Diapause is a complex and dynamic process. Chilo suppressalis, an important rice pest in Asia enters facultative diapause as larvae. Our results demonstrated in Yangzhou, China, diapause was initiated between September 4 and 12, 2010. After diapause termination, C. suppressalis remained in quiescence in the field for as long as three months. The average time between collection of field larvae of C. suppressalis and their pupation decreased as the season progressed from fall to next spring. Unexpectedly, the pupated ratio of female to male in the initiation of diapause was 0.22. The abundance of hsp90, hsp70, hsp60 and CsAQP1 all peaked on January 8 or 15, 2011. Nitric oxide (NO) is a secondary messenger that is positively correlated with the diapause of C. suppressalis. Among several geographically separated populations of C. suppressalis, there are no significant differences in the mRNA levels of hsp70, hsp60 or CsAQP1.
AIM: To investigate the use of multi-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in diagnosing pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 33 cases of pancreatic cancer and 12 cases of benign pancreatic tumors at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University from December 2008 to January 2011. The demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, routine magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) features with different b values were reviewed. Continuous data were expressed as mean ± SD. Comparisons between pancreatic cancer and benign pancreatic tumors were performed using the Student’s t test. A probability of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: Thirty-three patients with pancreatic cancer were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 60 ± 5.6 years. The male: female ratio was 21:12. Twenty cases were confirmed by surgical resection and 13 by biopsy of metastases. T1 weighted images demonstrated a pancreatic head mass in 16 patients, a pancreatic body mass in 10 cases, and a pancreatic tail mass with pancreatic atrophy in 7 cases. Eight patients had hepatic metastases, 13 had invasion or envelopment of mesenteric vessels, 4 had bone metastases, and 8 had lymph node metastases. DWI demonstrated an irregular intense mass with unclear margins. Necrotic tissue demonstrated an uneven low signal. A b of 1100 s/mm2 was associated with a high intensity signal with poor anatomical delineation. A b of 700 s/mm2 was associated with apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) that were useful in distinguishing benign and malignant pancreatic tumors (P < 0.05). b values of 50, 350, 400, 450 and 1100 s/mm2 were associated with ADCs that did not differentiate the two tumors.
CONCLUSION: Low b value images demonstrated superior anatomical details when compared to high b value images. Tumor tissue definition was high and contrast with the surrounding tissues was good. DWI was useful in diagnosing pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic cancer; Magnetic resonance imaging; b value; Apparent diffusion coefficient; Diffusion weighted imaging
A number of reports have indicated an association between thyroid diseases and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). However, fewer studies have investigated whether the presence of thyroid diseases is associated with increased risk of developing pSS. Thus, the aim of our study was to use a nationwide health claims database to explore the prevalence and risk of pSS in female patients with thyroid diseases.
From the Registry of Catastrophic Illness database in the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, we identified 389 female patients with a diagnosis of pSS from 2005 to 2010. We also obtained 1945 control subjects frequency-matched on sex, 10-year age interval, and year of index date from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID2000). Both groups were retrospectively traced back to a period of eight years to obtain diagnosis of thyroid diseases prior to index date.
A significantly higher risk of pSS was associated with the presence of thyroid diseases (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6–2.9). Among the sub-categories of thyroid diseases, patients with thyroiditis (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.7–7.5), thyrotoxicosis (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.6–3.8), and unspecified hypothyroidism (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2–4.6), and simple and unspecified goiter (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3–3.3) were significantly associated with increased risk of pSS. The associations were generally stronger in the mid-forties to mid-sixties age group, except in patients with unspecified hypothyroidism.
The risk of pSS was significantly increased in female patients with thyroid diseases, particularly those in their mid-forties to mid-sixties. An increased awareness of the possibility of pSS in perimenopausal females with thyroid diseases is important to preserve their quality of life and to avoid comorbidity.
The development of suitable methods to deliver peptides specifically to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can provide some potential therapeutic applications of such peptides. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is strongly associated with the expression of human leukocytic antigen-B27 (HLA-B27). HLA-B27 heavy chain (HC) has a propensity to fold slowly resulting in the accumulation of misfolded HLA-B27 HC in the ER, triggering the unfolded protein response, and forming a homodimer, (B27-HC)2. Natural killer cells and T-helper 17 cells are then activated, contributing to the major pathogenic potentials of AS. The HLA-B27 HC is thus an important target, and delivery of an HLA-B27-binding peptide to the ER capable of promoting HLA-B27 HC folding is a potential mechanism for AS therapy. Here, we demonstrate that a His6-ubiquitin-tagged Tat-derived peptide (THU) can deliver an HLA-B27-binding peptide to the ER promoting HLA-B27 HC folding. The THU-HLA-B27-binding peptide fusion protein crossed the cell membrane to the cytosol through the Tat-derived peptide. The HLA-B27-binding peptide was specifically cleaved from THU by cytosolic ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases and subsequently transported into the ER by the transporter associated with antigen processing. This approach has potential application in the development of peptide therapy for AS.
We have begun an early phase of biomarker discovery in three clinically important types of breast cancer using a panel of human cell lines: HER2 positive, HER2 negative and hormone receptor positive and triple negative (HER2−, ER−, PR−). We identified and characterized the most abundant secreted, sloughed, or leaked proteins released into serum free media from these breast cancer cell lines using a combination of protein fractionation methods before LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 249 proteins were detected in the proximal fluid of 7 breast cancer cell lines. The expression of a selected group of high abundance and/or breast cancer specific potential biomarkers including thromobospondin 1, galectin-3 binding protein, cathepsin D, vimentin, zinc-α2-glycoprotein, CD44, and EGFR from the breast cancer cell lines and in their culture media were further validated by Western blot analysis. Interestingly, mass spectrometry identified a cathepsin D protein single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) by alanine to valine replacement from the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Comparison of each cell line media proteome displayed unique and consistent biosignatures regardless of the individual group classifications demonstrating the potential for stratification of breast cancer. Based on the cell line media proteome, predictive Tree software was able to categorize each cell line as HER2 positive, HER2 negative and hormone receptor positive and triple negative based on only two proteins, muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and keratin 19. In addition, the predictive Tree software clearly identified MCF-7 cell line overexpresing the HER2 receptor with the SNP cathepsin D biomarker.
breast cancer; biomarkers; blood assay; proteomics; mass spectrometry; single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); HER2; triple negative; proximal fluid
Clinical complications of sickle cell anemia begin in infancy. BABY HUG (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00006400) was a NHLBI-NICHD supported randomized phase III placebo-controlled trial of hydroxyurea (HU) in infants (recruited at 9–18 months) unselected for clinical severity with sickle cell anemia. This secondary analysis of data from BABY HUG examines the influence of anemia on the incidence of sickle cell related complications, and the impact of hydroxyurea therapy in altering these events by comparing children with lower (<25th percentile) and higher (>75th percentile) hemoglobin concentrations at study entry.
Infants were categorized by: 1) age-adjusted hemoglobin quartiles as determined by higher (Hi) and lower (Lo) hemoglobin concentrations at study entry (9 to12 months old: <8.0 gm/dL and >10.0gm/dL; 12 to 18 months old: <8.1 gm/dL and >9.9gm/dL) and 2) treatment arm (hydroxyurea or placebo). Four subgroups were created: placebo (PL) LoHb (n=25), PL HiHb (n=27), hydroxyurea (HU) LoHb (n=21), and HU HiHb (n=18). The primary and secondary endpoints of BABY HUG were analyzed by subgroup.
Infants with lower hemoglobin at baseline were more likely to have a higher incidence of clinical events (acute chest syndrome, pain crisis, fever) as well as higher TCD velocities and lower neuropsychological scores at study exit. Hydroxyurea reduced the incidence of these findings.
Infants with more severe anemia are at risk for increased clinical events that may be prevented by early initiation of hydroxyurea.
Sickle Cell Anemia; Hydroxyurea; Acute Chest Syndrome; Pain; Transcranial Doppler; Renal; Spleen
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in western world. However, NAFLD shows an increasing trend in China every year, which has attracted the attention of national health authorities. The previous studies have shown that NAFLD caused severe gastrointestinal motor disorders, but little is known about the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) role in gastrointestinal motor disorders.
The aim of this study was to observe the ICC in jejunum of nonalcoholic fatty liver mice by immunohistochemistry and assessed the relationship between intestinal motility and ICC.
Materials and Methods
Thirty five Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into nonalcoholic fatty liver (n = 25) and control groups (n = 10), rats were housed individually in cages and had free access to food and water, nonalcoholic fatty liver group was duplicated by high-fat diet (consisted of ordinary food, 20 g/kg cholesterol and 100 g/kg fat) feeding. Dextran blue-2000 was used to monitor the intestinal motility. The proximal small intestine was harvested to investigate the C-kit positive ICC. The hepatic tissue slices were used for pathological observation.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was successfully established. The intestinal motility in nonalcoholic fatty liver group (49.5 ± 10.9) was weaker compared to the control group (57.3 ± 8.9), P < 0.05. The rate of ICC also have shown statistically significant differences between nonalcoholic fatty liver (4.87 ± 2.97/mm 2) and control groups (6.54 ± 3.13/mm 2), P < 0.05.
ICC may be related to the intestinal motility in nonalcoholic fatty liver mice.
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver; Interstitial Cells of Cajal; Intestinal Motility
Though most of the transcripts are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), little is known about their functions. lncRNAs usually function through interactions with proteins, which implies the importance of identifying the binding proteins of lncRNAs in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of lncRNAs. Only a few approaches are available for predicting interactions between lncRNAs and proteins. In this study, we introduce a new method lncPro.
By encoding RNA and protein sequences into numeric vectors, we used matrix multiplication to score each RNA–protein pair. This score can be used to measure the interactions between an RNA–protein pair. This method effectively discriminates interacting and non-interacting RNA–protein pairs and predicts RNA–protein interactions within a given complex. Applying this method on all human proteins, we found that the long non-coding RNAs we collected tend to interact with nuclear proteins and RNA-binding proteins.
Compared with the existing approaches, our method shortens the time for training matrix and obtains optimal results based on the model being used. The ability of predicting the associations between lncRNAs and proteins has also been enhanced. Our method provides an idea on how to integrate different information into the prediction process.
Long non-coding RNA; RNA–protein interaction; Computation
Aims: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gaseous mediator, has been recognized to protect neurons from overexcitation by enhancing the activity of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel. However, no direct evidence supports that the K-ATP channel contributes to the neuroprotective effect of H2S in neurodegeneration. Herein, wild-type and Kir6.2 knockout (Kir6.2−/−) mice were used to establish the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD) so as to investigate the involvement of K-ATP channels in the neuroprotection of H2S. Results: Systemic administration of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (an H2S donor, 5.6 mg/kg/day) for 7 days rescued MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in substantia nigra compacta of both Kir6.2+/+ and Kir6.2−/− mice. Consistently, NaHS (100 μM) protected primary mesencephalic neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cytotoxicity in both genotypes. We further found that deficiency of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and functions as upstream to the K-ATP channel in determining vulnerability of DA neurons, abolished the protective effects of H2S against either DA neuron degeneration in the PD mouse model or MPP+-induced injury in primary mesencephalic neurons. Rationally, UCP2 evokes mild uncoupling, which in turn diminishes ROS accumulation in DA neurons. Furthermore, H2S exerted neuroprotective effect via enhancing UCP2-mediated antioxidation and subsequently suppressing ROS-triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as ultimately inhibiting caspase 12-induced neuronal apoptosis. Innovation and Conclusion: H2S protects DA neurons against degeneration in a UCP2 rather than Kir6.2/K-ATP channel-dependent mechanism, which will give us an insight into the potential of H2S in terms of opening up new therapeutic avenues for PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 849–859.
Primary liver cancer and liver metastases are among the most frequent malignancies worldwide, with an increasing number of new cases and deaths every year. Traditional surgery is only suitable for a limited proportion of patients and imaging-guided percutaneous thermal ablation has achieved optimistic results for management of hepatic malignancy. This synopsis outlines the first clinical practice guidelines for ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation therapy for hepatic malignancy, which was created by a joint task force of the Society of Chinese Interventional Ultrasound. The guidelines aim at standardizing the microwave ablation procedure and therapeutic efficacy assessment, as well as proposing the criteria for the treatment candidates.
Practice guidelines; Microwave radiation; Catheter ablation; Liver cancer; Ultrasound
Overexpression of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is an essential characteristic of pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) is described as a SHH inhibitor. This study evaluates whether ATO has the potential to inhibit viability of PCSCs via binding to SHH-Gli proteins.
Cell counting kit-8 and flow cytometry were used for analyzing apoptosis in cells in vitro. The animal model was an athymic nude mouse model bearing subcutaneous xenografts of SW1990 pancreatic cancer cells. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry were used for tumor tissue analysis. The interaction between Gli1 and ATO was examined by a confocal system and an ultraviolet absorption spectrum assay.
ATO induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells, especially CD24+CD44+ cells in vitro. Combination treatment of ATO and low dose gemcitabine inhibited tumor growth by 60.9% (P = 0.004), and decreased the expression of CD24, CD44, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1 significantly in vivo. ATO changed the structure of the recombinant Gli1 zinc finger peptides in a cell-free condition and the binding action of ATO to recombinant Gli1 was observed in cultured pancreatic cancer cells.
ATO may have the potential to inhibit viability of PCSCs via binding to SHH-Gli proteins in vitro and in vivo.
pancreatic cancer; stem cells; gemcitabine; arsenic trioxide; sonic hedgehog; Gli
AIM: To identify a more effective treatment protocol for circumferential mixed hemorrhoids.
METHODS: A total of 192 patients with circumferential mixed hemorrhoids were randomized into the treatment group, where they underwent Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy with anal cushion suspension and partial internal sphincter resection, or the control group, where traditional external dissection and internal ligation were performed. Postoperative recovery and complications were monitored.
RESULTS: The time to wound healing was 12.96 ± 2.25 d in the treatment group shorter than 19.58 ± 2.71 d in the control group. Slight pain rate was 58.3% in the treatment group higher than 22.9% in the control group; moderate pain rate was 33.3% in the treatment group lower than 56.3% in the control group severe pain rate was 8.4% in the treatment group lower than 20.8% in the control group. No edema rate was 70.8% in the treatment group higher than 43.8% in the control group; mild local edema rate was 26% in the treatment group lower than 39.6% in the control group obvious local edema was 3.03% in the treatment group lower than 16.7% in the control group. No stenosis rate was 85.4% in the treatment group higher than 63.5% in the control group; moderate stenosis rate was 14.6% in the treatment group Lower than 27.1% in the control group severe anal stenosis rate was 0% in the treatment group lower than 9.4% in the control group.
CONCLUSION: Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy with anal cushion suspension and partial internal sphincter resection is the optimal treatment for circumferential mixed hemorrhoids and can be widely applied in clinical settings.
Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy; Mixed hemorrhoids; Anal cushion; Internal sphincter
Trans-splicing, a process involving the cleavage and joining of two separate transcripts, can expand the transcriptome and proteome in eukaryotes. Chimeric RNAs generated by trans-splicing are increasingly described in literatures. The widespread presence of antibiotic resistance genes in natural environments and human intestines is becoming an important challenge for public health. Certain antibiotic resistance genes, such as ampicillin resistance gene (Ampr), are frequently used in recombinant plasmids. Until now, trans-splicing involving recombinant plasmid-derived exogenous transcripts and endogenous cellular RNAs has not been reported. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) is a key enzyme involved in cellular cholesterol homeostasis. The 4.3-kb human ACAT1 chimeric mRNA can produce 50-kDa and 56-kDa isoforms with different enzymatic activities. Here, we show that human ACAT1 56-kDa isoform is produced from an mRNA species generated through the trans-splicing of an exogenous transcript encoded by the antisense strand of Ampr (asAmp) present in common Ampr-plasmids and the 4.3-kb endogenous ACAT1 chimeric mRNA, which is presumably processed through a prior event of interchromosomal trans-splicing. Strikingly, DNA fragments containing the asAmp with an upstream recombined cryptic promoter and the corresponding exogenous asAmp transcripts have been detected in human cells. Our findings shed lights on the mechanism of human ACAT1 56-kDa isoform production, reveal an exogenous-endogenous trans-splicing system, in which recombinant plasmid-derived exogenous transcripts are linked with endogenous cellular RNAs in human cells, and suggest that exogenous DNA might affect human gene expression at both DNA and RNA levels.
trans-splicing; chimeric RNA; ampicillin resistance gene; recombinant plasmid; ACAT1
AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CapeOx) for extrahepatic metastasis after local treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Thirty-two patients with extrahepatic metastasis of HCC after local treatment were prospectively enrolled. The CapeOx regimen consisted of capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 taken orally twice daily on days 1-14, and oxaliplatin was administered at a total dose of 100 mg/m2 on day 1. The treatment was repeated every 3 wk until disease progression or unaccetablle toxicity. Efficacy and safety were assessable for all enrolled patients. The primary objective of this study was to assess the overall response rate. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the overall survival (OS), the time to tumor progression (TTP) and the toxicity profile of the combined strategy. TTP and OS were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and differences between the curves were analyzed using the log-rank test. The statistical software SPSS version 15.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States) was used for statistical analysis. All P values were 2-tailed, with statistical significance defined by P ≤ 0.05.
RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were assessable for efficacy and toxicity. The median follow-up duration was 15 mo (range, 12-20 mo). At the cut-off date of March 31, 2012, 27 patients died due to tumor progression and one patient died of myocardial infarction. Four patients were still alive (three patients with disease progression). OR was 21.9% (n = 7), the stabilization rate was 40.6% (n = 13), and the disease control rate was 62.5%. The responses lasted from 4 to 19 mo (median, 6 mo). Median TTP was 4.2 mo (95%CI: 2.5-7.4), and the median OS time was 9.2 mo (95%CI: 6.5-17.8). The 1-year survival rate was 43.6% (95%CI: 29.0-66.0). In a multivariate analysis, OS was significantly longer in patients with a Child-Pugh class A compared with class B patients (P = 0.014), with a median OS of 10.1 mo vs 5.4 mo, and there were trends towards longer OS (P = 0.065) in patients without portal vein tumor thrombosis. There were no significant effects of age, gender, performance status, cirrhosis, metastatic sites, and level of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) or hepatitis B virus-DNA on OS. Among the 22 patients with elevated AFP levels at baseline (≥ 400 ng/mL), the level fell by more than 50% during treatment in 6 patients (27.3%). The most frequent treatment-related grade 3 to 4 toxicities included leucopenia/neutropenia, transient elevation of aminotransferases, hand-foot syndrome and fatigue.
CONCLUSION: CapeOx showed modest anti-tumor activity in metastatic HCC. However, the manageable toxicity profile and the encouraging disease control rate deserve further study for these patients.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Extrahepatic metastasis; Capecitabine; Oxaliplatin; Local treatments
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) are the most important cell source for stem cell transplant therapy. The migration capacity of MSCs is one of the determinants of the efficiency of MSC-based transplant therapy. Our recent study has shown that low concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can stimulate proliferation of bmMSCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of ox-LDL on bmMSC migration and adhesion, as well as the related mechanisms. Our results show that transmigration rates of bmMSCs and cell-cell adhesion between bmMSCs and monocytes are significantly increased by treatments with ox-LDL in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Expressions of ICAM-1, PECAM-1, and VCAM-1 as well as the levels of intracellular Ca2+ are also markedly increased by ox-LDL in a dose-dependent manner. Cytoskeleton analysis shows that ox-LDL treatment benefits to spreading of bmMSCs and organization of F-actin fibers after being plated for 6 hours. More interestingly, treatments with ox-LDL also markedly increase expressions of LOX-1, MCP-1, and TGF-β; however, LOX-1 antibody and MCP-1 shRNA markedly inhibit ox-LDL-induced migration and adhesion of bmMSCs, which suggests that ox-LDL-induced bmMSC migration and adhesion are dependent on LOX-1 activation and MCP-1 expression.
Youth infected with HIV at birth often have sleep disturbances, neurocognitive deficits, and abnormal psychosocial function which are associated with and possibly resulted from elevated blood cytokine levels that may lead to a decreased quality of life. To identify molecular pathways that might be associated with these disorders, we evaluated 38 HIV-infected and 35 uninfected subjects over 18-months for intracellular cytokine levels, sleep patterns and duration of sleep, and neurodevelopmental abilities. HIV infection was significantly associated with alterations of intracellular pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12), sleep factors (total time asleep and daytime sleep patterns), and neurocognitive factors (parent and patient reported problems with socio-emotional, behavioral, and executive functions; working memory-mental fatigue; verbal memory; and sustained concentration and vigilance. By better defining the relationships between HIV infection, sleep disturbances, and poor psychosocial behavior and neurocognition, it may be possible to provide targeted pharmacologic and procedural interventions to improve these debilitating conditions.
pediatric HIV infection; intracellular cytokines; sleep behavior; neurodevelopment; neurocognition; path analysis
There is no consensus on the effect of nanoparticle (NP) addition on the specific heat capacity (SHC) of fluids. In addition, the predictions from the existing model have a large discrepancy from the measured SHCs in nanofluids. We show that the SHC of the molten salt-based alumina nanofluid decreases with reducing particle size and increasing particle concentration. The NP size-dependent SHC is resulted from an augmentation of the nanolayer effect as particle size reduces. A model considering the nanolayer effect which supports the experimental results was proposed.
Nanofluid; Nanolayer; Specific heat capacity (SHC); Molten-salt
Poly(lauryl methacrylate) (PLMA) thin film doped with Mn:ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) was spin-deposited on the front surface of Si solar cell for enhancing the solar cell efficiency via photoluminescence (PL) conversion. Significant solar cell efficiency enhancements (approximately 5% to 10%) under all-solar-spectrum (AM0) condition were observed after QD-doped PLMA coatings. Furthermore, the real contribution of the PL conversion was precisely assessed by investigating the photovoltaic responses of the QD-doped PLMA to monochromatic and AM0 light sources as functions of QD concentration, combined with reflectance and external quantum efficiency measurements. At a QD concentration of 1.6 mg/ml for example, among the efficiency enhancement of 5.96%, about 1.04% was due to the PL conversion, and the rest came from antireflection. Our work indicates that for the practical use of PL conversion in solar cell performance improvement, cautions are to be taken, as the achieved efficiency enhancement might not be wholly due to the PL conversion.
Si solar cell; Quantum dots; Photoluminescence conversion; Antireflectin; 78.55.-m; 84.60.Jt
The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical effects of lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation on patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors, following laminectomy. Thirteen patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors underwent total lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation and repair of the supraspinous ligaments, following laminectomy and tumor enucleation. To investigate the clinical effect of lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation, pre- and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were determined, and pre- and postoperative X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were conducted. Computed tomography (CT) examinations were also included in the follow-up. No complications were observed pre- or postoperatively. The VAS and ODI results 2 weeks following surgery and at the final follow-up examination demonstrated a significant improvement compared with the corresponding preoperative results. The X-ray examination results indicated a satisfactory internal fixation location, without any characteristics of a fracture, lumbar scoliosis, kyphosis or instability. Following the surgery, the CT and MRI examination results demonstrated that healing of the lamina bone and repair of the supraspinous ligament had occurred without tumor recurrence or spinal epidural scar recompression. Two of the 13 cases were lost to follow-up. The results indicated that in patients with thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumors, lamina replantation with ARCH plate fixation following total laminectomy is effective and provides thoracolumbar stability. Furthermore, this has been identified to be an effective technique for preventing intraspinal scar proliferation.
laminoplasty; intradural tumor; internal fixation
Primitive proteins are proposed to have utilized organic cofactors more frequently than transition metals in redox reactions. Thus, an experimental validation on whether a protein constituted solely by early amino acids and an organic cofactor can perform electron transfer activity is an urgent challenge. In this paper, by substituting “late amino acids (C, F, M, T, W, and Y)” with “early amino acids (A, L, and V)” in a flavodoxin, we constructed a flavodoxin mutant and evaluated its characteristic properties. The major results showed that: (1) The flavodoxin mutant has structural characteristics similar to wild-type protein; (2) Although the semiquinone and hydroquinone flavodoxin mutants possess lower stability than the corresponding form of wild-type flavodoxin, the redox potential of double electron reduction Em,7 (fld) reached −360 mV, indicating that the flavodoxin mutant constituted solely by early amino acids can exert effective electron transfer activity.
origin of life; primitive redox protein; cofactor; early amino acid
This study's purpose was to determine whether asthma medication use in HIV+ children is associated with HLA alleles. We reviewed HLA and medication data collected during the Women and Infants Transmission Study for 124 HIV+ children and their mothers. Analysis revealed that HLA-A68 (P=0.006) was independent and predictive for time to first asthma medication use. There was a preventive association of Cw6 (P=0.008) with AT. HAART was also associated with time to first asthma medication use (P=0.05). HLA alleles may modulate risk of developing a need for asthma medications and seem to function independently of the actions of HAART therapy.
AIM: To investigate the expression of distal-less homeobox 2 (DLX2) in gastric adenocarcinoma and its clinicopathological significance.
METHODS: Gastric adenocarcinoma tissues were obtained from gastrectomy specimens of 129 patients from the Department of Surgery and Pathology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University. Sixty cases of normal gastric tissues were collected from gastrectomy specimens of adjacent gastric cancer margins greater than 5 cm. Patient diagnosis was established pathologically, and no patient had received chemotherapy or radiotherapy before surgery. All tissue specimens were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to investigate the expression of DLX2 in 129 gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and 60 adjacent normal tissues. The immunostaining reaction was semiquantitatively evaluated based on the proportion of positive cells and the median staining intensity in normal gastric epithelial cells or tumor cells. All patients had follow-up records for more than 5 years. Correlations of DLX2 expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were analyzed. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 software.
RESULTS: The positive expression of DLX2 was detected in 68 (52.7%) cases of 129 gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and 14 (23.3%) cases of 60 adjacent normal tissues. The difference in DLX2 expression between gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues was statistically significant (χ2 = 14.391, P < 0.001). Moreover, high expression of DLX2 was detected in 48 (37.2%) cases of 129 human gastric cancer tissues, but not in adjacent normal tissues. The expression of DLX2 correlated with the size of tumor (P = 0.001), depth of invasion (P = 0.008), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.023) and tumor-node-metastasis stages (P = 0.020), but was not correlated with age, gender, histological differentiation and distant metastasis. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that survival time of patients with high DLX2 expression was significantly shorter than that with low DLX2 expression. However, the multivariate analysis showed that invasion depth (P < 0.001), lymph nodes metastasis (P = 0.001) and distant metastasis (P < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, but DLX2 expression, tumor location and tumor size were not.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that increased expression of DLX2 may correlate with the advanced stage of gastric adenocarcinoma, and it may contribute to tumor development.
Gastric adenocarcinoma; Distal-less homeobox 2; Immunohistochemistry; Invasion; Metastasis; Prognosis
Apoptosis is executed through the activity of the caspases that are aspartyl-specific proteases. In this study, we isolated the caspase gene (Cscaspase-1) of Chilo suppressalis (one of the leading pests responsible for destruction of rice crops). It possesses the open reading frame (ORF) of 295 amino acids including prodomain, large subunit and small subunits, and two cleavage sites (Asp23 and Asp194) were found to be located among them. In addition to these profiles, Cscaspase-1 contains two active sites (His134 and Cys176). Genomic analysis demonstrated there was no intron in the genome of Cscaspase-1. The Cscaspase-1 transcripts were found in all tissues of the fifth instar larvae, and higher levels were found in the midgut, hindgut and Malpighian tubules. Examination of Cscaspase-1 expression in different developmental stages indicated low constitutive levels in the eggs and early larvae stages, and higher abundances were exhibited in the last larvae and pupae stages. The relative mRNA levels of Cscaspase-1 were induced by heat and cold temperatures. For example, the highest increase of Cscaspase-1 transcription was at −3 °C and 36 °C respectively. In a word, Cscaspase-1 plays a role of effector in the apoptosis of C. suppressalis. It also correlates with development, metamorphosis and thermotolerance of C. suppreassalis.
apoptosis; Cscaspase-1; Chilo suppressalis; expression; development; thermotolerance
The identification of potential tumor markers can improve therapeutic planning and patient management. The aim of this study was to highlight the significance of IL-6 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes of 173 patients with esophageal SCC, and examined the correlation between IL-6 levels and clinical outcomes in esophageal cancer patients. Furthermore, the human esophageal SCC cell line CE81T was selected for cellular and animal experiments to investigate changes in tumor behavior and treatment response after manipulation of IL-6 expression.
In clinical outcome analysis, positive IL-6 staining and poor treatment response was significantly associated with shorter survival. Furthermore, the frequency of IL-6 immunoreactivity was significantly higher in esophageal cancer specimens than in non-malignant epithelium, and this staining was positively linked to the development of distant metastasis (p = 0.0003) and lower treatment response rates (p = 0.0001).By ELISA analysis, IL-6 serum levels were significantly elevated in patients developing disease failure.When IL-6 expression was inhibited, aggressive tumor behavior and radiation resistance could be overcome in vitro and in vivo. The underlying changes included increased cell death, less epithelial-mesenchymal transition and attenuated STAT3 activation. IL-6 inhibition was also associated with attenuated angiogenesis in tumor-bearing mice.
IL-6 was significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with esophageal cancer. Targeting this cytokine could be a promising strategy for treatment of esophageal cancer, as evidenced by inhibition of aggressive tumor behavior and treatment resistance.
IL-6, Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Prognosis
A Chinese herbal formula, Yi-Qi-Fu-Sheng (YQFS), has long been employed clinically to treat cancer patients. We aimed to determine its effectiveness as a treatment method for colorectal cancer. We investigated the therapeutic effects of YQFS on colorectal cancer, as well as the underlying mechanisms, which have not previously been explored.
First, YQFS was extracted and chemically characterized. We then tested the effects of YQFS on proliferation and migration by MTT and transwell migration assays in vitro. Mouse xenograft models of colorectal cancer were established by inoculation with HCT-116 cells, and mice received one of three oral doses (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day) to evaluate the effects of YQFS extract. Metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9) expression in mice was evaluated by gelatin zymography assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM) analysis in vitro and by TUNEL assay in vivo. ERK and p-ERK expression were evaluated by western blot analysis at the protein level in vitro, and by quantitative RT-PCR at mRNA level in vivo.
Our results show that YQFS significantly inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G1− and S-phase in HCT-116 cells. Furthermore, YQFS effectively retards tumor cell migration and invasion by inhibiting metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9) expression, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, YQFS had an inhibitory effect on tumor growth in vivo, and induced apoptosis through the inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway both in vitro and in vivo.
These findings demonstrate that YQFS extract has an anti-tumor effect in colorectal cancer, which could be attributed to ERK1/2-dependent inhibition of MMP-2/9 expression.
Colorectal cancer; Invasion and migration; Metalloproteinase-2/9; Extracellular signal-regulated kinase; Yi-Qi-Fu-Sheng herbal formula