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1.  Atypical presentation of acute and chronic coronary artery disease in diabetics 
World Journal of Cardiology  2014;6(8):802-813.
In patients with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of mortality and chest pain is the most frequent symptom in patients with stable and acute coronary artery disease. However, there is little knowledge concerning the pervasiveness of uncommon presentations in diabetics. The symptomatology of acute coronary syndrome, which comprises both pain and non-pain symptoms, may be affected by traditional risk factors such as age, gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Such atypical symptoms may range from silent myocardial ischemia to a wide spectrum of non-chest pain symptoms. Worldwide, few studies have highlighted this under-investigated subject, and this aspect of ischemic heart disease has also been under-evaluated in the major clinical trials. The results of these studies are highly diverse which makes definitive conclusions regarding the spectrum of atypical presentation of acute and even stable chronic coronay artery disease difficult to confirm. This may have a significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of coronary artery disease in diabetics. In this up-to-date review we will try to analyze the most recent studies on the atypical presentations in both acute and chronic ischemic heart disease which may give some emphasis to this under-investigated topic.
doi:10.4330/wjc.v6.i8.802
PMCID: PMC4163709  PMID: 25228959
Diabetes mellitus; Acute coronary syndrome; Acute myocardial infarction; Ischemic heart disease; Atypical presentation; Silent myocardial ischemia
2.  Inflammatory cytokines and atrial fibrillation: current and prospective views 
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and a challenging clinical problem encountered in daily clinical practice. There is an increasing body of evidence linking inflammation to a broad spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including AF. Historical evidence supports an association between AF and inflammation and is consistent with the association of AF with inflammatory conditions of the heart, such as myocarditis and pericarditis. AF has been associated with myocardial oxidative stress, and antioxidant agents have demonstrated antiarrhythmic benefit in humans. Increased plasma interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and plasma viscosity support the existence of an inflammatory state among “typical” populations with chronic AF. These indexes of inflammation are related to the prothrombotic state and may be linked to the clinical characteristics of the patients (underlying vascular disease and comorbidities), rather than simply to the presence of AF itself. It has been suggested that inflammation may have a role in the development of atrial arrhythmias after cardiac surgery, and that a genetic predisposition to develop postoperative complications exists. Cytokines can have a prognostic significance; IL-6 levels, CRP, and other cytokines may have prognostic value in AF. Cytokine lowering therapies, statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and other anti-inflammatory agents may have a role in the treatment of AF. The present article provides an overview of the evidence linking inflammatory cytokines to AF and their therapeutic and prognostic implications.
doi:10.2147/JIR.S10095
PMCID: PMC3218735  PMID: 22096359
atrial fibrillation; inflammation; cytokines

Results 1-2 (2)