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1.  CC Chemokine Receptor 5 Genotype and Susceptibility to Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Women 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2003;187(4):569-575.
The human gene for CC chemokine receptor 5, a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), affects susceptibility to infection. Most studies of predominantly male cohorts found that individuals carrying a homozygous deleted form of the gene, Δ32, were protected against transmission, but protection did not extend to Δ32 heterozygotes. The role played by this mutation in HIV-1 transmission to women was studied in 2605 participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. The Δ32 gene frequency was 0.026 for HIV-1–seropositive women and 0.040 for HIV-1–seronegative women, and statistical analyses showed that Δ32 heterozygotes were significantly less likely to be infected (odds ratio, 0.63 [95% confidence interval, 0.44–0.90]). The CCR5 Δ32 heterozygous genotype may confer partial protection against HIV-1 infection in women. Because Δ32 is rare in Africans and Asians, it seems plausible that differential genetic susceptibility, in addition to social and behavioral factors, may contribute to the rapid heterosexual spread of HIV-1 in Africa and Asia.
PMCID: PMC3319124  PMID: 12599073
2.  CCR2 Genotype and Disease Progression in a Treated Population of HIV Type 1–Infected Women 
Both antiretroviral therapy and the human coreceptor polymorphism CCR2-V64I slow progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease. To examine the effect of V64I on disease progression in patients receiving therapy, we determined CCR2 genotypes in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study cohort. We studied 2047 HIV-1–infected women, most of whom initiated treatment during the study. No association was seen between CCR2 genotype and either disease progression or therapeutic response, suggesting that the benefits of treatment most likely overshadow the salutary effects of the V64I polymorphism.
PMCID: PMC3164116  PMID: 15472820
3.  Fatal Case of Deer Tick Virus Encephalitis 
The New England journal of medicine  2009;360(20):2099-2107.
Deer tick virus is related to Powassan virus, a tickborne encephalitis virus. A 62-year-old man presented with a meningoencephalitis syndrome and eventually died. Analyses of tissue samples obtained during surgery and at autopsy revealed a widespread necrotizing meningoencephalitis. Nucleic acid was extracted from formalin-fixed tissue, and the presence of deer tick virus was verified on a flavivirus-specific polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay, followed by sequence confirmation. Immunohistochemical analysis with antisera specific for deer tick virus identified numerous immunoreactive neurons, with prominent involvement of large neurons in the brain stem, cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus, and spinal cord. This case demonstrates that deer tick virus can be a cause of fatal encephalitis.
PMCID: PMC2847876  PMID: 19439744
4.  Detection and Typing of Human Herpesvirus 6 by Molecular Methods in Specimens from Patients Diagnosed with Encephalitis or Meningitis▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;45(12):3972-3978.
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was detected in specimens from patients hospitalized with symptoms of encephalitis or meningitis. A real-time PCR assay was developed which has a linear dynamic range of 5 to 5 × 106 copies of HHV-6 and a sensitivity of five gene copies per reaction. While the assay detects both subtypes, HHV-6A and HHV-6B, it is specific and does not cross-react with a selected specificity panel. A total of 1,482 patient specimens, which were collected between 2003 and 2007, were tested; 26 specimens from 24 patients were found to be positive for HHV-6 by real-time PCR. The HHV-6 detection rate in this population was therefore 1.75%. The majority of the specimens tested (>95%) were cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. We were able to type 20 of the 26 positive specimens by conventional PCR and sequence analysis; all were HHV-6B. Forty-two percent of the patients were 3 years of age or younger, which may indicate a primary infection in these patients. Given the ages of the remaining patients (from 4 to 81 years), their infections were most probably due to virus reactivations. Where information was available, symptoms of patients included fever (71%), altered mental status (67%), and abnormal CSF profile (75%). Fifty percent of patients of 3 years of age or younger suffered from seizures. The detection of HHV-6 in specimens from patients diagnosed with encephalitis or meningitis, in the absence of a positive PCR result for other agents, strongly suggests a role for HHV-6 in the pathogenesis of these central nervous system diseases.
PMCID: PMC2168559  PMID: 17942643
5.  First Isolation of West Nile virus from a Patient with Encephalitis in the United States 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2002;8(12):1367-1371.
West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from a patient who developed encephalitis while undergoing treatment with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydoxorubicin, vincristine [Oncovin], predisone) and rituximab for a non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. Both standard reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Taqman RT-PCR established the diagnosis of WNV infection from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Several whole blood samples and one serum sample underwent further testing. CSF and serum samples were negative for WNV antibody; however, all samples were positive by both RT-PCR assays. Infectious virus was recovered from a blood sample, and its identity was confirmed by using a WNV-specific immunofluorescence assay. The complete WNV genomes determined from CSF and from the virus isolate adapted from cell culture were the same. The results represent the first complete WNV genome sequence obtained directly from human CSF and the first time that infectious WNV has been recovered from a patient with encephalitis in North America.
PMCID: PMC2738499  PMID: 12498649
West Nile virus isolation; RT-PCR; lymphoma; rituximab; chemotherapy; immunodeficiency; CSF

Results 1-5 (5)