasatinib. This eight-gene signature (derived from NCI-60) for chemosensitivity prediction was validated by a total of 107 independent drug tests on 78 tumor cell lines, most of which were outside of the NCI-60 panel. The eight-gene signature predicted relapse-free survival for the lung and breast cancer patients (log-rank P = 0.0263; 0.00021). Multivariate Cox regression yielded a hazard ratio of our signature of 5.33 (95% CI = 1.76 to 16.1) and 1.81 (95% CI = 1.19 to 2.76) respectively. The eight-gene signature features the cancer hallmark epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and genes involved in cell adhesion, migration, invasion, tumor growth and progression.
Our study sheds light on the intricate three-way interplay among gene expression, invasion and compound-sensitivity. We report the finding of a unique signature that predicts chemotherapy survival for both lung and breast cancer. Augmenting the NCI-60 model with in vitro characterization of important phenotype-like invasion potential is a cost-effective approach to power the genomic chemosensitivity analysis.
PMCID: PMC3635895  PMID: 23590835
NCI-60; Invasion; Metastasis; Microarray; Chemotherapy

Results 1-25 (74)