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1.  Microbial Translocation and Liver Disease Progression in Women Coinfected With HIV and Hepatitis C Virus 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2013;208(4):679-689.
Background. Microbial translocation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether markers of microbial translocation are associated with liver disease progression during coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).
Methods. We measured serial plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), endotoxin core antibody, intestinal fatty acid–binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) levels over a 5-year period in 44 HIV/HCV-coinfected women, 21 of whom experienced liver disease progression and 23 were nonprogressors.
Results. While LPS levels did not differ significantly over time between progressors and nonprogressors (P = .60), progressors had significantly higher plasma levels of sCD14, a marker of monocyte activation by LPS, at the first time point measured (P = .03) and throughout the study period (P = .001); progressors also had higher IL-6 and I-FABP levels over the 5-year study period (P = .02 and .03, respectively). The associations between progression and sCD14, I-FABP, and IL-6 levels were unchanged in models controlling for HIV RNA and CD4+ T-cell count.
Conclusions. Although LPS levels did not differ between liver disease progressors and nonprogressors, the association of sCD14, I-FABP, and IL-6 levels with liver disease progression suggests that impairment of gut epithelial integrity and consequent microbial translocation may play a role in the complex interaction of HIV and HCV pathogenesis.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jit225
PMCID: PMC3719907  PMID: 23687224
HIV; hepatitis C; microbial translocation; fibrosis; liver disease progression; soluble CD14
2.  Early Immune Senescence in HIV Disease 
Current HIV/AIDS reports  2010;7(1):4-10.
Non-AIDS–defining comorbidities that occur despite viral suppression and immune reconstitution using antiretroviral therapy depict early aging process in HIV-infected individuals. During aging, a reduction in T-cell renewal, together with a progressive enrichment of terminally differentiated T cells, translates into a general decline of the immune system, gradually leading to immunosenescence. Inflammation is a hallmark of age-associated comorbidities, and immune activation is a hallmark of HIV disease. Constant stimulation of the immune system by HIV or due to co-infections activates the innate and adaptive immune system, resulting in release of mediators of inflammation. Immune activation coupled with lack of anti-inflammatory responses likely results in accelerated aging in HIV disease. Dysfunctional thymic output, along with HIV-mediated disruption of the gastrointestinal barrier leading to microbial translocation, contributes to the circulating antigenic load driving early senescence in HIV disease.
doi:10.1007/s11904-009-0038-4
PMCID: PMC3739442  PMID: 20425052
3.  GB Virus C Infection Is Associated with Altered Lymphocyte Subset Distribution and Reduced T Cell Activation and Proliferation in HIV-Infected Individuals 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e50563.
GBV-C infection is associated with prolonged survival and with reduced T cell activation in HIV-infected subjects not receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The relationship between GBV-C and T cell activation in HIV-infected subjects was examined. HIV-infected subjects on cART with non-detectable HIV viral load (VL) or cART naïve subjects were studied. GBV-C VL and HIV VL were determined. Cell surface markers of activation (CD38+/HLA-DR+), proliferation (Ki-67+), and HIV entry co-receptor expression (CCR5+ and CXCR4+) on total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and on naïve, central memory (CM), effector memory (EM), and effector CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry. In subjects with suppressed HIV VL, GBV-C was consistently associated with reduced activation in naïve, CM, EM, and effector CD4+ cells. GBV-C was associated with reduced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell surface expression of activation and proliferation markers, independent of HIV VL classification. GBV-C was also associated with higher proportions of naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and with lower proportions of EM CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In conclusion, GBV-C infection was associated with reduced activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in both HIV viremic and HIV RNA suppressed patients. Those with GBV-C infection demonstrated an increased proportion of naive T cells and a reduction in T cell activation and proliferation independent of HIV VL classification, including those with suppressed HIV VL on cART. Since HIV pathogenesis is thought to be accelerated by T cell activation, these results may contribute to prolonged survival among HIV infected individuals co-infected with GBV-C. Furthermore, since cART therapy does not reduce T cell activation to levels seen in HIV-uninfected people, GBV-C infection may be beneficial for HIV-related diseases in those effectively treated with anti-HIV therapy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050563
PMCID: PMC3510065  PMID: 23209780
4.  The effect of HIV infection and HAART on inflammatory biomarkers in a population-based cohort of US women 
AIDS (London, England)  2011;25(15):1823-1832.
Objective
HIV causes inflammation that can be at least partially corrected by HAART. To determine the qualitative and quantitative nature of cytokine perturbation, we compared cytokine patterns in three HIV clinical groups including HAART responders (HAART), untreated HIV non-controllers (NC), and HIV-uninfected (NEG).
Methods
Multiplex assays were used to measure 32 cytokines in a cross-sectional study of participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Participants from 3 groups were included: HAART (n=17), NC (n=14), and HIV NEG (n=17).
Results
Several cytokines and chemokines showed significant differences between NC and NEG participants, including elevated IP-10 and TNF-α and decreased IL-12(p40), IL-15, and FGF-2 in NC participants. Biomarker levels among HAART women more closely resembled the NEG, with the exception of TNF-α and FGF-2. Secondary analyses of the combined HAART and NC groups revealed that IP-10 showed a strong, positive correlation with viral load and negative correlation with CD4+ T cell counts. The growth factors VEGF, EGF, and FGF-2 all showed a positive correlation with increased CD4+ T cell counts.
Conclusion
Untreated, progressive HIV infection was associated with decreased serum levels of cytokines important in T cell homeostasis (IL-15) and T cell phenotype determination (IL-12), and increased levels of innate inflammatory mediators such as IP-10 and TNF-α. HAART was associated with cytokine profiles that more closely resembled those of HIV uninfected women. The distinctive pattern of cytokine levels in the 3 study groups may provide insights into HIV pathogenesis, and responses to therapy.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283489d1f
PMCID: PMC3314300  PMID: 21572306
HIV; CD4+ T cells; cytokines; chemokines; HAART
6.  Chloroquine Modulates HIV-1-Induced Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Alpha Interferon: Implication for T-Cell Activation▿  
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) contribute to antiviral immunity mainly through recognition of microbial products and viruses via intracellular Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) or TLR9, resulting in the production of type I interferons (IFNs). Although interferons reduce the viral burden in the acute phase of infection, their role in the chronic phase is unclear. The presence of elevated plasma IFN-α levels in advanced HIV disease and its association with microbial translocation in chronic HIV infection lead us to hypothesize that IFN-α could contribute to immune activation. Blocking of IFN-α production using chloroquine, an endosomal inhibitor, was tested in a novel in vitro model system with the aim of characterizing the effects of chloroquine on HIV-1-mediated TLR signaling, IFN-α production, and T-cell activation. Our results indicate that chloroquine blocks TLR-mediated activation of pDC and MyD88 signaling, as shown by decreases in the levels of the downstream signaling molecules IRAK-4 and IRF-7 and by inhibition of IFN-α synthesis. Chloroquine decreased CD8 T-cell activation induced by aldrithiol-2-treated HIV-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. In addition to blocking pDC activation, chloroquine also blocked negative modulators of the T-cell response, such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and programmed death ligand 1 (PDL-1). Our results indicate that TLR stimulation and production of IFN-α by pDC contribute to immune activation and that blocking of these pathways using chloroquine may interfere with events contributing to HIV pathogenesis. Our results suggests that a safe, well-tolerated drug such as chloroquine can be proposed as an adjuvant therapeutic candidate along with highly active antiretroviral therapy to control immune activation in HIV-1 infection.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01246-09
PMCID: PMC2812138  PMID: 19949061

Results 1-6 (6)