The purpose of the present study was to re-examine diagnostic data from a state-wide autism prevalence study (n = 489) conducted in the 1980s to investigate the impact of broader diagnostic criteria on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case status. Sixty-four (59 %) of the 108 originally “Diagnosed Not Autistic” met the current ASD case definition. The average IQ estimate in the newly identified group (IQ = 35.58; SD = 23.01) was significantly lower than in the original group (IQ = 56.19 SD = 21.21; t = 5.75; p < .0001). Today’s diagnostic criteria applied to participants ascertained in the 1980s identified more cases of autism with intellectual disability. The current analysis puts this historic work into context and highlights differences in ascertainment between epidemiological studies performed decades ago and those of today.
Autism; Epidemiology; Prevalence; Diagnostic criteria; Intellectual disability
Diminished social motivation constitutes one of the core impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and is thought to have a strong impact on the way individuals with autism respond to the presence of others. In this study, we hypothesized that experimental contexts involving direct interaction with an experimenter might elicit different reactions in ASD and thus act as a potential confound in the interpretation of group differences during social cognitive tests. Following classic work in social psychology on the ‘audience effect’ –wherein individuals act differently when they are being watched in a more or less conscious attempt to enhance their reputation in the eyes of others, we reasoned that social contexts are indeed likely to produce an increase in performance in typically developing (TD) individuals but that children with ASD would be less susceptible to such audience effects. More specifically, we were interested in testing the idea that susceptibility to the audience effect might explain part of the performance gap between children with and without autism in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks, which are typically administered by a human experimenter. We tested this hypothesis by comparing performance on a ToM task administered in a social vs. a non-social setting. We found that ASDs and controls performed similarly when the task was administered using a non-social medium. However, control participants outperformed children with autism when an experimenter administered the task. Thus, TD controls demonstrated a relative improvement in performance when in the presence of an experimenter that children with ASD did not. The implications of this diminished ‘audience effect’ in ASD are discussed.
Audience effect; Autism Spectrum Disorders; Attribution of intentions; Motivation; Reputation; Theory of Mind
Insomnia is one of the most common complaints faced by primary care practitioners after pain. Non-pharmacological management of Insomnia that is noninvasive is gaining interest among patients with insomnia.
To determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining participants in a clinical trial on shirodhara, Ayurvedic oil dripping therapy, for insomnia in the United States and also to investigate the therapeutic usefulness of Shirodhara for insomnia using standardized outcome measures.
Study Intervention and Data Collection:
Shirodhara with Brahmi oil was done for 45 minutes on each participant for 5 consecutive days. Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was used to evaluate the severity of insomnia as well as to determine the response to Shirodhara therapy. Data were collected at baseline, end of the treatment (day 5) and 1 week after the treatment ended (follow-up).
Two males and eight females with a mean age of 40 years (range 23 to 72), SD ± 14.2, were enrolled in the study. One dropped out of the study, but all remaining nine participants experienced improvement at the end of treatment. The percentage of improvement range varied from 3.85% to 69.57%. At follow-up, most participants continued to improve. Comparison of means between baseline and day 5 indicated an overall signiﬁcant improvement (P < .005), but in a comparison of baseline vs 1 week posttreatment the improvement was not significant (P < .089). No adverse events were reported during the study.
Shirodhara with Brahmi oil may be beneficial for moderate to severe insomnia. It is feasible to recruit and retain participants for such therapies in the United States. It is important to validate these findings and investigate the mechanism of action using a larger sample and rigorous research design.
Shirodhara; oil dripping therapy; insomnia; Ayurveda; case series
Many cancer patients seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) including acupuncture to manage their cancer-related symptoms or side effects of treatments. Acupuncture is used to manage cancer pain and improve quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to conduct a preliminary study on a case series to evaluate the feasibility of acupuncture for treating cancer pain and to collect preliminary data on the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating cancer pain and improving QoL.
A semi-standardized acupuncture treatment comprising one to three treatment sessions (20–30 minutes per session) per week for 8 weeks was provided by four licensed acupuncturists, who had more than 5 years of clinical experience, at the University Health Center. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C3) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain rating were used as the outcome measures to assess pain and QoL. Data were collected at baseline, immediately after 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of treatment and at 4 weeks after treatment completion (week 12).
Two males and five females with a median age of 66 years (range: 44–71 years) completed the study. For the VAS, the percentage of improvement ranged between 18% and 95%. The baseline mean raw score was reduced from 51 mm to 36 mm at the end of week 8 and to 23 mm at the end of week 12. The percentage of overall QoL improvement ranged between 20% and 100%. The mean raw score for QoL improved with time. The baseline score was increased from 55 to 69 at the end of treatment (week 8) and to 73 after the follow-up (week 12).
This pilot study on a case series showed that acupuncture might be beneficial for reducing pain and improving QoL in cancer patients.
While it is apparent that rare variation can play an important role in the genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), the contribution of common variation to the risk of developing ASD is less clear. To produce a more comprehensive picture, we report Stage 2 of the Autism Genome Project genome-wide association study, adding 1301 ASD families and bringing the total to 2705 families analysed (Stages 1 and 2). In addition to evaluating the association of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we also sought evidence that common variants, en masse, might affect the risk. Despite genotyping over a million SNPs covering the genome, no single SNP shows significant association with ASD or selected phenotypes at a genome-wide level. The SNP that achieves the smallest P-value from secondary analyses is rs1718101. It falls in CNTNAP2, a gene previously implicated in susceptibility for ASD. This SNP also shows modest association with age of word/phrase acquisition in ASD subjects, of interest because features of language development are also associated with other variation in CNTNAP2. In contrast, allele scores derived from the transmission of common alleles to Stage 1 cases significantly predict case status in the independent Stage 2 sample. Despite being significant, the variance explained by these allele scores was small (Vm< 1%). Based on results from individual SNPs and their en masse effect on risk, as inferred from the allele score results, it is reasonable to conclude that common variants affect the risk for ASD but their individual effects are modest.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable disorder of complex and heterogeneous aetiology. It is primarily characterized by altered cognitive ability including impaired language and communication skills and fundamental deficits in social reciprocity. Despite some notable successes in neuropsychiatric genetics, overall, the high heritability of ASD (~90%) remains poorly explained by common genetic risk variants. However, recent studies suggest that rare genomic variation, in particular copy number variation, may account for a significant proportion of the genetic basis of ASD. We present a large scale analysis to identify candidate genes which may contain low-frequency recessive variation contributing to ASD while taking into account the potential contribution of population differences to the genetic heterogeneity of ASD. Our strategy, homozygous haplotype (HH) mapping, aims to detect homozygous segments of identical haplotype structure that are shared at a higher frequency amongst ASD patients compared to parental controls. The analysis was performed on 1,402 Autism Genome Project trios genotyped for 1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We identified 25 known and 1,218 novel ASD candidate genes in the discovery analysis including CADM2, ABHD14A, CHRFAM7A, GRIK2, GRM3, EPHA3, FGF10, KCND2, PDZK1, IMMP2L and FOXP2. Furthermore, 10 of the previously reported ASD genes and 300 of the novel candidates identified in the discovery analysis were replicated in an independent sample of 1,182 trios. Our results demonstrate that regions of HH are significantly enriched for previously reported ASD candidate genes and the observed association is independent of gene size (odds ratio 2.10). Our findings highlight the applicability of HH mapping in complex disorders such as ASD and offer an alternative approach to the analysis of genome-wide association data.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00439-011-1094-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Our aim was to examine the effect of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) inhibition on endothelial function in subjects with type 1 diabetes analyzed on the basis of renal filtration status.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was determined in type 1 diabetic subjects and hyperfiltration (glomerular filtration rate ≥135 ml/min/1.73 m2, n = 13) or normofiltration (glomerular filtration rate ≥135 ml/min/1.73 m2, n = 11). Studies were performed before and after celecoxib (200 mg daily for 14 days) during euglycemia and hyperglycemia.
Baseline parameters were similar in the two groups. Pretreatment, FMD was augmented in normofiltering versus hyperfiltering subjects during clamped euglycemia (10.2 ± 5.3% vs. 5.9 ± 2.3%, P = 0.003). COX2 inhibition suppressed FMD in normofiltering (10.2 ± 5.3% to 5.8 ± 3.4%, P = 0.006) versus hyperfiltering subjects (ANOVA interaction, P = 0.003).
Systemic hemodynamic function, including the response to COX2 inhibition, is related to filtration status in diabetic subjects and may reflect general endothelial dysfunction.
Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in preventing end-organ injury associated with diabetes. The recent development of direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) provides a new approach to block the RAS, but the effects of DRIs on renal and systemic vascular function in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes have not been elucidated.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Renal hemodynamic function (inulin and paraaminohippurate clearance), augmentation index and pulse wave velocity, endothelial dependent vasodilatation (flow-mediated dilation [FMD]), and endothelial independent vasodilatation (response to sublingual nitroglycerin) were evaluated before and after administration of aliskiren (300 mg daily for 30 days) in 10 adult subjects with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes during clamped euglycemia (4–6 mmol/l) and hyperglycemia (9–11 mmol/l).
In response to the DRI, plasma renin activity decreased (from 0.40 to 0.13 ng · ml−1 · h−1, P < 0.05) and plasma renin increased (from 5.2 to 75.0 ng/l, P < 0.05). Peripheral and central blood pressures decreased, and effective renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate increased during clamped euglycemia and hyperglycemia (P < 0.05). The carotid augmentation index during clamped euglycemia decreased (from 26 ± 6 to 20 ± 5%, P < 0.05) as did pulse wave velocity during clamped hyperglycemia (from 7.8 ± 0.6 to 6.8 ± 0.5 m/s, P < 0.05). In response to the DRI, FMD increased during both clamped euglycemia (from 1.92 ± 1.13 to 5.55 ± 0.81%) and hyperglycemia (from 1.86 ± 0.98 to 5.63 ± 0.62) as did the vasodilatory response to sublingual nitroglycerin.
DRIs exert a renal vasodilatory effect and improve parameters of systemic vascular function, suggesting that blockade of the RAS with this new class of agents has important functional effects in subjects with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes.
The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of conditions characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors1. Individuals with an ASD vary greatly in cognitive development, which can range from above average to intellectual disability (ID)2. While ASDs are known to be highly heritable (~90%)3, the underlying genetic determinants are still largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the genome-wide characteristics of rare (<1% frequency) copy number variation (CNV) in ASD using dense genotyping arrays. When comparing 996 ASD individuals of European ancestry to 1,287 matched controls, cases were found to carry a higher global burden of rare, genic CNVs (1.19 fold, P= 0.012), especially so for loci previously implicated in either ASD and/or intellectual disability (1.69 fold, P= 3.4×10−4). Among the CNVs, there were numerous de novo and inherited events, sometimes in combination in a given family, implicating many novel ASD genes like SHANK2, SYNGAP1, DLGAP2 and the X-linked DDX53-PTCHD1 locus. We also discovered an enrichment of CNVs disrupting functional gene-sets involved in cellular proliferation, projection and motility, and GTPase/Ras signaling. Our results reveal many new genetic and functional targets in ASD that may lead to final connected pathways.
The mutagenicity of 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) to Escherichia coli was reduced by the UV light-induced excision repair system but unaffected by the loss of a major apurinic/apyrimidinic site repair function. At high doses, 70–90% of the EDB-induced mutations were independent of SOS-mutagenic processing and approximately 50% were independent of glutathione conjugation. The SOS-independent mutations induced by EDB were unaffected by the enzymes that repair alkylation-induced DNA lesions. EDB-induced base substitutions were dominated by GC to AT and AT to GC transitions. These results suggest that EDB-induced premutagenic lesions have some, but not all, of the characteristics of simple alkyl lesions.
Dibromoethane; EDB; Escherichia coil; Miscoding lesions; DNA repair
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent a group of childhood neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in verbal communication, impairment of social interaction, and restricted and repetitive patterns of interests and behaviour. To identify common genetic risk factors underlying ASDs, here we present the results of genome-wide association studies on a cohort of 780 families (3,101 subjects) with affected children, and a second cohort of 1,204 affected subjects and 6,491 control subjects, all of whom were of European ancestry. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms between cadherin 10 (CDH10) and cadherin 9 (CDH9)—two genes encoding neuronal cell-adhesion molecules—revealed strong association signals, with the most significant SNP being rs4307059 (P = 3.4 × 10−8, odds ratio = 1.19). These signals were replicated in two independent cohorts, with combined P values ranging from 7.4 × 10−8 to 2.1 × 10−10. Our results implicate neuronal cell-adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of ASDs, and represent, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of genome-wide significant association of common variants with susceptibility to ASDs.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are childhood neurodevelopmental disorders with complex genetic origins1–4. Previous studies focusing on candidate genes or genomic regions have identified several copy number variations (CNVs) that are associated with an increased risk of ASDs5–9. Here we present the results from a whole-genome CNV study on a cohort of 859 ASD cases and 1,409 healthy children of European ancestry who were genotyped with ~550,000 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, in an attempt to comprehensively identify CNVs conferring susceptibility to ASDs. Positive findings were evaluated in an independent cohort of 1,336 ASD cases and 1,110 controls of European ancestry. Besides previously reported ASD candidate genes, such as NRXN1 (ref. 10) and CNTN4 (refs 11, 12), several new susceptibility genes encoding neuronal cell-adhesion molecules, including NLGN1 and ASTN2, were enriched with CNVs in ASD cases compared to controls (P = 9.5 × 10−3). Furthermore, CNVs within or surrounding genes involved in the ubiquitin pathways, including UBE3A, PARK2, RFWD2 and FBXO40, were affected by CNVs not observed in controls (P = 3.3 × 10−3). We also identified duplications 55 kilobases upstream of complementary DNA AK123120 (P = 3.6 × 10−6). Although these variants may be individually rare, they target genes involved in neuronal cell-adhesion or ubiquitin degradation, indicating that these two important gene networks expressed within the central nervous system may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of ASD.
Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyzed these SNP genotypes for association with ASD. In one of four primary association analyses, the association signal for marker rs4141463, located within MACROD2, crossed the genome-wide association significance threshold of P < 5 × 10−8. When a smaller replication sample was analyzed, the risk allele at rs4141463 was again over-transmitted; yet, consistent with the winner's curse, its effect size in the replication sample was much smaller; and, for the combined samples, the association signal barely fell below the P < 5 × 10−8 threshold. Exploratory analyses of phenotypic subtypes yielded no significant associations after correction for multiple testing. They did, however, yield strong signals within several genes, KIAA0564, PLD5, POU6F2, ST8SIA2 and TAF1C.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are phenotypically heterogeneous, characterized by impairments in the development of communication and social behaviour and the presence of repetitive behaviour and restricted interests. Dissecting the genetic complexity of ASD may require phenotypic data reflecting more detail than is offered by a categorical clinical diagnosis. Such data are available from the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) which is a continuous, quantitative measure of social ability giving scores that range from significant impairment to above average ability.
We present genome-wide results for 64 multiplex and extended families ranging from two to nine generations. SRS scores were available from 518 genotyped pedigree subjects, including affected and unaffected relatives. Genotypes from the Illumina 6 k single nucleotide polymorphism panel were provided by the Center for Inherited Disease Research. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were done using MCLINK, a software package that uses Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to perform multilocus linkage analysis on large extended pedigrees.
When analysed as a qualitative trait, linkage occurred in the same locations as in our previous affected-only genome scan of these families, with findings on chromosomes 7q31.1-q32.3 [heterogeneity logarithm of the odds (HLOD) = 2.91], 15q13.3 (HLOD = 3.64), and 13q12.3 (HLOD = 2.23). Additional positive qualitative results were seen on chromosomes 6 and 10 in regions that may be of interest for other neuropsychiatric disorders. When analysed as a quantitative trait, results replicated a peak found in an independent sample using quantitative SRS scores on chromosome 11p15.1-p15.4 (HLOD = 2.77). Additional positive quantitative results were seen on chromosomes 7, 9, and 19.
The SRS linkage peaks reported here substantially overlap with peaks found in our previous affected-only genome scan of clinical diagnosis. In addition, we replicated a previous SRS peak in an independent sample. These results suggest the SRS is a robust and useful phenotype measure for genetic linkage studies of ASD. Finally, analyses of SRS scores revealed linkage peaks overlapping with evidence from other studies of neuropsychiatric diseases. The information available from the SRS itself may, therefore, reveal locations for autism susceptibility genes that would not otherwise be detected.
When a neutral mutation arises in an invading population, it quickly either dies out or ‘surfs’, i.e. it comes to occupy almost all the habitat available at its time of origin. Beneficial mutations can also surf, as can deleterious mutations over finite time spans. We develop descriptive statistical models that quantify the relationship between the probability that a mutation will surf and demographic parameters for a cellular automaton model of surfing. We also provide a simple analytic model that performs well at predicting the probability of surfing for neutral and beneficial mutations in one dimension. The results suggest that factors – possibly including even abiotic factors – that promote invasion success may also increase the probability of surfing and associated adaptive genetic change, conditioned on such success.
ecological genetics; invasions; mutation surfing
It has been suggested that efforts to identify genetic risk markers of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would benefit from the analysis of more narrowly defined ASD phenotypes. Previous research indicates that 'insistence on sameness' (IS) and 'repetitive sensory-motor actions' (RSMA) are two factors within the ASD 'repetitive and stereotyped behavior' domain. The primary aim of this study was to identify genetic risk markers of both factors to allow comparison of those markers with one another and with markers found in the same set of pedigrees using ASD diagnosis as the phenotype. Thus, we empirically addresses the possibilities that more narrowly defined phenotypes improve linkage analysis signals and that different narrowly defined phenotypes are associated with different loci. Secondary aims were to examine the correlates of IS and RSMA and to assess the heritability of both scales.
A genome-wide linkage analysis was conducted with a sample of 70 multiplex ASD pedigrees using IS and RSMA as phenotypes. Genotyping services were provided by the Center for Inherited Disease Research using the 6 K single nucleotide polymorphism linkage panel. Analysis was done using the multipoint linkage software program MCLINK, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method that allows for multilocus linkage analysis on large extended pedigrees.
Genome-wide significance was observed for IS at 2q37.1-q37.3 (dominant model heterogeneity lod score (hlod) 3.42) and for RSMA at 15q13.1-q14 (recessive model hlod 3.93). We found some linkage signals that overlapped and others that were not observed in our previous linkage analysis of the ASD phenotype in the same pedigrees, and regions varied in the range of phenotypes with which they were linked. A new finding with respect to IS was that it is positively associated with IQ if the IS-RSMA correlation is statistically controlled.
The finding that IS and RSMA are linked to different regions that only partially overlap regions previously identified with ASD as the phenotype supports the value of including multiple, narrowly defined phenotypes in ASD genetic research. Further, we replicated previous reports indicating that RSMA is more strongly associated than IS with measures of ASD severity.
OBJECTIVE—The aim of this study was to examine the effect of protein kinase Cβ inhibition with ruboxistaurin on renal hemodynamic function and urinary biomarkers (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1] and epidermal growth factor) in renin angiotensin system blockade-treated type 1 diabetic subjects.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Albuminuric subjects were randomized (2:1) to ruboxistaurin (32 mg daily; n = 13) or placebo (n = 7) for 8 weeks. Renal hemodynamic function was measured during clamped euglycemia or hyperglycemia and before and after ruboxistaurin or placebo.
RESULTS—Ruboxistaurin was not associated with between-group differences during clamped euglycemia or hyperglycemia. In a post hoc analysis comparing hyperfilterers with normofilterers during euglycemia, glomerular filtration rate and MCP-1 decreased, whereas the epidermal growth factor–to–MCP-1 ratio increased in hyperfilterers versus normofilterers (all P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—The effect of ruboxistaurin is modest and dependent, at least in part, on the level of ambient glycemia and baseline glomerular filtration rate.
Molecular screening for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is now an established component of risk evaluation and management of familial breast cancer. Features of hereditary breast cancer include an early age-of-onset and over-representation of the 'triple-negative' phenotype (negative for estrogen-receptor, progesterone-receptor and HER2). The decision to offer genetic testing to a breast cancer patient is usually based on her family history, but in the absence of a family history of cancer, some women may qualify for testing based on the age-of-onset and/or the pathologic features of the breast cancer.
We studied 54 women who were diagnosed with high-grade, triple-negative invasive breast cancer at or before age 40. These women were selected for study because they had little or no family history of breast or ovarian cancer and they did not qualify for genetic testing using conventional family history criteria. BRCA1 screening was performed using a combination of fluorescent multiplexed-PCR analysis, BRCA1 exon-13 6 kb duplication screening, the protein truncation test (PTT) and fluorescent multiplexed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). All coding exons of BRCA1 were screened. The two large exons of BRCA2 were also screened using PTT. All mutations were confirmed with direct sequencing.
Five deleterious BRCA1 mutations and one deleterious BRCA2 mutation were identified in the 54 patients with early-onset, triple-negative breast cancer (11%).
Women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer are candidates for genetic testing for BRCA1, even in the absence of a family history of breast or ovarian cancer.
This paper describes the formation, benefits, and implication to nursing practice of an automated nursing information system in a community health agency based on a service provided framework. The design of the service provided coding system is described. Benefits and future implications to the community health agency are discussed.