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1.  Mixed-Effects Shape Models for Estimating Longitudinal Changes in Anatomy 
In this paper, we propose a new method for longitudinal shape analysis that fits a linear mixed-effects model, while simultaneously optimizing correspondences on a set of anatomical shapes. Shape changes are modeled in a hierarchical fashion, with the global population trend as a fixed effect and individual trends as random effects. The statistical significance of the estimated trends are evaluated using specifically designed permutation tests. We also develop a permutation test based on the Hotelling T2 statistic to compare the average shapes trends between two populations. We demonstrate the benefits of our method on a synthetic example of longitudinal tori and data from a developmental neuroimaging study.
PMCID: PMC4262964  PMID: 25506622
2.  Subject–Motion Correction in HARDI Acquisitions: Choices and Consequences 
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is known to be prone to artifacts related to motion originating from subject movement, cardiac pulsation, and breathing, but also to mechanical issues such as table vibrations. Given the necessity for rigorous quality control and motion correction, users are often left to use simple heuristics to select correction schemes, which involves simple qualitative viewing of the set of DWI data, or the selection of transformation parameter thresholds for detection of motion outliers. The scientific community offers strong theoretical and experimental work on noise reduction and orientation distribution function (ODF) reconstruction techniques for HARDI data, where post-acquisition motion correction is widely performed, e.g., using the open-source DTIprep software (1), FSL (the FMRIB Software Library) (2), or TORTOISE (3). Nonetheless, effects and consequences of the selection of motion correction schemes on the final analysis, and the eventual risk of introducing confounding factors when comparing populations, are much less known and far beyond simple intuitive guessing. Hence, standard users lack clear guidelines and recommendations in practical settings. This paper reports a comprehensive evaluation framework to systematically assess the outcome of different motion correction choices commonly used by the scientific community on different DWI-derived measures. We make use of human brain HARDI data from a well-controlled motion experiment to simulate various degrees of motion corruption and noise contamination. Choices for correction include exclusion/scrubbing or registration of motion corrupted directions with different choices of interpolation, as well as the option of interpolation of all directions. The comparative evaluation is based on a study of the impact of motion correction using four metrics that quantify (1) similarity of fiber orientation distribution functions (fODFs), (2) deviation of local fiber orientations, (3) global brain connectivity via graph diffusion distance (GDD), and (4) the reproducibility of prominent and anatomically defined fiber tracts. Effects of various motion correction choices are systematically explored and illustrated, leading to a general conclusion of discouraging users from setting ad hoc thresholds on the estimated motion parameters beyond which volumes are claimed to be corrupted.
PMCID: PMC4260507  PMID: 25538672
HARDI; subject motion; motion correction; fiber orientations; orientation distribution functions; tractography comparison; impact quantification
3.  Diffusion imaging quality control via entropy of principal direction distribution 
NeuroImage  2013;82:1-12.
Diffusion MR imaging has received increasing attention in the neuroimaging community, as it yields new insights into the microstructural organization of white matter that are not available with conventional MRI techniques. While the technology has enormous potential, diffusion MRI suffers from a unique and complex set of image quality problems, limiting the sensitivity of studies and reducing the accuracy of findings. Furthermore, the acquisition time for diffusion MRI is longer than conventional MRI due to the need for multiple acquisitions to obtain directionally encoded Diffusion Weighted Images (DWI). This leads to increased motion artifacts, reduced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and increased proneness to a wide variety of artifacts, including eddy-current and motion artifacts, “venetian blind” artifacts, as well as slice-wise and gradient-wise inconsistencies. Such artifacts mandate stringent Quality Control (QC) schemes in the processing of diffusion MRI data. Most existing QC procedures are conducted in the DWI domain and/or on a voxel level, but our own experiments show that these methods often do not fully detect and eliminate certain types of artifacts, often only visible when investigating groups of DWI's or a derived diffusion model, such as the most-employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Here, we propose a novel regional QC measure in the DTI domain that employs the entropy of the regional distribution of the principal directions (PD). The PD entropy quantifies the scattering and spread of the principal diffusion directions and is invariant to the patient's position in the scanner. High entropy value indicates that the PDs are distributed relatively uniformly, while low entropy value indicates the presence of clusters in the PD distribution. The novel QC measure is intended to complement the existing set of QC procedures by detecting and correcting residual artifacts. Such residual artifacts cause directional bias in the measured PD and here called dominant direction artifacts. Experiments show that our automatic method can reliably detect and potentially correct such artifacts, especially the ones caused by the vibrations of the scanner table during the scan. The results further indicate the usefulness of this method for general quality assessment in DTI studies.
PMCID: PMC3798052  PMID: 23684874
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging; Diffusion tensor imaging; Quality assessment; Entropy
Medical imaging studies increasingly use longitudinal images of individual subjects in order to follow-up changes due to development, degeneration, disease progression or efficacy of therapeutic intervention. Repeated image data of individuals are highly correlated, and the strong causality of information over time lead to the development of procedures for joint segmentation of the series of scans, called 4D segmentation. A main aim was improved consistency of quantitative analysis, most often solved via patient-specific atlases. Challenging open problems are contrast changes and occurance of subclasses within tissue as observed in multimodal MRI of infant development, neurodegeneration and disease. This paper proposes a new 4D segmentation framework that enforces continuous dynamic changes of tissue contrast patterns over time as observed in such data. Moreover, our model includes the capability to segment different contrast patterns within a specific tissue class, for example as seen in myelinated and unmyelinated white matter regions in early brain development. Proof of concept is shown with validation on synthetic image data and with 4D segmentation of longitudinal, multimodal pediatric MRI taken at 6, 12 and 24 months of age, but the methodology is generic w.r.t. different application domains using serial imaging.
PMCID: PMC4209703  PMID: 25356196
Post-acquisition motion correction is widely performed in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to guarantee voxel-wise correspondence between DWIs. Whereas this is primarily motivated to save as many scans as possible if corrupted by motion, users do not fully understand the consequences of different types of interpolation schemes on the final analysis. Nonetheless, interpolation might increase the partial volume effect while not preserving the volume of the diffusion profile, whereas excluding poor DWIs may affect the ability to resolve crossing fibers especially with small separation angles. In this paper, we investigate the effect of interpolating diffusion measurements as well as the elimination of bad directions on the reconstructed fiber orientation diffusion functions and on the estimated fiber orientations. We demonstrate such an effect on synthetic and real HARDI datasets. Our experiments demonstrate that the effect of interpolation is more significant with small fibers separation angles where the exclusion of motion-corrupted directions decreases the ability to resolve such crossing fibers.
PMCID: PMC4209744  PMID: 25356195
Diffusion MRI; HARDI; motion correction; interpolation
6.  Characterizing growth patterns in longitudinal MRI using image contrast 
Proceedings of SPIE  2014;9034:90340D-.
Understanding the growth patterns of the early brain is crucial to the study of neuro-development. In the early stages of brain growth, a rapid sequence of biophysical and chemical processes take place. A crucial component of these processes, known as myelination, consists of the formation of a myelin sheath around a nerve fiber, enabling the effective transmission of neural impulses. As the brain undergoes myelination, there is a subsequent change in the contrast between gray matter and white matter as observed in MR scans. In this work, gray-white matter contrast is proposed as an effective measure of appearance which is relatively invariant to location, scanner type, and scanning conditions. To validate this, contrast is computed over various cortical regions for an adult human phantom. MR (Magnetic Resonance) images of the phantom were repeatedly generated using different scanners, and at different locations. Contrast displays less variability over changing conditions of scan compared to intensity-based measures, demonstrating that it is less dependent than intensity on external factors. Additionally, contrast is used to analyze longitudinal MR scans of the early brain, belonging to healthy controls and Down’s Syndrome (DS) patients. Kernel regression is used to model subject-specific trajectories of contrast changing with time. Trajectories of contrast changing with time, as well as time-based biomarkers extracted from contrast modeling, show large differences between groups. The preliminary applications of contrast based analysis indicate its future potential to reveal new information not covered by conventional volumetric or deformation-based analysis, particularly for distinguishing between normal and abnormal growth patterns.
PMCID: PMC4193386  PMID: 25309699
Contrast; Early brain development; Structural MRI; Reliability; Contrast Change Trajectories; Time-based biomarkers
7.  The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire: Prevalence and Diagnostic Classification 
The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al, 2007) was administered to a large community-based sample of biological parents of children with autism (PCAs) and comparison parents (CPs) (n = 1692). Exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency parameters confirmed a robust three factor structure of the BAPQ, corresponding to the proposed aloof, pragmatic language and rigidity subscales. Based upon the distribution of BAP features in the general population, new normative cutoff values for BAPQ subscales were established that provide increased specificity relative to those previously reported (Hurley et al, 2007), and thus enhance the utility of the BAPQ for diagnostically classifying the BAP. These cutoffs were also used to estimate prevalence of the BAP and its three components, with rates ranging between 14 – 23% for PCAs and between 5 – 9% for CPs. Analysis of patterns of BAP characteristics within family members revealed that BAP features were more likely to co-occur in PCAs relative to CPs. Collectively, these findings extend the utility of the BAPQ and provide additional evidence that it is an efficient and reliable tool for disaggregating the heterogeneity of autism through the identification of meaningful subgroups of parents.
PMCID: PMC3661685  PMID: 23427091
Autism; Broad Autism Phenotype; Assessment; Prevalence; Genetics
8.  Frontolimbic Neural Circuitry at 6 Months Predicts Individual Differences in Joint Attention at 9 Months 
Developmental science  2012;16(2):186-197.
Elucidating the neural basis of joint attention in infancy promises to yield important insights into the development of language and social cognition, and directly informs developmental models of autism. We describe a new method for evaluating responding to joint attention performance in infancy that highlights the 9 to 10 month period as a time interval of maximal individual differences. We then demonstrate that fractional anisotropy in the right uncinate fasciculus, a white matter fiber bundle connecting the amygdala to the ventral-medial prefrontal cortex and anterior temporal pole, measured in 6 month-olds predicts individual differences in responding to joint attention at 9 months of age. The white matter microstructure of the right uncinate was not related to receptive language ability at 9 months. These findings suggest that the development of core nonverbal social communication skills in infancy is largely supported by preceding developments within right lateralized frontotemporal brain systems.
PMCID: PMC3582040  PMID: 23432829
joint attention; DTI; amygdala; uncinate fasciculus; infancy; development
9.  Adaptive prior probability and spatial temporal intensity change estimation for segmentation of the one-year-old human brain 
Journal of neuroscience methods  2012;212(1):43-55.
The degree of white matter (WM) myelination is rather inhomogeneous across the brain. White matter appears differently across the cortical lobes in MR images acquired during early postnatal development. Specifically at 1-year of age, the gray/white matter contrast of MR T1 and T2 weighted images in prefrontal and temporal lobes is reduced as compared to the rest of the brain, and thus, tissue segmentation results commonly show lower accuracy in these lobes. In this novel work, we propose the use of spatial intensity growth maps (IGM) for T1 and T2 weighted images to compensate for local appearance inhomogeneity. The IGM captures expected intensity changes from 1 to 2 years of age, as appearance homogeneity is greatly improved by the age of 24 months. The IGM was computed as the coefficient of a voxel-wise linear regression model between corresponding intensities at 1 and 2 years. The proposed IGM method revealed low regression values of 1–10% in GM and CSF regions, as well as in WM regions at maturation stage of myelination at 1 year. However, in the prefrontal and temporal lobes we observed regression values of 20–25%, indicating that the IGM appropriately captures the expected large intensity change in these lobes mainly due to myelination. The IGM is applied to cross-sectional MRI datasets of 1-year-old subjects via registration, correction and tissue segmentation of the IGM-corrected dataset. We validated our approach in a small leave-one-out study of images with known, manual ‘ground truth’ segmentations.
PMCID: PMC3513941  PMID: 23032117
Myelination; Expectation Maximization algorithm; Tissue segmentation; Intensity growth map; and Partial volume estimation
Longitudinal MR imaging during early brain development provides important information about growth patterns and the development of neurological disorders. We propose a new framework for studying brain growth patterns within and across populations based on MRI contrast changes, measured at each time point of interest and at each voxel. Our method uses regression in the LogOdds space and an information-theoretic measure of distance between distributions to capture contrast in a manner that is robust to imaging parameters and without requiring intensity normalization. We apply our method to a clinical neuroimaging study on early brain development in autism, where we obtain a 4D spatiotemporal model of contrast changes in multimodal structural MRI.
PMCID: PMC3892761  PMID: 24443698
Contrast; longitudinal MRI; regression; Kullback-Leibler
11.  Perception of Affect in Biological Motion Cues in Anorexia Nervosa 
Nonverbal motion cues (a clenched fist) convey essential information about the intentions of the actor. Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have demonstrated impairment in deciphering intention from facial affective cues but it is unknown whether such deficits extend to deciphering affect from body motion cues.
We examined the capacities of adults with AN (AN; n=21) or those weight restored for >= 12 months (WR; n=20) to perceive affect in biological motion cues relative to healthy controls (HC; n=23).
Overall, individuals with AN evidenced greater deficit in discriminating affect from biological motion cues than WR or HC. Follow-up analyses showed that individuals with AN differed especially across two of the five conditions—deviating most from normative data when discriminating sadness and more consistently discriminating anger relative to WR or HC.
Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to some puzzling interpersonal features of AN.
PMCID: PMC3657604  PMID: 23109257
anorexia nervosa; eating disorders; social cognition; social perception; motion perception
12.  Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders reviewer acknowledgement 2013 
Contributing reviewers
We thank all of our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in volume 5 (2013). High quality and timely reviews are critical to the overall quality of the journal. We are committed to providing a unique and important outlet for scholarship regarding neurodevelopmental disorders and are indebted to the outstanding reviewers who have contributed their time over the last year in helping us to reach this goal.
PMCID: PMC3904702  PMID: 24472142
13.  Testing for association of the monoamine oxidase A promoter polymorphism with brain structure volumes in both autism and the fragile X syndrome 
Autism and the fragile X syndrome (FXS) are related to each other genetically and symptomatically. A cardinal biological feature of both disorders is abnormalities of cerebral cortical brain volumes. We have previously shown that the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) promoter polymorphism is associated with cerebral cortical volumes in children with autism, and we now sought to determine whether the association was also present in children with FXS.
Participants included 47 2-year-old Caucasian boys with FXS, some of whom also had autism, as well as 34 2-year-old boys with idiopathic autism analyzed in a previous study. The MAOA promoter polymorphism was genotyped and tested for relationships with gray and white matter volumes of the cerebral cortical lobes and cerebro-spinal fluid volume of the lateral ventricles.
MAOA genotype effects in FXS children were the same as those previously observed in idiopathic autism: the low activity MAOA promoter polymorphism allele was associated with increased gray and white matter volumes in all cerebral lobes. The effect was most pronounced in frontal lobe gray matter and all three white matter regions: frontal gray, F = 4.39, P = 0.04; frontal white, F = 5.71, P = 0.02; temporal white, F = 4.73, P = 0.04; parieto-occipital white, F = 5.00, P = 0.03. Analysis of combined FXS and idiopathic autism samples produced P values for these regions <0.01 and effect sizes of approximately 0.10.
The MAOA promoter polymorphism is similarly associated with brain structure volumes in both idiopathic autism and FXS. These data illuminate a number of important aspects of autism and FXS heritability: a genetic effect on a core biological trait of illness, the specificity/generalizability of the genetic effect, and the utility of examining individual genetic effects on the background of a single gene disorder such as FXS.
PMCID: PMC3987046  PMID: 24669826
Autism; Fragile X syndrome; Brain structure; Monoamine oxidase A; Polymorphism
14.  A framework for longitudinal data analysis via shape regression 
Proceedings of SPIE  2012;8314:10.1117/12.911721.
Traditional longitudinal analysis begins by extracting desired clinical measurements, such as volume or head circumference, from discrete imaging data. Typically, the continuous evolution of a scalar measurement is estimated by choosing a 1D regression model, such as kernel regression or fitting a polynomial of fixed degree. This type of analysis not only leads to separate models for each measurement, but there is no clear anatomical or biological interpretation to aid in the selection of the appropriate paradigm. In this paper, we propose a consistent framework for the analysis of longitudinal data by estimating the continuous evolution of shape over time as twice differentiable flows of deformations. In contrast to 1D regression models, one model is chosen to realistically capture the growth of anatomical structures. From the continuous evolution of shape, we can simply extract any clinical measurements of interest. We demonstrate on real anatomical surfaces that volume extracted from a continuous shape evolution is consistent with a 1D regression performed on the discrete measurements. We further show how the visualization of shape progression can aid in the search for significant measurements. Finally, we present an example on a shape complex of the brain (left hemisphere, right hemisphere, cerebellum) that demonstrates a potential clinical application for our framework.
PMCID: PMC3877317  PMID: 24392201
15.  White Matter Microstructure and Atypical Visual Orienting in 7-Month-Olds at Risk for Autism 
The American journal of psychiatry  2013;170(8):10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12091150.
The authors sought to determine whether specific patterns of oculomotor functioning and visual orienting characterize 7-month-old infants who later meet criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to identify the neural correlates of these behaviors.
Data were collected from 97 infants, of whom 16 were high-familial-risk infants later classified as having an ASD, 40 were high-familial-risk infants who did not later meet ASD criteria (high-risk negative), and 41 were low-risk infants. All infants underwent an eye-tracking task at a mean age of 7 months and a clinical assessment at a mean age of 25 months. Diffusion-weighted imaging data were acquired for 84 of the infants at 7 months. Primary outcome measures included average saccadic reaction time in a visually guided saccade procedure and radial diffusivity (an index of white matter organization) in fiber tracts that included corticospinal pathways and the splenium and genu of the corpus callosum.
Visual orienting latencies were longer in 7-month-old infants who expressed ASD symptoms at 25 months compared with both high-risk negative infants and low-risk infants. Visual orienting latencies were uniquely associated with the microstructural organization of the splenium of the corpus callosum in low-risk infants, but this association was not apparent in infants later classified as having an ASD.
Flexibly and efficiently orienting to salient information in the environment is critical for subsequent cognitive and social-cognitive development. Atypical visual orienting may represent an early prodromal feature of an ASD, and abnormal functional specialization of posterior cortical circuits directly informs a novel model of ASD pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3863364  PMID: 23511344
16.  Evidence of a Distinct Behavioral Phenotype in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Autism 
How does the behavioral expression of autism in fragile X syndrome (FXS+Aut) compare to idiopathic autism (iAut)? While social impairments and restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are common to both variants of autism, closer examination of these symptom domains may reveal meaningful similarities and differences. To this end, we profiled the specific behaviors comprising the social and repetitive behavioral domains in young children with FXS+Aut and iAut.
Twenty-three males ages 3–5 years with FXS + Aut were age-matched with a group of 38 boys with iAut. Repetitive behavior was assessed using the RBS-R. Social behavior was evaluated using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) social item severity scores.
Rates of stereotypy, self-injury, and sameness behaviors did not differ between groups, whereas compulsive and ritual behavior scores were significantly lower for individuals with FXS + Aut compared to iAut. Those with FXS + Aut scored significantly lower (less severe) than the iAut group on five ADOS measures of social behavior: Gaze Integration, Quality of Social Overtures, Social Smile, Facial Expressions, and Response to Joint Attention.
The behavioral phenotype of FXS + Aut and iAut are most similar with respect to lower-order (motoric) RRBs and social approach, but differ in more complex forms of RRB and some social response behaviors. These findings highlight the phenotypic heterogeneity of autism overall and its unique presentation in an etiologically distinct condition.
PMCID: PMC3513689  PMID: 23200289
fragile X syndrome; autism; repetitive behavior; behavioral phenotype
17.  Trajectories of Early Brain Volume Development in Fragile X and Autism RH: Trajectory of Brain Volume in Fragile X 
To examine patterns of early brain growth in young children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) compared to a comparison group (controls) and a group with idiopathic autism.
The study included 53 boys between 18–42 months of age with FXS, 68 boys with idiopathic autism (ASD), and a comparison group of 50 typically-developing and developmentally-delayed controls. We examined structural brain volumes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) across two timepoints between ages 2–3 and 4–5 years and examined total brain volumes and regional (lobar) tissue volumes. Additionally, we studied a selected group of subcortical structures implicated in the behavioral features of FXS (e.g., basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala).
Children with FXS had greater global brain volumes compared to controls, but were not different than children with idiopathic autism, and the rate of brain growth between ages 2 and 5 paralleled that seen in controls. In contrast to the children with idiopathic autism who had generalized cortical lobe enlargement, the children with FXS showed a specific enlargement in temporal lobe white matter, cerebellar gray matter, and caudate nucleus, but significantly smaller amygdala.
This structural longitudinal MRI study of preschoolers with FXS observed generalized brain overgrowth in FXS compared to controls, evident at age 2 and maintained across ages 4–5. We also find different patterns of brain growth that distinguishes boys with FXS from children with idiopathic autism.
PMCID: PMC3428739  PMID: 22917205
fragile X syndrome; autism; children; brain MRI; brain volume
18.  Defining Genetically Meaningful Language and Personality Traits in Relatives of Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome and Relatives of Individuals with Autism 
Substantial phenotypic overlap exists between fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism, suggesting that FMR1 (the gene causing FXS) poses a significant risk for autism. Cross-population comparisons of FXS and autism therefore offer a potentially valuable method for refining the range of phenotypes associated with variation in FMR1. This study adopted a broader phenotype approach, focusing on parents who are at increased genetic liability for autism or FXS. Women who were carriers of FMR1 in its premutation state were compared with mothers of individuals with autism, and controls in an attempt to determine whether subtle features of the broad autism phenotype may express at elevated rates among FMR1 premutation carriers.
The principal personality and language features comprising the broad autism phenotype (i.e., rigid and aloof personality, and particular patterns of pragmatic language use) were assessed among 49 premutation carriers who were mothers of individuals with FXS, 89 mothers of individuals with autism, and 23 mothers of typically developing individuals.
Relative to controls, the autism and premutation parent groups showed elevated rates of certain personality and language characteristics which have been described as constituting the broad autism phenotype.
Findings suggest partially overlapping personality and language profiles among autism and premutation parent groups, with rigid personality style and patterns of pragmatic language use emerging as features most clearly shared between groups. These results provide further evidence for the overlap of autism and FXS, and may implicate FMR1 in some of the subtle features comprising the broad autism phenotype.
PMCID: PMC3740587  PMID: 22693142
Autism; fragile X syndrome; fragile X premutation; FMR1; language; broad autism phenotype
19.  Analysis of Longitudinal Shape Variability via Subject Specific Growth Modeling 
Statistical analysis of longitudinal imaging data is crucial for understanding normal anatomical development as well as disease progression. This fundamental task is challenging due to the difficulty in modeling longitudinal changes, such as growth, and comparing changes across different populations. We propose a new approach for analyzing shape variability over time, and for quantifying spatiotemporal population differences. Our approach estimates 4D anatomical growth models for a reference population (an average model) and for individuals in different groups. We define a reference 4D space for our analysis as the average population model and measure shape variability through diffeomorphisms that map the reference to the individuals. Conducting our analysis on this 4D space enables straightforward statistical analysis of deformations as they are parameterized by momenta vectors that are located at homologous locations in space and time. We evaluate our method on a synthetic shape database and clinical data from a study that seeks to quantify brain growth differences in infants at risk for autism.
PMCID: PMC3744241  PMID: 23285617
20.  Brain Volume Findings in Six Month Old Infants at High Familial Risk for Autism 
The American journal of psychiatry  2012;169(6):601-608.
Brain enlargement has been observed in individuals with autism as early as two years of age. Studies using head circumference suggest that brain enlargement is a postnatal event that occurs around the latter part of the first year. To date, no brain imaging studies have systematically examined the period prior to age two. In this study we examine MRI brain volume in six month olds at high familial risk for autism.
The Infant Brain Imaging Study (IBIS) is a longitudinal imaging study of infants at high risk for autism. This cross-sectional analysis examines brain volumes at six months of age, in high risk infants (N=98) in comparison to infants without family members with autism (low risk) (N=36). MRI scans are also examined for radiologic abnormalities.
No group differences were observed for intracranial cerebrum, cerebellum, lateral ventricle volumes, or head circumference.
We did not observe significant group differences for head circumference, brain volume, or abnormalities of radiologic findings in a sample of 6 month old infants at high-risk for autism. We are unable to conclude that these changes are not present in infants who later go on to receive a diagnosis of autism, but rather that they were not detected in a large group at high familial risk. Future longitudinal studies of the IBIS sample will examine whether brain volume may differ in those infants who go onto develop autism, estimating that approximately 20% of this sample may be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder at age two.
PMCID: PMC3744332  PMID: 22684595
autism; child psychiatry
Quantitative analysis of early brain development through imaging is critical for identifying pathological development, which may in turn affect treatment procedures. We propose a framework for analyzing spatiotemporal patterns of brain maturation by quantifying intensity changes in longitudinal MR images. We use a measure of divergence between a pair of intensity distributions to study the changes that occur within specific regions, as well as between a pair of anatomical regions, over time. The change within a specific region is measured as the contrast between white matter and gray matter tissue belonging to that region. The change between a pair of regions is measured as the divergence between regional image appearances, summed over all tissue classes. We use kernel regression to integrate the temporal information across different subjects in a consistent manner. We applied our method on multimodal MRI data with T1-weighted (T1W) and T2-weighted (T2W) scans of each subject at the approximate ages of 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months. The results demonstrate that brain maturation begins at posterior regions and that frontal regions develop later, which matches previously published histological, qualitative and morphometric studies. Our multimodal analysis also confirms that T1W and T2W modalities capture different properties of the maturation process, a phenomena referred to as T2 time lag compared to T1. The proposed method has potential for analyzing regional growth patterns across different populations and for isolating specific critical maturation phases in different MR modalities.
PMCID: PMC3744339  PMID: 23958630
Early brain development; structural MRI; longitudinal analysis; distribution statistics; MR contrast analysis
22.  Evidence for three subtypes of repetitive behavior in autism that differ in familiality and association with other symptoms 
Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism and consist of a variety of behaviors, ranging from motor stereotypies to complex circumscribed interests. The objective of the current study was to examine the structure of RRBs in autism using relevant items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in a sample of 316 individuals with autistic disorder.
Using exploratory factor analysis, three distinct factors were identified: Repetitive Motor Behaviors (RMB), Insistence on Sameness (IS), and Circumscribed Interests (CI). RMB were found to be associated with a variety of subject characteristics such as IQ, age, social/communication impairments, and the presence of regression. IS was associated with social and communication impairments whereas CI appeared to be independent of subject characteristics, suggesting CI may be particularly useful in subsetting samples. Based on sib-pair correlations, IS and CI (but not RMB) appear to be familial. Analysis of the data at the case level suggests that the presence of multiple forms of RRB in an individual is associated with more impairment in the social and communication domains, suggesting a more severe presentation of autistic disorder.
There appears to be considerable structure within repetitive behavior in autism. The finding that these behaviors are differentially related to subject characteristics and familiality adds to their validity.
PMCID: PMC3709850  PMID: 19017031
Autism; repetitive behavior; factor analysis; Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised
23.  Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders reviewer acknowledgement 2012 
Contributing reviewers
The editors of Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders would like to thank all of our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in volume 4 (2012). High quality and timely reviews are critical to the overall quality of the journal. We are committed to providing a unique and important outlet for scholarship regarding neurodevelopmental disorders and are indebted to the outstanding reviewers who have contributed their time over the last year in helping us to reach this goal.
PMCID: PMC3605391  PMID: 23517765
24.  Autism and the broad autism phenotype: familial patterns and intergenerational transmission 
Features of the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) are disproportionately prevalent in parents of a child with autism, highlighting familial patterns indicative of heritability. It is unclear, however, whether the presence of BAP features in both parents confers an increased liability for autism. The current study explores whether the presence of BAP features in two biological parents occurs more frequently in parents of a child with autism relative to comparison parents, whether parental pairs of a child with autism more commonly consist of one or two parents with BAP features, and whether these features are associated with severity of autism behaviors in probands.
Seven hundred eleven parents of a child with an autism spectrum disorder and 981 comparison parents completed the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire. Parents of a child with autism also completed the Social Communication Questionnaire.
Although parental pairs of a child with autism were more likely than comparison parental pairs to have both parents characterized by the presence of the BAP, they more commonly consisted of a single parent with BAP features. The presence of the BAP in parents was associated with the severity of autism behaviors in probands, with the lowest severity occurring for children of parental pairs in which neither parent exhibited a BAP feature. Severity did not differ between children of two affected parents and those of just one.
Collectively, these findings indicate that parental pairs of children with autism frequently consist of a single parent with BAP characteristics and suggest that future studies searching for implicated genes may benefit from a more narrow focus that identifies the transmitting parent. The evidence of intergenerational transmission reported here also provides further confirmation of the high heritability of autism that is unaccounted for by the contribution of de novo mutations currently emphasized in the field of autism genetics.
PMCID: PMC3651284  PMID: 23639131
Autism; Broad autism phenotype; Endophenotype; Assessment; Genetics; Personality
25.  Repetitive and self-injurious behaviors: associations with caudate volume in autism and fragile X syndrome 
Following from previous work suggesting that neurobehavioral features distinguish fragile X and idiopathic variants of autism, we investigated the relationships between four forms of repetitive behavior (stereotypy, self-injury, compulsivity, ritual behavior) and caudate nuclei volume in two groups: boys with fragile X syndrome, a subset of whom met criteria for autism, and a comparison group of boys with idiopathic autism.
Bilateral caudate nuclei volumes were measured in boys aged 3 to 6 years with fragile X syndrome (n = 41), the subset of boys with fragile X syndrome and autism (n = 16), and boys with idiopathic autism (n = 30). Repetitive behaviors were measured using the Repetitive Behavior Scales-Revised.
For boys with idiopathic autism, left caudate volume was modestly associated with self-injury, while both compulsive and ritual behaviors showed significant positive correlations with bilateral caudate nuclei volumes, replicating previous results. For boys with fragile X syndrome, there was no such association between caudate volume and compulsive behaviors. However, we did identify significant positive correlations between self-injury total scores and number of self-injury topographies with bilateral caudate nuclei volumes.
These findings suggest a specific role for the caudate nucleus in the early pathogenesis of self-injurious behavior associated with both idiopathic autism and fragile X syndrome. Results further indicate that the caudate may be differentially associated with compulsive behavior, highlighting the utility of isolating discrete brain-behavior associations within and between subtypes of autism spectrum disorder.
PMCID: PMC3651404  PMID: 23639144
Autism; Caudate; Fragile X syndrome; Repetitive behavior; Self-injurious behavior

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