The mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin) pathway is constitutively activated in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). mTOR inhibitors (mTORi) have activity in DLBCL, although response rates remain low. We evaluated DLBCL cell lines with differential resistance to the mTORi Rapamycin, in order to (A) identify gene-expression profile(s) (GEP) associated with resistance to Rapamycin, (B) understand mechanisms of Rapamycin resistance, and (C) identify compounds likely to synergize with mTORi.
We sought to identify a GEP of mTORi resistance by stratification of eight DLBCL cell lines with respect to response to Rapamycin. Then, using pathway analysis and connectivity mapping, we sought targets likely accounting for this resistance, and compounds likely to overcome it. We then evaluated two compounds thus identified for their potential to synergize with Rapamycin in DLBCL, and confirmed mechanisms of activity with standard immunoassays.
We identified a GEP capable of reliably distinguishing Rapamycin resistant from Rapamycin sensitive DLBCL cell lines. Pathway analysis identified Akt as central to the differentially expressed gene network. Connectivity mapping identified compounds targeting Akt as having a high likelihood of reversing the GEP associated with mTORi resistance. Nelfinavir and MK-2206, chosen for their Akt-inhibitory properties, yielded synergistic inhibition of cell viability in combination with Rapamycin in DLBCL cell lines, and potently inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and downstream targets of activated mTOR.
GEP identifies DLBCL subsets resistant to mTORi therapy. Combined targeting of mTOR and Akt suppresses activation of key components of the Akt/mTOR pathway and results in synergistic cytotoxicity. These findings are readily adaptable to clinical trials.
One in eleven people is affected by chronic kidney disease, a condition characterized by kidney fibrosis and progressive loss of kidney function. Epidemiological studies indicate that adverse intrauterine and postnatal environments have a long-lasting role in chronic kidney disease development. Epigenetic information represents a plausible carrier for mediating this programming effect. Here we demonstrate that genome-wide cytosine methylation patterns of healthy and chronic kidney disease tubule samples obtained from patients show significant differences.
We identify differentially methylated regions and validate these in a large replication dataset. The differentially methylated regions are rarely observed on promoters, but mostly overlap with putative enhancer regions, and they are enriched in consensus binding sequences for important renal transcription factors. This indicates their importance in gene expression regulation. A core set of genes that are known to be related to kidney fibrosis, including genes encoding collagens, show cytosine methylation changes correlating with downstream transcript levels.
Our report raises the possibility that epigenetic dysregulation plays a role in chronic kidney disease development via influencing core pro-fibrotic pathways and can aid the development of novel biomarkers and future therapeutics.
To determine whether macular thickness is associated with ethnicity, gender, axial length and severity of myopia in a cohort of young adults from the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET).
Eleven years after their baseline visit, 387/469 (83%) subjects returned for their annual visit. In addition to the protocol-specific measures of spherical equivalent refractive error (SER) and axial length (AL), high-resolution macular imaging also was performed with Optical Coherence Tomography (RTVue). From these scans, full thickness values for the central (1 mm), para- (1–3 mm), and peri-foveal (3–5 mm) annular regions were calculated. Gender, ethnicity, AL, and SER were examined for associations with macular thickness using univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses.
In the 377 subjects with usable data (mean age=21.0 ±1.3 years) the mean SER±SD was −5.0±1.9 D and mean AL was 25.4±0.9 mm. Mean foveal thickness was 252.0± 20.1 µm in the center, 315.6±14.0 µm in the para-fovea, and 284.4±12.9 µm in the peri-fovea. In the best-fit multivariable model that adjusted for gender, ethnicity, and AL, females had significantly thinner maculas than males for all three regions (p<0.0001), with the largest difference in the center (12.8 µm, 95%CI: 9.2 to 16.4). The effect of ethnicity was strongest in the central fovea, with African-Americans, Asians, Hispanics, and mixed ethnic groups thinner maculas than whites (all p-values < 0.005). Increased AL was significantly associated with slightly thicker central foveas (p=0.001) and thinner para- (p=0.02) and peri-foveal (p< 0.0001) regions.
In this ethnically diverse cohort of moderate and high myopes, females and African-Americans were found to have the thinnest central foveas. Whether such thinning in the macula as a young adult is a risk factor for future disease remains to be determined.
myopia; optical coherence tomography; macula; fovea; young adults; axial length
CMI responses, combined with quantification of CMV DNA (DNAemia), may identify transplantation recipients at risk for invasive disease. PBMC were collected in pediatric transplantation candidates at one, three, and six months post-transplant in 10 subjects (six renal, three cardiac, one stem cell) and at single time points in eight HC and 14 children greater than one yr post-transplant (LTTx). Cells were stimulated with anti-CD3mAb or CMV pp65 peptide pools and responses assessed by IFNG enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay and cytokine secretion. IFNG responses to anti-CD3mAb were significantly lower pretransplant relative to HC and were further decreased at one and three months post-transplant, but recovered to levels comparable to HC by six months. Responses to pp65 among CMV-seropositive recipients followed a similar pattern but recovered by three months. CMV-seropositive LTTx and HC showed a Th1 cytokine response to pp65 stimulation. Three LTTx subjects developed CMV DNAemia; two demonstrated decreased responses to anti-CD3mAB (and pp65 in the CMV seropositive subject) at the onset of DNAemia, which recovered as DNAemia resolved. Monitoring CMI in children is feasible and may provide an adjunct biomarker to predict CMV progression and recovery.
cytomegalovirus; transplant; pediatrics; T lymphocytes
The entire online HIV Medical Association US registry was invited to complete a questionnaire regarding beliefs and practices related to smoking in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). 363/486 returned completed questionnaires. Respondents from 43 states reported caring for 76,570 PLWHAs. Only 22.9% had ever received formal tobacco treatment training. Respondents generally agreed that smoking is an important issue in PLWHAs, but reported low levels of cessation-promoting activities. Providers with larger patient panels, “primarily HIV” practices, and formal cessation training had higher questionnaire scores, indicating stronger beliefs in the harms of smoking, benefits of quitting, and effectiveness of cessation strategies.
HIV; Provider; Tobacco; Smoking; Beliefs
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I stimulates the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the primary source of extracellular matrix accumulation in liver fibrosis. In contrast, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) 3, the most abundant IGFBP in circulation, negatively modulates HSC mitogenesis. To investigate the role of the IGF axis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease among high-risk patients, we prospectively evaluated HCV-viremic/HIV-positive women.
A cohort investigation.
Total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in baseline serum specimens obtained from 472 HCV-viremic/HIV-positive subjects enrolled in the Women's Inter-agency HIV Study, a large multi-institutional cohort. The aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), a marker of liver fibrosis, was assessed annually.
Normal APRI levels (< 1.0) at baseline were detected in 374 of the 472 HCV-viremic/HIV-positive subjects tested, of whom 302 had complete liver function test data and were studied. IGF-I was positively associated [adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest and lowest quartiles (AORq4–q1), 5.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17–29.1; Ptrend = 0.03], and IGFBP-3 was inversely associated (AORq4–q1, 0.13; 95% CI 0.02–0.76; Ptrend = 0.04), with subsequent (incident) detection of an elevated APRI level(> 1.5), after adjustment for the CD4 T-cell count, alcohol consumption, and other risk factors.
High IGF-I may be associated with increased risk and high IGFBP-3 with reduced risk of liver disease among HCV-viremic/HIV-positive women.
aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index; APRI; hepatitis C virus (HCV); HIV; IGFBP-3; IGF; liver disease
Background. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II genotype is associated with clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but little is known regarding its relation with HCV viral load or risk of liver disease in patients with persistent HCV infection.
Methods. High-resolution HLA class I and II genotyping was conducted in a prospective cohort of 519 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–seropositive and 100 HIV-seronegative women with persistent HCV infection. The end points were baseline HCV viral load and 2 noninvasive indexes of liver disease, fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), and the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), measured at baseline and prospectively.
Results. DQB1*0301 was associated with low baseline HCV load (β = −.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], −.6 to −.3; P < .00001), as well as with low odds of FIB-4–defined (odds ratio [OR], .5; 95% CI, .2–.9; P = .02) and APRI-defined liver fibrosis (OR, .5; 95% CI, .3–1.0; P = .06) at baseline and/or during follow-up. Most additional associations with HCV viral load also involved HLA class II alleles. Additional associations with FIB-4 and APRI primarily involved class I alleles, for example, the relation of B*1503 with APRI-defined fibrosis had an OR of 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0–3.7; P = .04).
Conclusions. HLA genotype may influence HCV viral load and risk of liver disease, including DQB1*0301, which was associated with HCV clearance in prior studies.
While the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype has been associated with the rate of HIV disease progression in untreated patients, little is known regarding these relationships in patients using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The limited data reported to date identified few HLA-HIV disease associations in patients using HAART and even occasional associations that were opposite of those found in untreated patients. We conducted high-resolution HLA class I and II genotyping in a random sample (n = 860) of HIV-seropositive women enrolled in a long-term cohort initiated in 1994. HLA-HIV disease associations before and after initiation of HAART were examined using multivariate analyses. In untreated HIV-seropositive patients, we observed many of the predicted associations, consistent with prior studies. For example, HLA-B*57 (β = −0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.9 to −0.5; P = 5 × 10−11) and Bw4 (β = −0.2; 95% CI = −0.4 to −0.1; P = 0.009) were inversely associated with baseline HIV viral load, and B*57 was associated with a low risk of rapid CD4+ decline (odds ratio [OR] = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.1 to 0.6; P = 0.002). Conversely, in treated patients, the odds of a virological response to HAART were lower for B*57:01 (OR = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.0 to 0.9; P = 0.03), and Bw4 (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.1 to 1.0; P = 0.04) was associated with low odds of an immunological response. The associations of HLA genotype with HIV disease are different and sometimes even opposite in treated and untreated patients.
Altered expression of Septin 9 (SEPT9), a septin coding for multiple isoform variants, has been observed in several carcinomas, including colorectal, head and neck, ovarian and breast, compared to normal tissues. The mechanisms regulating its expression during tumor initiation and progression in vivo and the oncogenic function of its different isoforms remain elusive.
Using an integrative approach, we investigated SEPT9 at the genetic, epigenetic, mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer. We analyzed a panel of breast cancer cell lines, human primary tumors and corresponding tumor-free areas, normal breast tissues from reduction mammoplasty patients, as well as primary mammary gland adenocarcinomas derived from the polyoma virus middle T antigen, or PyMT, mouse model. MCF7 clones expressing individual GFP-tagged SEPT9 isoforms were used to determine their respective intracellular distributions and effects on cell migration.
An overall increase in gene amplification and altered expression of SEPT9 were observed during breast tumorigenesis. We identified an intragenic alternative promoter at which methylation regulates SEPT9_v3 expression. Transfection of specific GFP-SEPT9 isoforms in MCF7 cells indicates that these isoforms exhibit differential localization and affect migration rates. Additionally, the loss of an uncharacterized SEPT9 nucleolar localization is observed during tumorigenesis.
In this study, we found conserved in vivo changes of SEPT9 gene amplification and overexpression during human and mouse breast tumorigenesis. We show that DNA methylation is a prominent mechanism responsible for regulating differential SEPT9 isoform expression and that breast tumor samples exhibit distinctive SEPT9 intracellular localization. Together, these findings support the significance of SEPT9 as a promising tool in breast cancer detection and further emphasize the importance of analyzing and targeting SEPT9 isoform-specific expression and function.
Septin 9; breast cancer; oncogene; epigenetics; cytoskeleton
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has been hypothesized to influence the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression. This premise is based largely on laboratory models showing that IGF-I stimulates thymic growth and increases lymphocyte numbers and that IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)–3 has an opposing effect, inhibiting hematopoietic stem cell development.
We studied 1422 HIV-infected women enrolled in a large cohort that entailed semiannual follow-up (initiated in 1994). Baseline serum samples were tested for IGF-I and IGFBP-3 to determine their associations with incident clinical acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and CD4+ T cell count decline prior to April 1996 (before the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART]).
Low IGF-I levels (Ptrend = .02) and high IGFBP-3 levels (Ptrend = .02) were associated with rapid CD4+ T cell count decline. Only IGFBP-3, however, was significantly associated with AIDS incidence (hazard ratio for highest vs. lowest quartile, 2.65 [95% confidence interval, 1.30–5.42]; Ptrend = .02) in multivariable models.
These findings suggest that serum levels of IGFBP-3 (and possibly IGF-I) are associated with the rate of HIV disease progression in women and, more broadly, that interindividual heterogeneity in the IGF axis may influence HIV pathogenesis. If correct, the IGF axis could be a target for interventions to slow HIV disease progression and extend the time before use of HAART becomes necessary.
Studies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and their relation with hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia have had conflicting results. However, these studies have varied in size and methods, and few large studies assessed HLA class I alleles. Only one study conducted high resolution class I genotyping. The current investigation therefore involved high-resolution HLA class I and II genotyping of a large multi-racial cohort of US women with high prevalence of HCV and HIV. Our primary analyses evaluated associations between twelve HLA alleles identified through a critical review of the literature and HCV viremia in 758 HCV-seropositive women. Other alleles with >5% prevalence were also assessed; previously unreported associations were corrected for multiple comparisons. DRB1*0101 (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1–2.6), B*5701 (PR=2.0; 95% CI = 1.0–3.1), B*5703 (PR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.0–2.5), and Cw*0102 (PR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0–3.0) were associated with the absence of HCV RNA (i.e., HCV clearance), while DRB1*0301 (PR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2–0.7) was associated with HCV RNA positivity. DQB1*0301 was also associated with the absence of HCV RNA but only among HIV-seronegative women (PR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.2–11.8). Each of these associations was among those predicted. We additionally studied the relation of HLA alleles with HCV infection (serostatus) in women at high risk of HCV from injection drug use (IDU; N=838), but no significant relationships were observed.
HLA genotype influences host capacity to clear HCV viremia. The specific HLA associations observed in the current study are unlikely to be due to chance since they were a priori hypothesized.
human leukocyte antigen; HIV; injection drug user; multiple comparisons; killer immunoglobulin-like receptor
In this review, we describe how normal ageing may involve the acquisition of epigenetic errors over time, akin to the accumulation of genetic mutations with ageing. We describe how such experiments are currently performed, their limitations technically and analytically and their application to ageing research.
Although a combination of genomic and epigenetic alterations are implicated in the multistep transformation of normal squamous esophageal epithelium to Barrett esophagus, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma, the combinatorial effect of these changes is unknown. By integrating genome-wide DNA methylation, copy number, and transcriptomic datasets obtained from endoscopic biopsies of neoplastic progression within the same individual, we are uniquely able to define the molecular events associated progression of Barrett esophagus. We find that the previously reported global hypomethylation phenomenon in cancer has its origins at the earliest stages of epithelial carcinogenesis. Promoter hypomethylation synergizes with gene amplification and leads to significant upregulation of a chr4q21 chemokine cluster and other transcripts during Barrett neoplasia. In contrast, gene-specific hypermethylation is observed at a restricted number of loci and, in combination with hemi-allelic deletions, leads to downregulatation of selected transcripts during multistep progression. We also observe that epigenetic regulation during epithelial carcinogenesis is not restricted to traditionally defined “CpG islands,” but may also occur through a mechanism of differential methylation outside of these regions. Finally, validation of novel upregulated targets (CXCL1 and 3, GATA6, and DMBT1) in a larger independent panel of samples confirms the utility of integrative analysis in cancer biomarker discovery.
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) is increasing at an alarming pace in the United States. Distinct pathological stages of Barrett's metaplasia and low- and high-grade dysplasia can be seen preceding malignant transformation. These precursor lesions provide a unique in vivo model for deepening our understanding the early steps in human neoplasia. By integrating genome-wide DNA methylation, copy number, and transcriptomic datasets obtained from endoscopic biopsies of neoplastic progression within the same individual, we are uniquely able to define the molecular events associated progression of Barrett esophagus. We show that the predominant change during this process is loss of DNA methylation. We show that this global hypomethylation occurs very early during the process and is seen even in preinvasive lesions. This loss of DNA methylation drives carcinogenesis by cooperating with gene amplifications in upregulating proteins during this process. Finally we uncovered proteins that upregulated by loss of methylation or gene amplification (CXCL1 and 3, GATA6, and DMBT1) and show their relevance by validating their levels in larger independent panel of samples, thus confirming the utility of integrative analysis in cancer biomarker discovery.
Preclinical and early phase clinical microbicide studies have not consistently predicted the outcome of efficacy trials. To address this gap, candidate biomarkers of microbicide pharmacodynamics and safety were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir gel, the first microbicide to demonstrate significant protection against HIV acquisition.
30 women were randomized to apply a single daily dose of tenofovir or placebo gel for 14 consecutive days. Anti-HIV activity was measured in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) on Days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 by luciferase assay as a surrogate marker of pharmacodynamics. Endogenous activity against E. coli and HSV-2 and concentrations of immune mediators were quantified in CVL as candidate biomarkers of safety. Tenofovir levels were measured in CVL and blood.
A significant increase in anti-HIV activity was detected in CVL from women who applied tenofovir gel compared to their endogenous anti-HIV activity in genital tract secretions on Day 0 and compared to activity in CVL from women in the placebo group. The activity correlated significantly with CVL concentration of tenofovir (r = 0.6, p<0.001) and fit a sigmoid Emax pharmacodynamic model. Anti-HIV activity in CVL from women who applied tenofovir persisted when virus was introduced in semen, whereas endogenous anti-HIV activity decreased. Tenofovir did not trigger an inflammatory response or induce sustained loss in endogenous antimicrobial activity or immune mediators.
Tenofovir gel had no deleterious impact on soluble mucosal immunity. The increased anti-HIV activity in CVL, which persisted in the presence of semen and correlated with tenofovir concentration, is consistent with the efficacy observed in a recent clinical trial. These results promote quantified CVL anti-HIV activity as a surrogate of tissue pharmacodynamics and as a potential biomarker of adherence to product. This simple, feasible and inexpensive bioassay may promote the development of models more predictive of microbicide efficacy.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) natural history has several characteristics that, at least from a statistical perspective, are not often encountered elsewhere in infectious disease and cancer research. There are, for example, multiple HPV types, and infection by each HPV type may be considered separate events. While concurrent infections are common, the prevalence, incidence, duration/persistence of each individual HPV can be separately measured. However, repeated measures involving the same subject tend to be correlated. The probability of detecting any given HPV type, for example, is greater among individuals who are currently positive for at least one other HPV type. Serial testing for HPV over time represents a second form of repeated measures. Statistical inferences that fail to take these correlations into account would be invalid. However, methods that do not use all the data would be inefficient. Marginal and mixed effects models can address these issues, but are not frequently utilized in HPV research. The current paper provides an overview of these methods, and then uses HPV data from a cohort of HIV-positive women to illustrate how they may be applied, and compare their results. The findings show the greater efficiency of these models compared with standard logistic regression and Cox models. Because mixed effects models estimate subject-specific associations, they sometimes gave much higher effect estimates than marginal models, which estimate population-averaged associations. Overall, the results demonstrate that marginal and mixed effects models are efficient for studying HPV natural history, but also highlight the importance of understanding how these models differ.
statistical methods; cervical neoplasia; human papillomavirus; HPV; HIV; frailty models; mixed effects models; WLW models; frailty models
Perturbations of the intrauterine environment can affect fetal development during critical periods of plasticity, and can increase susceptibility to a number of age-related diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus; T2DM), manifesting as late as decades later. We hypothesized that this biological memory is mediated by permanent alterations of the epigenome in stem cell populations, and focused our studies specifically on DNA methylation in CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from cord blood from neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and control subjects.
Methods and Findings
Our epigenomic assays utilized a two-stage design involving genome-wide discovery followed by quantitative, single-locus validation. We found that changes in cytosine methylation occur in response to IUGR of moderate degree and involving a restricted number of loci. We also identify specific loci that are targeted for dysregulation of DNA methylation, in particular the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4A) gene, a well-known diabetes candidate gene not previously associated with growth restriction in utero, and other loci encoding HNF4A-interacting proteins.
Our results give insights into the potential contribution of epigenomic dysregulation in mediating the long-term consequences of IUGR, and demonstrate the value of this approach to studies of the fetal origin of adult disease.
The incidence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is approximately 50% higher in men than women. In order to understand the molecular basis of this gender disparity, we examined sex specific gene expression patterns in control and diseased, human and murine kidney samples. Using the Affymetrix platform we performed comprehensive gene expression analysis on 42 microdissected human kidney samples (glomeruli and tubules). We identified 67 genes with gender biased expression in healthy human kidneys and 24 transcripts in diseased male and female human kidneys. Similar analysis performed in mice using male and female control and doxorubicin induced nephrotic syndrome kidneys identified significantly larger number of differentially expressed transcripts. The majority of genes showing gender biased expression either in diseased human and murine kidneys were different from those differentially expressed in healthy kidneys. Only 9 sexually dimorphic transcripts were common to healthy human and murine kidneys and five showed differential regulation in both human and murine diseased kidneys. In humans, sex biased genes showed statistical enrichment only to sex chromosomes while in mice they were enriched to sex chromosomes and various autosomes. Thus we present a comprehensive analysis of gender biased genes in the kidney. We show that sexually dimorphic genes in the kidney show species specific regulation. Our results also indicate that male and female kidneys respond differently to injury. These studies could provide the basis for the development of new treatment strategies for men and women with kidney disease.
Cytosines at cytosine-guanine (CG) dinucleotides are the near-exclusive target of DNA methyltransferases in mammalian genomes. Spontaneous deamination of methylcytosine to thymine makes methylated cytosines unusually susceptible to mutation and consequent depletion. The loci where CG dinucleotides remain relatively enriched, presumably due to their unmethylated status during the germ cell cycle, have been referred to as CpG islands. Currently, CpG islands are solely defined by base compositional criteria, allowing annotation of any sequenced genome. Using a novel bioinformatic approach, we show that CG clusters can be identified as an inherent property of genomic sequence without imposing a base compositional a priori assumption. We also show that the CG clusters co-localize in the human genome with hypomethylated loci and annotated transcription start sites to a greater extent than annotations produced by prior CpG island definitions. Moreover, this new approach allows CG clusters to be identified in a species-specific manner, revealing a degree of orthologous conservation that is not revealed by current base compositional approaches. Finally, our approach is able to identify methylating genomes (such as Takifugu rubripes) that lack CG clustering entirely, in which it is inappropriate to annotate CpG islands or CG clusters.
The fetal allograft poses an immunological challenge: how is it protected while immunity to pathogens, particularly those that replicate in the placenta, is maintained? Several theories have been proposed to explain this fetal protection, including a pregnancy-based bias towards a Th2 rather than Th1 cytokine profile in order to avoid generating cytotoxic T cells that could threaten the fetus. Listeria monocytogenes preferentially replicates in the placenta and systemically requires a Th1 response for sterile eradication. In the placenta, the Th1 cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) are also synthesized in response to this pathogen, without fetal loss. Here we show, by using mice homozygous for null mutations in either the cytokine or cytokine receptor genes, a requirement for both TNF-α and IFN-γ signaling for an effective placental immune response to L. monocytogenes. However, T cells were not recruited to the placenta. Genetic studies in which the fetal component of the placenta was genetically different from the mother indicated that both the production of and response to these cytokines were maternal. Despite the requirement for these cytokines, the early recruitment of neutrophils to the placenta was normal. Consequently, the bacterium appeared to be delayed in its colonization of this organ and did not fully gain hold until 72 h postinfection. These data show a requirement for Th1 cytokines during pregnancy for effective immunity and indicate that a bias away from Th1 cytokine synthesis is not a necessary prerequisite of pregnancy.