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1.  Irrational prescribing of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in general practice: testing the feasibility of an educational intervention among physicians in five European countries 
BMC Family Practice  2014;15:34.
Background
Irrational prescribing of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in general practice is common in Southern Europe. Recent findings from a research project funded by the European Commission (FP7), the “OTC SOCIOMED”, conducted in seven European countries, indicate that physicians in countries in the Mediterranean Europe region prescribe medicines to a higher degree in comparison to physicians in other participating European countries. In light of these findings, a feasibility study has been designed to explore the acceptance of a pilot educational intervention targeting physicians in general practice in various settings in the Mediterranean Europe region.
Methods
This feasibility study utilized an educational intervention was designed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It took place in geographically-defined primary care areas in Cyprus, France, Greece, Malta, and Turkey. General Practitioners (GPs) were recruited in each country and randomly assigned into two study groups in each of the participating countries. The intervention included a one-day intensive training programme, a poster presentation, and regular visits of trained professionals to the workplaces of participants. Reminder messages and email messages were, also, sent to participants over a 4-week period. A pre- and post-test evaluation study design with quantitative and qualitative data was employed. The primary outcome of this feasibility pilot intervention was to reduce GPs’ intention to provide medicines following the educational intervention, and its secondary outcomes included a reduction of prescribed medicines following the intervention, as well as an assessment of its practicality and acceptance by the participating GPs.
Results
Median intention scores in the intervention groups were reduced, following the educational intervention, in comparison to the control group. Descriptive analysis of related questions indicated a high overall acceptance and perceived practicality of the intervention programme by GPs, with median scores above 5 on a 7-point Likert scale.
Conclusions
Evidence from this intervention will estimate the parameters required to design a larger study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of such educational interventions. In addition, it could also help inform health policy makers and decision makers regarding the management of behavioural changes in the prescribing patterns of physicians in Mediterranean Europe, particularly in Southern European countries.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-15-34
PMCID: PMC3936810  PMID: 24533792
OTC medicines; Primary care; Feasibility study
2.  Rates of First Episode of Psychosis in a Defined Catchment Area in Greece 
This is the first Greek study presenting epidemiologic data on first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients in a defined catchment area. Data for first episode psychotic patients during a two-year period (2008 and 2009) were obtained by all the mental health providers in the area, public or private. A total of 132 FEP patients were examined in the 2-year period in the catchment area. Most of the patients (61.4%) were diagnosed and treated by private practicing psychiatrists. Statistical analysis showed no differences between the two sectors in terms of patients’ age, gender, family and social status, profession and duration of untreated psychosis (median duration 6 months). Patients who were abusing substances and had no family psychiatric history were less likely been treated in the public sector. Immigrants comprised only a small proportion of the patients, probably because they have difficulties in accessing the mental health system.
doi:10.2174/1745017901309010251
PMCID: PMC3881103  PMID: 24396392
Early intervention; First episode of psychosis; Private sector; Public sector.
3.  Treatment Engagement of Psychotic Patients with a Mobile Mental Health Unit in Rural Areas in Greece: A Five-Year Study 
Objectives. Treatment of psychotic disorders is impended by high rates of disengagement from mental health services and poor adherence to antipsychotic medication. This study examined the engagement rates of psychotic patients with a community mental health service during a 5-year period. Methods. The Mobile Mental Health Unit of Ioannina and Thesprotia (MMHU I-T) delivers services in remote, rural, mountainous areas using the resources of the primary care system. Clinical and demographic information for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and related psychoses was obtained from the medical records of our unit. Results. A total of 74 psychotic patients initially engaged in treatment with our unit. In half of cases treatment was home-based. With the exclusion of patients who died or discharged, engagement rates were 67.2%. Statistical analysis was performed for 64 patients, and no differences were found between engaged and disengaged patients regarding clinical and demographic parameters. All engaged patients regularly refilled their antipsychotic prescriptions. Conclusion. Engagement rates in our study were comparable to previous research, involving urban settings and shorter follow-up duration. Community mental health teams may ensure treatment continuation for psychotic patients in deprived, remote areas. This is important for low-income countries, affected by economic crisis, such as Greece.
doi:10.1155/2013/613956
PMCID: PMC3814046  PMID: 24222849
4.  Partisan Perspectives in the Medical Literature: A Study of High Frequency Editorialists Favoring Hormone Replacement Therapy 
ABSTRACT
Background
Unfavorable results of major studies have led to a large shrinkage of the market for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the last 6 years. Some scientists continue to strongly support the use of HRT.
Objectives
We analyzed a sample of partisan editorializing articles on HRT to examine their arguments, the reporting of competing interests, the journal venues and their sponsoring societies.
Data Sources
Through Thomson ISI database, we selected articles without primary data written by the five most prolific editorialists that addressed clinical topics pertaining to HRT and that were published in regular journal issues in 2002–2008.
Main Measures
We recorded the number of articles with a partisan stance and their arguments, the number of partisan articles that reported conflicting interests, and the journal venues and their sponsoring societies publishing the partisan editorials.
Key Results
We analyzed 114 eligible articles (58 editorials, 16 guidelines, 37 reviews, 3 letters), of which 110 (96%) had a partisan stance favoring HRT. Typical arguments were benefits for menopausal and related symptoms (64.9%), criticism of unfavorable studies (78.9%), preclinical data that showed favorable effects of HRT (50%), and benefits for major outcomes such as osteoporosis and fractures (49.1%), cardiovascular disease (31.6%), dementia (24.6%) or colorectal cancer (20.2%), but also even breast cancer (4.4%). All 5 prolific editorialists had financial relationships with hormone manufacturers, but these were reported in only 6 of the 110 partisan articles. Four journals published 15–37 partisan articles each. The medical societies of these journals reported on their websites that several pharmaceutical companies sponsored them or their conferences.
Conclusions
There is a considerable body of editorializing articles favoring HRT use and very few of these articles report conflicts of interest. Full disclosure of conflicts of interest is needed, especially for articles without primary data.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1360-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1360-7
PMCID: PMC2917671  PMID: 20425148
hormone replacement therapy; menopause; postmenopausal women
5.  The role of colonoscopy in the management of intestinal obstruction: a 20-year retrospective study 
BMC Gastroenterology  2010;10:130.
Purpose
The aim of the study was to assess the use colonoscopy over time in the assessment of large bowel obstruction in a tertiary university hospital.
Methods
Retrospective analysis of surgical and colonoscopy records for the years 1990-2009 in a university hospital. All patients diagnosed with non-conservatively managed bowel obstruction were included.
Results
We recorded 644 patients diagnosed with non-conservatively managed bowel obstruction. Four hundred forty-one (67.3%) were managed only by surgery, 157 (23.6%) were managed by colonoscopy, and 46 (6.9%) by combined colonoscopy and surgery. Patients over 77 years were more likely to receive colonoscopy as monotherapy or combined with surgery as compared to younger patients. Management by colonoscopy only and by combined colonoscopy and surgery increased over time.
Conclusions
Colonoscopy in the management of non-conservatively treated bowel obstruction increased over time. However, therapeutic colonoscopy still has a limited role in bowel obstruction either as monotherapy or combined with surgery.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-10-130
PMCID: PMC2988711  PMID: 21059218
6.  Percutaneous Coronary Interventions for Nonacute Coronary Artery Disease: A Quantitative Twenty-Year Synopsis 
Lancet  2009;373(9667):911-918.
Summary
Background
Over the last 20 years, percutaneous transluminal balloon coronary angioplasty (PTCA), bare metal stents (BMS) and drug eluting stents (DES) succeeded each other as catheter-based treatments for coronary artery disease (CAD). We present an overview of randomised trials comparing these interventions with each other and with medical therapy in patients with nonacute CAD.
Methods
We searched Medline for trials contrasting at least two of the aforementioned interventions. Outcomes of interest were death, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), target lesion or vessel revascularisation (TLR/TVR), and any revascularisation. Random effects meta-analyses summarised head-to-head (direct) comparisons, and network meta-analyses integrated direct and indirect evidence.
Findings
61 eligible trials (25 388 patients) investigated 4 of 6 possible comparisons between the 4 interventions. No trials directly compared DES with medical therapy or PTCA. In all direct or indirect comparisons, succeeding advancements in PCI did not yield detectable improvements in deaths and MI. The risk ratio for indirect comparisons between DES and medical therapy was 0·96 (95% confidence interval: 0·60, 1·52) for death and 1·15 (0·73, 1·82) for MI. In contrast, there were sequential significant reductions in TLR/TVR with BMS compared to PTCA and with DES compared to BMS. The risk ratio for the indirect comparison between DES and PTCA for TLR/TVR was 0·30 (0·17, 0·51).
Interpretation
Sequential innovations in the catheter-based treatment of nonacute CAD showed no evidence of an impact on death or MI when compared with medical therapy.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60319-6
PMCID: PMC2967219  PMID: 19286090
7.  Reproducibility of wireless capsule endoscopy in the investigation of chronic obscure gastrointestinal bleeding 
BACKGROUND:
Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a valuable tool in the diagnostic evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, but limited information is available on the reproducibility of CE findings.
OBJECTIVE:
To compare two successive CE studies with push enteroscopy (PE) in patients presenting with chronic obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.
METHODS:
A prospective study was conducted. Ten patients (seven men and three women) with chronic obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and no contraindications for CE were eligible and completed the trial. For each patient, the first capsule was administered on day 1, the second capsule was administered on day 2 and PE was performed on day 3. Endoscopists were blinded to the capsule findings. Capsule findings were assessed independently by two investigators blinded to PE findings.
RESULTS:
A potential small intestinal bleeding source was found in 60% of the patients when all the studies were combined. A bleeding source was found in four patients in both CE studies. The second CE also identified a bleeding source in a fifth patient. Interobserver agreement by kappa analysis was 0.642 to 1.000 (P≤0.05) for the CE studies. PE identified a potential small bowel bleeding site in four patients, including one patient who had negative CE studies.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study confirmed the reproducibility of CE findings on successive studies. Some patients did not have a source of bleeding in the small intestine, and all studies found this.
PMCID: PMC2658584  PMID: 18026573
Capsule endoscopy; Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding; Push enteroscopy; Reproducibility
8.  International ranking systems for universities and institutions: a critical appraisal 
BMC Medicine  2007;5:30.
Background
Ranking of universities and institutions has attracted wide attention recently. Several systems have been proposed that attempt to rank academic institutions worldwide.
Methods
We review the two most publicly visible ranking systems, the Shanghai Jiao Tong University 'Academic Ranking of World Universities' and the Times Higher Education Supplement 'World University Rankings' and also briefly review other ranking systems that use different criteria. We assess the construct validity for educational and research excellence and the measurement validity of each of the proposed ranking criteria, and try to identify generic challenges in international ranking of universities and institutions.
Results
None of the reviewed criteria for international ranking seems to have very good construct validity for both educational and research excellence, and most don't have very good construct validity even for just one of these two aspects of excellence. Measurement error for many items is also considerable or is not possible to determine due to lack of publication of the relevant data and methodology details. The concordance between the 2006 rankings by Shanghai and Times is modest at best, with only 133 universities shared in their top 200 lists. The examination of the existing international ranking systems suggests that generic challenges include adjustment for institutional size, definition of institutions, implications of average measurements of excellence versus measurements of extremes, adjustments for scientific field, time frame of measurement and allocation of credit for excellence.
Conclusion
Naïve lists of international institutional rankings that do not address these fundamental challenges with transparent methods are misleading and should be abandoned. We make some suggestions on how focused and standardized evaluations of excellence could be improved and placed in proper context.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-5-30
PMCID: PMC2174504  PMID: 17961208
9.  Appendicectomies in Albanians in Greece: outcomes in a highly mobile immigrant patient population 
Background
Albanian immigrants in Greece comprise a highly mobile population with unknown health care profile. We aimed to assess whether these immigrants were more or less likely to undergo laparotomy for suspected appendicitis with negative findings (negative appendicectomy), by performing a controlled study with individual (1:4) matching. We used data from 6 hospitals in the Greek prefecture of Epirus that is bordering Albania.
Results
Among a total of 2027 non-incidental appendicectomies for suspected appendicitis performed in 1994-1999, 30 patients with Albanian names were matched (for age, sex, time of operation and hospital) to 120 patients with Greek names. The odds for a negative appendicectomy were 3.4-fold higher (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-9.31, p = 0.02) in Albanian immigrants than in matched Greek-name subjects. The difference was most prominent in men (odds ratio 20.0, 95% CI, 1.41-285, p = 0.02) while it was not formally significant in women (odds ratio 1.56, 95% CI, 0.44-5.48). The odds for perforation were 1.25-fold higher in Albanian-name immigrants than in Greek-name patients (95% CI 0.44- 3.57).
Conclusions
Albanian immigrants in Greece are at high risk for negative appendicectomies. Socioeconomic, cultural and language parameters underlying health care inequalities in highly mobile immigrant populations need better study.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-1-5
PMCID: PMC35286  PMID: 11472640

Results 1-9 (9)