The anti-inflammatory agent, mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) has been shown to decrease mucosal inflammation in ulcerative colitis. The effect of mesalamine in HIV-infected individuals, who exhibit abnormal mucosal immune activation and microbial translocation (MT), has not been established in a placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 33 HIV-infected subjects with CD4 counts <350 cells/mm3 and plasma HIV RNA levels <40 copies/ml on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to add mesalamine vs. placebo to their existing regimen for 12 weeks followed by a 12 week crossover to the other arm. Compared to placebo-treated subjects, mesalamine-treated subjects did not experience any significant change in the percent CD38+HLA-DR+ peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at week 12 (P = 0.38 and P = 0.63, respectively), or in the CD4+ T cell count at week 12 (P = 0.83). The percent CD38+HLA-DR+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells also did not change significantly in rectal tissue (P = 0.86, P = 0.84, respectively). During the period of mesalamine administration, plasma sCD14, IL-6, D-dimer, and kynurenine to tryptophan ratio were not changed significantly at week 12 and were similarly unchanged at week 24. This study suggests that, at least under the conditions studied, the persistent immune activation associated with HIV infection is not impacted by the anti-inflammatory effects of mesalamine.
Even in the setting of maximally suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV persists indefinitely. Several mechanisms might contribute to this persistence, including chronic inflammation and immune dysfunction. In this study, we have explored a preclinical model for the evaluation of potential interventions that might serve to eradicate or to minimize the level of persistent virus. Given data that metabolic products of the inducible enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygeanse (IDO) might foster inflammation and viral persistence, chronically simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected, ART-treated rhesus macaques were treated with the IDO inhibitor 1-methyl tryptophan (1mT). Orally administered 1mT achieved targeted plasma levels, but did not impact tryptophan metabolism or decrease viral RNA or DNA in plasma or in intestinal tissues beyond levels achieved by ART alone. Animals treated with 1mT showed no difference in the levels of T cell activation or differentiation, or in the kinetics or magnitude of viral rebound following cessation of ART. Notwithstanding these negative results, our observations suggest that the chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaque on suppressive ART can serve as a tractable model in which to test and to prioritize the selection of other potential interventions designed to eradicate HIV in vivo. In addition, this model might be used to optimize the route and dose by which such interventions are administered and the methods by which their effects are monitored.
Background. The degree to which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to replicate during antiretroviral therapy (ART) is controversial. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess whether raltegravir intensification reduces low-level viral replication, as defined by an increase in the level of 2–long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles.
Methods. Thirty-one subjects with an ART-suppressed plasma HIV RNA level of <40 copies/mL and a CD4+ T-cell count of ≥350 cells/mm3 for ≥1 year were randomly assigned to receive raltegravir 400 mg twice daily or placebo for 24 weeks. 2-LTR circles were analyzed by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction at weeks 0, 1, 2, and 8.
Results. The median duration of ART suppression was 3.8 years. The raltegravir group had a significant increase in the level of 2-LTR circles, compared to the placebo group. The week 1 to 0 ratio was 8.8-fold higher (P = .0025) and the week 2 to 0 ratio was 5.7-fold higher (P = .023) in the raltegravir vs. placebo group. Intensification also led to a statistically significant decrease in the D-dimer level, compared to placebo (P = .045).
Conclusions. Raltegravir intensification resulted in a rapid increase in the level of 2-LTR circles in a proportion of subjects, indicating that low-level viral replication persists in some individuals even after long-term ART. Intensification also reduced the D-dimer level, a coagulation biomarker that is predictive of morbidity and mortality among patients receiving treatment for HIV infection.
HIV; raltegravir intensification; 2-LTR circles; ongoing viral replication; D-dimer
There is intense interest in the role of programmed death 1 (PD-1) in causing persistent T-cell dysfunction in HIV infection. However, the impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the expression of PD-1 on T cells is still poorly defined.
PD-1 was measured longitudinally in a cohort of recently HIV-infected individuals (n = 121) who started ART early (<6 months after infection) vs. later (≥2 years after infection). PD-1 was also measured cross-sectionally in a diverse cohort of chronically HIV-infected adults (n = 206).
PD-1 expression levels were high on CD8+ T cells during early HIV infection. PD-1 levels increased on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells populations in those who delayed therapy (11 and 10%/year, respectively). PD-1 levels declined and were similar in those treated early vs. late after 1 year of ART. In both cohorts, PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells was associated with CD4+ T-cell activation (CD38+HLA-DR+) and inversely with CD4+ cell count. In contrast, PD-1 expression on CD8+ T cells was most strongly associated with CD8+ T-cell activation and with plasma viral load in viremic individuals.
Across two large cohorts of untreated and treated individuals, we found consistent associations between HIV RNA levels, CD8+ T-cell activation and PD-1 expression on CD8+ T cells. In contrast, CD4+ T-cell counts and CD4+ T-cell activation were more consistent correlates of PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells. PD-1 expression appears to be driven by both direct antigen and homeostatic pathways.
CD4+ lymphocyte count; early antiretroviral therapy; HIV antiretroviral therapy; HIV-1/immunology/*physiology; humans; programmed death-1; T-cell activation; T lymphocytes/immunology/*physiology; virus replication/physiology
Background. CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation levels often remain elevated in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). T-cell activation predicts early death and blunted CD4+ T-cell recovery during ART and may affect persistent HIV reservoir size. We investigated whether very early ART initiation is associated with lower on-therapy immune activation and HIV persistence.
Methods. From a cohort of patients with early HIV infection (<6 months duration since infection) we identified persons who started ART early (<6 months after infection) or later (≥2 years after infection) and maintained ≥2 years of virologic suppression; at-risk HIV-negative persons were controls. We measured CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation (percent CD38+/HLA-DR+) and HIV reservoir size (based on HIV DNA and cell-associated RNA levels).
Results. In unadjusted analyses, early ART predicted lower on-therapy CD8+ T-cell activation (n = 34; mean, 22.1%) than achieved with later ART (n = 32; mean, 28.8%; P = .009), although levels in early ART remained elevated relative to HIV-negative controls (P = .02). Early ART also predicted lower CD4+ T-cell activation than with later ART (5.3% vs 7.5%; P = .06). Early ART predicted 4.8-fold lower DNA levels than achieved with later ART (P = .005), and lower cell-associated RNA levels (difference in signal-to-cutoff ratio (S/Co), 3.2; P = .035).
Conclusions. ART initiation <6 months after infection is associated with lower levels of T-cell activation and smaller HIV DNA and RNA reservoir size during long-term therapy.
HIV antiretroviral therapy; early ART; T-cell activation; inflammation; HIVreservoir; HIV eradication; HIV cure
CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) suppress effector T cells and prevent autoimmune disease. Treg function is deficient in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a loss which may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. We previously showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the Fc Receptor Like-3 (FCRL3) gene led to higher expression of FcRL3 on Treg+ and that FcRL3 Treg are functionally deficient in comparison to FcRL3− Treg. The objective of this work was to investigate the potential role of FcRL3 in rheumatoid arthritis.
A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the FCRL3 -169 genotype and FcRL3 expression on T cell subsets, including Treg, from peripheral blood samples of 51 patients with RA enrolled in the UCSF RA Cohort. Clinical data were obtained from the UCSF RA Cohort database.
We found that patients with the FCRL3 -169C allele (genotype C/C or C/T) expressed significantly higher levels of FcRL3 on Treg, and on CD8+ and TCRγδ+ T cells, in comparison to RA patients with the T/T genotype. Higher FcRL3 expression on these T cell subpopulations correlated with RA disease activity in those patients harboring the FCRL3 -169C allele. Furthermore, FcRL3 expression on Treg was higher in patients with erosive RA disease and the FCRL3 -169C allele was overrepresented in patients with erosive RA disease.
FcRL3 expression, which is strongly associated with the presence of the FCRL3 -169C allele, may serve as a biomarker of RA disease activity.
The level (or frequency) of circulating monocyte subpopulations such as classical (CD14hiCD16-) and non-classical (CD14dimCD16+) monocytes varies during the course of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that such variation and/or differences in the degree to which these cells expressed the immunoregulatory enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), would be associated with CD4+ T cell recovery after the initiation of ART. This hypothesis was tested in a cross-sectional study of four groups of HIV-infected subjects, including those who were seronegative, untreated virologic controllers [detectable viral load (VL) of <1000 copies/mL], untreated virologic non-controllers [VL > 10,000 copies/mL], and ART-mediated virologic controllers [VL < 75 copies/mL]. A longitudinal analysis of ART-treated subjects was also performed along with regression analysis to determine which biomarkers were associated with and/or predictive of CD4+ T cell recovery. Suppressive ART was associated with increased levels of classical monocyte subpopulations (CD14hiCD16-) and decreased levels of non-classical monocyte populations (CD14dimCD16+). Among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), HO-1 was found to be most highly up-regulated in CD14+ monocytes after ex vivo stimulation. Neither the levels of monocyte subpopulations nor of HO-1 expression in CD14+ monocytes were significantly associated with the degree of CD4+ T cell recovery. Monocyte subpopulations and HO-1 gene expression were, however, restored to normal levels by suppressive ART. These results suggest that the level of circulating monocyte subpopulations and their expression of HO-1 have no evident relationship to CD4+ T cell recovery after the initiation of ART.
HIV; HO-1; Immune activation; Monocytes; CD4+ T cell recovery
IL-7 is a required factor for T-cell homeostasis. Because of low expression levels and poor reagent availability, the cellular sources of IL-7 have proven challenging to characterize. In this study, we describe a reporter mouse in which enhanced GFP is expressed from the endogenous Il7 locus. We show that IL-7 is produced by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) distributed throughout the systemic lymphatic vasculature as well as by fibroblastic reticular cells, and that phosphorylation of STAT5 in lymphocytes is higher in lymphatics than in blood. Furthermore, in nodes depleted of lymphocytes, Il7 transcription is increased in stromal but not in myeloid subsets. These data support recent findings that lymphocyte homeostasis is influenced by access to secondary lymphoid organs and point to LECs as an important in vivo source of IL-7, bathing trafficking immune cells under both resting and lymphopenic conditions.
endothelium; HIV; interleukin-7; lymphatic; lymph node; lymphopenia; myeloid; stromal
Progressive HIV infection is characterized by dysregulation of the intestinal immune barrier, translocation of immunostimulatory microbial products, and chronic systemic inflammation that is thought to drive progression of disease to AIDS. Elements of this pathologic process persist despite viral suppression during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and drivers of these phenomena remain poorly understood. Disrupted intestinal immunity can precipitate dysbiosis that induces chronic inflammation in the mucosa and periphery of mice. However, putative microbial drivers of HIV-associated immunopathology versus recovery have not been identified in humans. Using high-resolution bacterial community profiling, we identified a dysbiotic mucosal-adherent community enriched in Proteobacteria and depleted of Bacteroidia members that was associated with markers of mucosal immune disruption, T cell activation, and chronic inflammation in HIV-infected subjects. Furthermore, this dysbiosis was evident among HIV-infected subjects undergoing HAART, and the extent of dysbiosis correlated with activity of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism and plasma concentrations of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), two established markers of disease progression. Gut-resident bacteria with capacity to metabolize tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway were found to be enriched in HIV-infected subjects, strongly correlated with kynurenine levels in HIV-infected subjects, and capable of kynurenine production in vitro. These observations demonstrate a link between mucosal-adherent colonic bacteria and immunopathogenesis during progressive HIV infection, which is apparent even in the setting of viral suppression during HAART. This link suggests that gut-resident microbial populations may influence intestinal homeostasis during HIV disease.
Purpose of review
We present current findings about two subsets of CD4+ T cells that play an important part in the initial host response to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV): those producing IL-17 (Th17 cells) and those with immunosuppressive function (CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, or T-reg). The role of these cells in control of viral infection and immune activation as well as in prevention of immune deficiency in HIV-infected elite controllers will be examined. We will also discuss the use of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque model of AIDS to study the interplay between these cells and lentiviral infection in vivo.
Study of Th17 cells in humans and non-human primates (NHP) has shown that depletion of these cells is associated with dissemination of microbial products from the infected gut, increased systemic immune activation, and disease progression. Most impressively, having a smaller Th17 cell compartment has been found to predict these outcomes. T-reg have been associated with reduced antiviral T cell responses but not with suppression of generalized T cell activation. Both cell subsets influence innate immune responses and, in so doing, may shape the inflammatory milieu of the host at infection.
Interactions between Th17 cells, T-reg, and cells of the innate immune system influence the course of HIV and SIV infection from its earliest stages, even before the appearance of adaptive immunity. Such interactions may be pivotal for elite control over disease progression.
HIV; SIV; Th17; regulatory T cells; T-reg; elite
Background. Studies aimed at defining the association between host immune responses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence during therapy are necessary to develop new strategies for cure.
Methods. We performed a comprehensive assessment of ultrasensitive plasma HIV RNA levels, cell-associated HIV RNA levels, proviral HIV DNA levels, and T cell immunophenotyping in a cohort of 190 subjects in whom HIV levels were suppressed by highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Results. The median CD4+ T cell count was 523 cells/mm3, and the median duration of viral suppression was 31 months. Cell-associated RNA and proviral DNA levels (but not ultrasensitive plasma HIV RNA levels) were positively correlated with frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing markers of T-cell activation/dysfunction (CD38, HLA-DR, CCR5, and/or programmed cell death protein 1 [PD-1]) (P < .05). Having a low CD4+ T-cell count despite receipt of virologically suppressive therapy was associated with high cell-associated RNA and proviral DNA levels (P < .01) and higher frequencies of CD4+ T cells expressing CD38, HLA-DR, CCR5, and/or PD-1 (P < .0001).
Conclusions. Cell-based measurements of viral persistence were consistently associated with markers of immune activation and the frequency of PD-1–expressing CD4+ T cells. Treated patients with a low CD4+ T-cell count had higher frequencies of PD-1–expressing CD4+ T cells and cell-based measures of viral persistence, suggesting that HIV infection in these individuals may be more difficult to cure and may require unique interventions.
HIV; raltegravir intensification; 2-LTR circles; ongoing viral replication; D-dimer
A low CD4/CD8 ratio in elderly HIV-uninfected adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A subset of HIV-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to normalize this ratio, even after they achieve normal CD4+ T cell counts. The immunologic and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype remain undefined. Using data from four distinct clinical cohorts and three clinical trials, we show that a low CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-infected adults during otherwise effective ART (after CD4 count recovery above 500 cells/mm3) is associated with a number of immunological abnormalities, including a skewed T cell phenotype from naïve toward terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells, higher levels of CD8+ T cell activation (HLADR+CD38+) and senescence (CD28− and CD57+CD28−), and higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio. Changes in the peripheral CD4/CD8 ratio are also reflective of changes in gut mucosa, but not in lymph nodes. In a longitudinal study, individuals who initiated ART within six months of infection had greater CD4/CD8 ratio increase compared to later initiators (>2 years). After controlling for age, gender, ART duration, nadir and CD4 count, the CD4/CD8 ratio predicted increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Hence, a persistently low CD4/CD8 ratio during otherwise effective ART is associated with increased innate and adaptive immune activation, an immunosenescent phenotype, and higher risk of morbidity/mortality. This ratio may prove useful in monitoring response to ART and could identify a unique subset of individuals needed of novel therapeutic interventions.
The CD4/CD8 ratio, a hallmark of the collection of T cell defects related to aging –“immunosenescence”- and a predictor of mortality in the general population, often fails to normalize in an important proportion of HIV-infected individuals with adequate CD4+ T cell recovery after ART initiation. However, the immunological and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype have not been elucidated. Herein we show that during treated HIV infection, expansion of CD8+ T cells, reflected as a low CD4/CD8 ratio, identifies a subgroup of individuals with a number of immunological abnormalities and a poor prognosis. These subjects exhibit increased innate and adaptive immune activation, an immunosenescent phenotype, CD4+ and CD8+ imbalance in the gut mucosa and higher risk of morbidity and mortality. In contrast, those who normalize the CD4/CD8 ratio have traits of a healthy immune system. We observed that early ART initiation might contribute to more rapid and robust CD4/CD8 ratio normalization compared to later initiation. Hence, the CD4/CD8 ratio might help to further discriminate the risk of disease progression of successfully treated HIV-infected individuals, and a successful response to ART may require both normalization of the peripheral CD4+ T cell count and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ T cell counts.
Chronic antigenic stimulation by cytomegalovirus (CMV) is thought to increase “immunosenesence” of aging, characterized by accumulation of terminally differentiated CD28- CD8+ T cells and increased CD57, a marker of proliferative history. Whether chronic HIV infection causes similar effects is currently unclear.
We compared markers of CD8+ T cell differentiation (e.g., CD28, CD27, CCR7, CD45RA) and CD57 expression on CD28- CD8+ T cells in healthy HIV-uninfected adults with and without CMV infection and in both untreated and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-suppressed HIV-infected adults with asymptomatic CMV infection.
Compared to HIV-uninfected adults without CMV (n = 12), those with asymptomatic CMV infection (n = 31) had a higher proportion of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 (P = 0.005). Older age was also associated with greater proportions of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 (rho: 0.47, P = 0.007). In contrast, untreated HIV-infected CMV+ participants (n = 55) had much lower proportions of CD28- CD8+ cells expressing CD57 than HIV-uninfected CMV+ participants (P<0.0001) and were enriched for less well-differentiated CD28- transitional memory (TTR) CD8+ T cells (P<0.0001). Chronically HIV-infected adults maintaining ART-mediated viral suppression (n = 96) had higher proportions of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 than untreated patients (P<0.0001), but continued to have significantly lower levels than HIV-uninfected controls (P = 0.001). Among 45 HIV-infected individuals initiating their first ART regimen, the proportion of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 declined (P<0.0001), which correlated with a decline in percent of transitional memory CD8+ T cells, and appeared to be largely explained by a decline in CD28-CD57- CD8+ T cell counts rather than an expansion of CD28-CD57+ CD8+ T cell counts.
Unlike CMV and aging, which are associated with terminal differentiation and proliferation of effector memory CD8+ T cells, HIV inhibits this process, expanding less well-differentiated CD28- CD8+ T cells and decreasing the proportion of CD28- CD8+ T cells that express CD57.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) binds to environmental toxicants including synthetic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and is involved in a diverse array of biological processes. Recently, the AHR was shown to control host immunity by affecting the balance between inflammatory T cells that produce IL-17 (Th17) and IL-22 versus regulatory T cells (Treg) involved in tolerance. While environmental AHR ligands can mediate this effect, endogenous ligands are likely to be more relevant in host immune responses. We investigated downstream metabolites of tryptophan as potential AHR ligands because (1) tryptophan metabolites have been implicated in regulating the balance between Th17 and Treg cells and (2) many of the AHR ligands identified thus far are derivatives of tryptophan. We characterized the ability of tryptophan metabolites to bind and activate the AHR and to increase IL-22 production in human T cells. We report that the tryptophan metabolite, cinnabarinic acid (CA), is an AHR ligand that stimulates the differentiation of human and mouse T cells producing IL-22. We compare the IL-22-stimulating activity of CA to that of other tryptophan metabolites and define stimulation conditions that lead to CA production from immune cells. Our findings link tryptophan metabolism to AHR activation and define a novel endogenous AHR agonist with potentially broad biological functions.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its catabolic byproducts have potent anti-inflammatory activity in many models of disease. It is not known, however, if HO-1 also plays a role in the homeostatic control of T cell activation and proliferation. We demonstrate here that the HO-1 inhibitor, tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), induces activation, proliferation, and maturation of naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells via interactions with CD14+ monocytes in vitro. This response is dependent upon interactions of T cells with MHC Class I and II on the surface of CD14+ monocytes. Furthermore, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were able to suppress this proliferation, even though their suppressive activity was itself impaired by SnMP. Given the magnitude of the antigen-independent T cell response induced by SnMP, we speculate that HO-1 plays an important role in dampening non-specific T cell activation. Based on these findings, we propose a potential role for HO-1 in the control of naïve T cell homeostatic proliferation.
The ability to reconstitute a normal immune system with antiretroviral therapy in the setting of HIV infection remains uncertain. This study aimed to characterize quantitative and qualitative aspects of various T cell subpopulations that do not improve despite effective ART. CD4∶CD8 ratio was evaluated in HIV-infected subjects with viral loads >10,000 copies/µl (“non-controllers”, n = 42), those with undetectable viral loads on ART (“ART-suppressed”, n = 53), and HIV-uninfected subjects (n = 22). In addition, T cell phenotype and function were examined in 25 non-controllers, 18 ART-suppressed, and 7 HIV-uninfected subjects. CD4∶CD8 ratio in non-controllers, ART-suppressed, and HIV-uninfected subjects was 0.25, 0.48, and 1.95 respectively (P<0.0001 for all comparisons). The increased ratio in ART-suppressed compared to non-controllers was driven by an increase of CD4+ T cells, with no change in the expanded CD8+ T cell population. Expansion of differentiated (CD28−CD27−CD45RA+/−CCR7−) T cell subpopulations persisted despite ART and minimal changes were noted in naïve T cell frequencies over time. Increased number of CD8+CD28− T cells and increased CD8+ CMV-specific T cell responses were associated with a decreased CD4∶CD8 ratio. Measures of T cell function demonstrated persistence of high frequencies of CD8+ T cells producing IFN–γ. Lastly, though all CD8+ subpopulations demonstrated significantly lower Ki67 expression in ART-suppressed subjects, CD4+ T cell subpopulations did not consistently show this decrease, thus demonstrating different proliferative responses in the setting of T cell depletion. In summary, this study demonstrated that CD4∶CD8 ratios remained significantly decreased and naïve T cell numbers were slow to increase despite long-term viral suppression on ART. In addition, there is a evidence of differential regulation of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subpopulations, suggesting independent homeostatic regulation of the two compartments.
Although the mammalian immune system is generally thought to develop in a linear fashion, findings in avian and murine species argue instead for the developmentally ordered appearance (or “layering”) of unique hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that give rise to distinct lymphocyte lineages at different stages of development. Here, we provide evidence of an analogous “layered” immune system in humans. Our results suggest that fetal and adult T cells are distinct populations that arise from different populations of HSC present at different stages of development. We also provide evidence that the fetal T cell lineage is biased towards immune tolerance. These observations offer a mechanistic explanation for the tolerogenic properties of the developing fetus and for variable degrees of immune responsiveness at birth.
Although pregnancy-associated microchimerism is known to exist in humans, its clinical significance remains unclear. Fetal microchimerism has been documented in rhesus monkeys, but the trafficking and persistence of maternal cells in the monkey fetus and infant have not been fully explored. To investigate the frequency of maternal microchimerism in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy was developed and validated to target polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene sequences. Informative PCR assays were identified for 19 of 25 dams and their respective offspring. Analyses were performed on tissues (thymus, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected prenatally and postnatally in a subset of animals. Seven of 19 monkeys had detectable maternal microchimerism in at least one compartment (range: 0.001–1.9% chimeric cells). In tissues, maternal microchimerism was found in 2 of 7 fetuses and 3 of 12 juveniles (1–1.5 years of age), and most of the animals that were positive had microchimeric cells in more than one tissue. Maternal microchimerism was detected in PBMCs from all (4 of 4) fetuses. These observations suggest that maternal microchimerism occurs in the rhesus monkey fetus and can be detected in tissues in a subset of offspring after birth.
major histocompatibility complex; microchimerism; quantitative PCR; rhesus monkey; transplacental transfer
Background. Although the rate of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is low, the effect of HCV exposure in utero on the fetal immune system is unknown.
Methods. Umbilical cord blood was obtained from 7 neonates born to HCV-seropositive, HCV RNA-positive women and 8 neonates born to HCV-seronegative women. Cord blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by immunophenotyping and by intracellular cytokine staining after HCV-specific and polyclonal stimulation. Plasma was analyzed for anti-HCV immunoglobulin M (IgM), cytokine/granzyme concentrations, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity.
Results. HCV-exposed neonates had significantly lower levels of regulatory T cells expressing HLA-DR, lower CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation, and lower plasma levels of pro-inflammatory markers than did controls. However, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from HCV-exposed neonates had higher IFN-γ production in response to polyclonal stimulation than did T cells from controls. IDO activity was similar between groups. No HCV-specific T cell responses or anti-HCV IgM were detected in any neonates.
Conclusions. HCV-exposed neonates showed a relative suppression of immune activation and pro-inflammatory markers, which was counterbalanced by an increased production capacity for IFN-γ. These results suggest that HCV encounters the fetal immune system in utero, and alters the balance between suppressive and pro-inflammatory responses.
T cell; myeloid cells; human; immune development; immune function
HIV-mediated immune dysfunction may influence CD4+ T cell recovery during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed cellular biomarkers of immunological inflammation, maturation, and senescence in HIV-infected subjects on early suppressive ART. We performed longitudinal analyses of peripheral immunological biomarkers of subjects on suppressive ART (n = 24) from early treatment (median 6.4 months, interquartile range [IQR] 4.8–13.9 months) to 1–2 years of follow-up (median 19.8 months, IQR 18.3–24.6 months). We performed multivariate regression to determine which biomarkers were associated with and/or predictive of CD4+ T cell recovery. After adjusting for the pre-ART CD4+ T cell count, age, proximal CD4+ T cell count, and length of ART medication, the percentage of CD27+CD8+ T cells remained significantly associated with the CD4+ T cell recovery rate (β = 0.092 cells/ul/month, P = 0.028). In HIV-infected subjects starting suppressive ART, patients with the highest percentage of CD8+ T cells expressing CD27 had the greatest rate of CD4+ T cell recovery.
CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) play a critical role in maintaining self tolerance and inhibiting autoimmune disease. Despite being a major focus of modern immunological investigation, many aspects of Treg biology remain unknown. In a screen for novel candidate genes involved in human Treg function, we detected the expression of an autoimmune susceptibility gene, FcRL3, in Treg but not in conventional CD4+ T cells. FcRL3 is an orphan receptor of unknown function with structural homology to classical Fc receptors. Numerous genetic studies have demonstrated a link between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the FCRL3 promoter and both overexpression of FcRL3 and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Given the critical role of Treg in suppressing autoimmunity, we sought to ascertain how expression of FcRL3 relates to the phenotype, differentiation, and function of Treg. We show here that FcRL3 is expressed on a population of thymically derived Treg that exhibits a memory phenotype and high levels of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). Purified FcRL3+ Treg are less responsive to antigenic stimulation in the presence of IL-2 than their FcRL3− counterparts, despite intact proximal and distal IL-2 signaling as determined by phosphorylation of Stat-5 and upregulation of Bcl2. In vitro suppression assays demonstrated that FcRL3+ Treg have reduced capacity to suppress the proliferation of effector T cells. These data suggest that FcRL3 expression is associated with Treg dysfunction that may, in turn, contribute to the loss of self tolerance and the development of autoimmunity.
The study of HIV-infected “controllers” who are able to maintain low levels of plasma HIV RNA in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may provide insights for HIV cure and vaccine strategies. Despite maintaining very low levels of plasma viremia, controllers have elevated immune activation and accelerated atherosclerosis. However, the degree to which low-level replication contributes to these phenomena is not known. Sixteen asymptomatic controllers were prospectively treated with ART for 24 weeks. Controllers had a statistically significant decrease in ultrasensitive plasma and rectal HIV RNA levels with ART. Markers of T cell activation/dysfunction in blood and gut mucosa also decreased substantially with ART. Similar reductions were observed in the subset of “elite” controllers with pre-ART plasma HIV RNA levels below conventional assays (<40 copies/mL). These data confirm that HIV replication persists in controllers and contributes to a chronic inflammatory state. ART should be considered for these individuals (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01025427).
HIV-infected “controllers” are rare individuals who are HIV-seropositive but are able to maintain low levels of plasma HIV RNA in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). There has been intense interest in characterizing these unique individuals because they have been considered as a potential model for a “functional cure” of HIV. Previously, our group has shown that controllers have elevated levels of T cell activation and accelerated atherosclerosis, suggesting that very low levels of viral replication may lead to disproportionately high levels of immune activation. However, the degree to which viral replication contributes to these outcomes is not known. We therefore conducted the first, prospective study of ART initiation in a cohort of asymptomatic HIV-infected controllers, in order to determine the virologic and immunologic effects of treating controllers with ART. Controllers had a significant decreases in ultrasensitive plasma HIV RNA, rectal HIV RNA, and markers of T cell activation/dysfunction in blood and gut mucosa with ART. Similar reductions were observed in the subset of “elite” controllers with extremely low pre-ART plasma HIV RNA levels (<40 copies/mL). These data suggest that HIV replication persists in controllers and contributes to a chronic inflammatory state.
Purpose of review
The present review discusses recent reports showing that reciprocal changes in T helper interleukin-17-secreting CD4+ Th17 cells and CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) may play a role in the progressive disease caused by the HIV and by simian immunodeficiency virus.
Studies in nonhuman primate models of lentiviral infection and in HIV-infected human individuals have shown that pathogenic infection is associated with loss of Th17 cells and an increase in the frequency of Tregs. Because interleukin-17 serves to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier, loss of Th17 cells may permit the increase in microbial translocation across the gastrointestinal mucosa that is observed in pathogenic lentiviral disease. It remains unclear, however, whether Th17 cells are preferentially infected or if, instead, their loss is induced by bystander effects of lentiviral infection, for example, the induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.
Progressive lentiviral disease is associated with preferential depletion of Th17 cells and loss of Th17/Treg balance. Further analysis of such changes in the composition of subset CD4+ T helper and Tregs may shed new light on the immunopathology of HIV disease and suggest new strategies for therapeutic and preventive interventions.
HIV; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; regulatory T cells; Th17 cells