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1.  Association of time in blood glucose range with outcomes following cardiac surgery 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15(1):14.
Background
The importance of optimal postoperative glycemic control in cardiac patients remains unclear. Various glycemic targets have been prescribed to reduce wound infection and overall mortality rates.
Aim of the work: To assess glucose control, as determined by time in range (TIR), in patients with glycemic targets of 6.0 to 8.1 mmol/L, and to determine factors related to poor control.
Methods
This prospective descriptive study evaluated 227 consecutive patients, 100 with and 127 without diabetes, after cardiac surgery. Patients received insulin to target glucose concentrations of 6.0 to 8.1 mmol/L. Data analyzed included patient age, gender, race, Euro score, cardiopulmonary bypass time (CPB), aortic cross clamp time (ACC), length of ventilation, stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and stay in the hospital. Patients were divided into two groups, those who maintained > 80% and < 80% TIR. Outcome variables were compared in diabetics and non-diabetics.
Results
Patients with >80% and <80% TIR were matched in age, sex, gender, and Euro score. Failure to maintain target glycemia was significantly more frequent in diabetics (p = 0.001), in patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) > 8% (p = 0.0001), and in patients taking dopamine (p = 0.04) and adrenaline (p = 0.05). Times of CPB and ACC, length of stay in the ICU and ventilation were significantly higher in patients with TIR <80% than >80%. Rates of hypoglycemia, acute kidney injury, and in-hospital mortality were similar in the two groups, although the incidence of wound infection was higher in patients with TIR <80%. Both diabetics and non-diabetics with low TIR had poorer outcomes, as shown by length of stay and POAF. No significant differences were found between the two ethnic groups (Arabs and Asians).
Conclusion
Patients with >80% TIR, whether or not diabetics, had better outcomes than those with <80% TIR, as determined by wound infection, lengths of ventilation and ICU stay. Additionally, they were not subject to frequent hypoglycemic events. Preoperatively high HbA1C is likely a good predictor of poor glycemic control.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-14
PMCID: PMC4323258  PMID: 25670921
Glucose control; Outcome; Wound infection
2.  Do socioeconomic factors influence breast cancer screening practices among Arab women in Qatar? 
BMJ Open  2015;5(1):e005596.
Objectives
Breast cancer incidence rates are rising in Qatar. Although the Qatari government provides subsidised healthcare and screening programmes that reduce cost barriers for residents, breast cancer screening (BCS) practices among women remain low. This study explores the influence of socioeconomic status on BCS among Arab women in Qatar.
Setting
A multicentre, cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted with 1063 Arab women (87.5% response rate) in Qatar from March 2011 to July 2011. Women who were 35 years or older and had lived in Qatar for at least 10 years were recruited from seven primary healthcare centres and women's health clinics in urban and semiurban regions of Qatar. Associations between socioeconomic factors and BCS practice were estimated using χ2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Results
Findings indicate that less than one-third of the participants practised BCS appropriately, whereas less than half of the participants were familiar with recent BCS guidelines. Married women and women with higher education and income levels were significantly more likely to be aware of and to practise BCS than women who had lower education and income levels.
Conclusions
Findings indicate low levels of awareness and low participation rates in BCS among Arab women in Qatar. Socioeconomic factors influence these women's participation in BCS activities. The strongest predictors for BCS practice are higher education and higher income levels.
Recommendations
Additional research is needed to explore the impact of economic factors on healthcare seeking behaviours in the Middle Eastern countries that have a high national gross domestic product where healthcare services are free or heavily subsidised by the government; promotion of BCS and intervention strategies in these countries should focus on raising awareness about breast cancer, the cost and benefit of early screening for this disease, particularly among low-income women.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005596
PMCID: PMC4305075  PMID: 25613951
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE; PUBLIC HEALTH
3.  Under-five mortality among mothers employed in agriculture: findings from a nationally representative sample 
PeerJ  2015;3:e710.
Background. India accounts for 24% to all under-five mortality in the world. Residence in rural area, poverty and low levels of mother’s education are known confounders of under-five mortality. Since two-thirds of India’s population lives in rural areas, mothers employed in agriculture present a particularly vulnerable population in the Indian context and it is imperative that concerns of this sizeable population are addressed in order to achieve MDG4 targets of reducing U5MR to fewer than 41 per 1,000 by 2015. This study was conducted to examine factors associated with under-five mortality among mothers employed in agriculture.
Methods. Data was retrieved from National Family Household Survey-3 in India (2008). The study population is comprised of a national representative sample of single children aged 0 to 59 months and born to mothers aged 15 to 49 years employed in agriculture from all 29 states of India. Univariate and Multivariate Cox PH regression analysis was used to analyse the Hazard Rates of mortality. The predictive power of child mortality among mothers employed in agriculture was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.
Results. An increase in mothers’ ages corresponds with a decrease in child mortality. Breastfeeding reduces child mortality by 70% (HR 0.30, 0.25–0.35, p = 0.001). Standard of Living reduces child mortality by 32% with high standard of living (HR 0.68, 0.52–0.89, 0.001) in comparison to low standard of living. Prenatal care (HR 0.40, 0.34–0.48, p = 0.001) and breastfeeding health nutrition education (HR 0.45, 0.31–0.66, p = 0.001) are associated significant factors for child mortality. Birth Order five is a risk factor for mortality (HR 1.49, 1.05–2.10, p = 0.04) in comparison to Birth Order one among women engaged in agriculture while the household size (6–10 members and ≥ 11 members) is significant in reducing child mortality in comparison to ≤5 members in the house. Under-five mortality among mothers employed in agriculture in India discriminated well between death and survival (Area Under ROC was 0.75, 95% CI [0.73–0.77]) indicating that the model is good for appropriate prediction of child mortality.
Conclusion. In a nationally representative sample of households in India, mother’s age, breastfeeding, standard of living, prenatal care and breastfeeding health nutrition education are associated with reduction in child mortality.
doi:10.7717/peerj.710
PMCID: PMC4304864  PMID: 25653900
Mother’s employment; Breastfeeding; NFHS-3; U5MR; Under-five mortality; Agriculture; India
4.  A Form of the Metabolic Syndrome Associated with Mutations in DYRK1B 
The New England journal of medicine  2014;370(20):1909-1919.
BACKGROUND
Genetic analysis has been successful in identifying causative mutations for individual cardiovascular risk factors. Success has been more limited in mapping susceptibility genes for clusters of cardiovascular risk traits, such as those in the metabolic syndrome.
METHODS
We identified three large families with coinheritance of early-onset coronary artery disease, central obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. We used linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing to identify the disease-causing gene.
RESULTS
A founder mutation was identified in DYRK1B, substituting cysteine for arginine at position 102 in the highly conserved kinase-like domain. The mutation precisely cosegregated with the clinical syndrome in all the affected family members and was absent in unaffected family members and unrelated controls. Functional characterization of the disease gene revealed that nonmutant protein encoded by DYRK1B inhibits the SHH (sonic hedgehog) and Wnt signaling pathways and consequently enhances adipogenesis. Furthermore, DYRK1B promoted the expression of the key gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase. The R102C allele showed gain-offunction activities by potentiating these effects. A second mutation, substituting proline for histidine 90, was found to cosegregate with a similar clinical syndrome in an ethnically distinct family.
CONCLUSIONS
These findings indicate a role for DYRK1B in adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis and associate its altered function with an inherited form of the metabolic syndrome. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1301824
PMCID: PMC4069260  PMID: 24827035
5.  High Dose of Lamivudine and Resistance in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B 
Background. Lamivudine is the most affordable drug used for chronic hepatitis B and has a high safety profile. With the daily dose of 100 mg there is progressive appearance of resistance to lamivudine therapy. In our study we used 150 mg of lamivudine daily as a standard dose which warrants further exploration for the efficacy of the drug. Aims of the Study. To assess the efficacy of lamivudine 150 mg daily on resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods. This retrospective study consists of 53 patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with 150 mg of lamivudine daily. The biochemical and virological response to the treatment were recorded at a 1-year and 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year period and time of emergence of resistance to the treatment was noted. Results. The mean age of the patients was 54 years with 80% being males. The resistance to lamivudine 150 mg daily at 1 year and 2, 3, and 5 years was 12.5%, 22.5%, 37.5%, and 60%, respectively, which is much less compared to the standard dose of 100 mg of lamivudine. Conclusions. Lamivudine is safe and a higher dose of 150 mg daily delays the resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
doi:10.1155/2014/615621
PMCID: PMC4199074  PMID: 25349729
6.  Rare nonconservative LRP6 mutations are associated with metabolic syndrome 
Human mutation  2013;34(9):1221-1225.
A rare mutation in LRP6 has been shown to underlie autosomal dominant coronary artery disease (CAD) and metabolic syndrome in an Iranian kindred. The prevalence and spectrum of LRP6 mutations in the disease population of the United States is not known. Two hundred white Americans with early onset familial CAD and metabolic syndrome and 2000 healthy Northern European controls were screened for nonconservative mutations in LRP6. Three novel mutations were identified, which co-segregated with the metabolic traits in the kindreds of the affected subjects and none in the controls. All three mutations reside in the second propeller domain, which plays a critical role in ligand binding. Two of the mutations substituted highly conserved arginines in the second YWTD domain and the third substituted a conserved glycosylation site. The functional characterization of one of the variants showed that it impairs Wnt signaling and acts as a loss of function mutation.
doi:10.1002/humu.22360
PMCID: PMC3745535  PMID: 23703864
LRP6; Metabolic Syndrome; Mutation; Coronary Artery Disease
7.  Clinical profile, management, and outcome in patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest: insights from a 20-year registry 
Background
There is limited information regarding the clinical characteristics and outcome of out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Middle Eastern patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes in patients admitted following OHCA at a single center in the Middle East over a 20-year period.
Methods
The data used for this hospital-based study were collected for patients hospitalized with OHCA in Doha, Qatar, between 1991 and 2010. Baseline clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcomes were studied in comparison with the rest of the admissions.
Results
A total of 41,453 consecutive patients were admitted during the study period, of whom 987 (2.4%) had a diagnosis of OHCA. Their average age was 57±15 years, and 72.7% were males, 56.5% were Arabs, and 30.9% were South Asians. When compared with the rest of the admissions taken as a reference, patients with OHCA were more likely to have diabetes mellitus (42.8% versus 39.1%, respectively, P=0.02), prior myocardial infarction (21.8% versus 19.2%, P=0.04), and chronic renal failure (7.4% versus 3.9%, P=0.001), but were less likely to have dyslipidemia (16.9% versus 25.4%, P=0.001). Further, 52.6% of patients had preceding symptoms, the most common of which was chest pain (27.2%) followed by dyspnea (24.8%). An initially shockable rhythm (ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia) was present in 25.1% of OHCA patients, with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction documented in 30.0%. Severely reduced left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction ≤35%) was present in 53.2% of OHCA patients; 42.9% had cardiogenic shock requiring use of inotropes at presentation. An intra-aortic balloon pump was inserted in 3.6% of cases. Antiarrhythmic medications were used in 27.4% and thrombolytic therapy in 13.9%, and 10.8% underwent a percutaneous coronary procedure (coronary angiography ± percutaneous coronary intervention). The in-hospital mortality rate was 59.8%.
Conclusion
OHCA was associated with higher incidences of diabetes, prior myocardial infarction, and chronic kidney disease as compared with the remaining admissions. Approximately half of the patients had no preceding symptoms. In-hospital mortality was high (59.8%), but similar to the internationally published data.
doi:10.2147/IJGM.S60992
PMCID: PMC4096450  PMID: 25031544
out of hospital cardiac arrest; cardiogenic shock; in-hospital mortality
8.  Age and clinical outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes☆ 
Context
Elderly patients have more cardiovascular risk factors and a greater burden of ischemic disease than younger patients.
Aims
To examine the impact of age on clinical presentation and outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods and material
Collected data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2), which is a prospective multicenter study from six adjacent Arab Middle Eastern Gulf countries. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their age: ≤50 years, 51–70 years and >70 years and their clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. Mortality was assessed at one and 12 months.
Statistical analysis used
One-way ANOVA test for continuous variables, Pearson chi-square (X2) test for categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression analysis for predictors were performed.
Results
Among 7930 consecutive ACS patients; 2755 (35%) were ≤50 years, 4110 (52%) were 51–70 years and 1065 (13%) >70 years old. The proportion of women increased with increasing age (13% among patients ≤50 years to 31% among patients > 70 years). The risk factor pattern varied with age; younger patients were more often obese, smokers and had a positive family history of CAD, whereas older patients more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Advancing age was associated with under-treatment evidence-based therapies. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for relevant covariates showed that old age was independent predictors for re-ischemia (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03–1.60), heart failure (OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.17–3.52) and major bleeding (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.37–11.77) and in-hospital mortality (age 51–70: OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.86–3.85, and age >70: OR 4.71; 95% CI 3.11–7.14).
Conclusion
Despite being higher risk group, elderly are less likely to receive evidence-based therapies and had worse outcomes. Guidelines adherence is highly recommended in elderly.
doi:10.1016/j.jcdr.2012.08.005
PMCID: PMC3770118  PMID: 24027372
Acute coronary syndrome; Age; Elderly
9.  Mortality Trends in Patients Hospitalized with the Initial Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Middle Eastern Country over 20 Years 
We aimed to define the temporal trend in the initial Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) management and outcome during the last two decades in a Middle Eastern country. A total of 10,915 patients were admitted with initial AMI with mean age of 53 ± 11.8 years. Comparing the two decades (1991–2000) to (2001–2010), the use of antiplatelet drugs increased from 84% to 95%, β-blockers increased from 38% to 56%, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) increased from 12% to 36% (P < 0.001 for all). The rates of PCI increased from 2.5% to 14.6% and thrombolytic therapy decreased from 71% to 65% (P < 0.001 for all). While the rate of hospitalization with Initial MI increased from 34% to 66%, and the average length of hospital stay decreased from 6.4 ± 3 to 4.6 ± 3, all hospital outcomes parameters improved significantly including a 39% reduction in in-hospital Mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher utilization of antiplatelet drugs, β-blockers, and ACEI were the main contributors to better hospital outcomes. Over the study period, there was a significant increase in the hospitalization rate in patients presenting with initial AMI. Evidence-based medical therapies appear to be associated with a substantial improvement in outcome and in-hospital mortality.
doi:10.1155/2014/464323
PMCID: PMC4020445  PMID: 24868481
10.  A prospective observational study of skin to subarachnoid space depth in the Indian population 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2014;58(2):165-170.
Background and Aims:
A pre-puncture estimate of skin to subarachnoid space depth (SSD) may guide spinal needle placement and reduce complications associated with lumbar puncture. Our aim was to determine (1) The SSD in Indian males, females, parturients and the overall population; (2) To derive formulae for predicting SSD and (3) To determine which previously suggested formula best suited our population.
Methods:
In this prospective, observational study, 800 adult Indian patients undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia were divided into three groups: Males (Group M), females (Group F) and parturients (Group PF). SSD was measured after lumbar puncture. The relationship between SSD and patient characteristics was studied and statistical models were used to derive formula for predicting SSD. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis, forward stepwise multivariate regression analysis and paired t-tests.
Results:
Mean SSD was 4.71 ± 0.70 cm in the overall population. SSD in adult males (4.81 ± 0.68 cm) was significantly longer than that observed in females (4.55 ± 0.66 cm) but was comparable with SSD in parturients (4.73 ± 0.73 cm). Formula for predicting SSD in the overall population was 2.71 + 0.09 × Body Mass Index (BMI). Stocker's formula when applied correlated best with the observed SSD. Formulae were derived for the three groups.
Conclusions:
We found gender-based differences in SSD, with SSD in males being significantly greater than that observed in the female population. SSD correlated with BMI in the parturient and the overall population. Amongst the previously proposed formulae, Stocker's formula was most accurate in predicting SSD in our population.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.130819
PMCID: PMC4050933  PMID: 24963181
Lumbar puncture; predictive formulae; subarachnoid space depth
11.  LRP6 Enhances Glucose Metabolism by Promoting TCF7L2-dependent Insulin Receptor Expression and IGF Receptor stabilization in Humans 
Cell metabolism  2013;17(2):197-209.
Common genetic variations in Wnt signaling genes have been associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes by mechanisms that are not well understood. A rare nonconservative mutation in Wnt-coreceptor LRP6 (LRP6R611C) has shown to underlie autosomal dominant early onset coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We examined the interplay between Wnt and insulin signaling pathways in skeletal muscles and skin fibroblasts of healthy non-diabetic LRP6R611C mutation carriers. LRP6 mutation carriers exhibited hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin sensitivity compared to the non-carrier relatives in response to oral glucose ingestion, which correlated with a significant decline in tissue expression of the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin signaling activity. Further investigations showed that LRP6R611C mutation diminishes TCF7L2-dependent transcription of IR while it increases the stability of IGFR and enhances mTORC1 activity. These findings identify Wnt/LRP6/TCF7L2 axis as a regulator of glucose metabolism and a potential therapeutic target for insulin resistance.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2013.01.009
PMCID: PMC3589523  PMID: 23395167
12.  Beliefs and attitudes about breast cancer and screening practices among Arab women living in Qatar: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Women's Health  2013;13:49.
Background
Despite rising breast cancer incidence and mortality rates, breast cancer screening (BCS) rates among women in Qatar remain low. Previous studies indicate the need to better understand the many complex beliefs, values, and attitudes that influence Arab women’s health seeking behavior for the development of culturally appropriate and effective intervention strategies to address breast cancer in the Middle East. This study investigates beliefs, attitudes, and BCS practices of Arabic-speaking women in Qatar.
Methods
A multicenter, cross-sectional quantitative survey of 1,063 (87.5% response rate) Arabic-speaking female Qatari citizens and non-Qatari residents, 35 years of age or older, was conducted in Qatar from March 2011 to July 2011. Associations between beliefs and BCS practice were estimated using chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Participants who adhered to BCS guidelines (BCS practice = Yes) were compared to those who did not (BCS practice = No).
Results
In addition to low levels of awareness and low participation rates in BCS, one quarter of the participants stated their doctors talked to them about breast cancer, and less than half of the women interviewed believed breast cancer can be prevented. Women who engaged in BCS practice were more likely to have a doctor who talked to them about breast cancer, to believe they were in good–excellent health, that cancer can be prevented, or that cancer might be hereditary. The majority wanted to know if they had cancer and felt their health care needs were being met. The main reasons given for not planning BCS were lack of a doctor’s recommendation, fear, and embarrassment.
Conclusions
These findings indicate that a variety of channels (health care providers, media, breast cancer survivors, community leaders) should be utilized to create culturally appropriate breast cancer intervention programs and increased awareness of breast cancer, BCS, and the benefits of early detection of breast cancer. Employment of these measures will reduce breast cancer mortality rates among Arabic-speaking women living in the State of Qatar.
doi:10.1186/1472-6874-13-49
PMCID: PMC3878774  PMID: 24330708
Qatari women; Breast cancer screening; Breast self-examination; Clinical breast examination; Mammogram; Arab women; Beliefs and attitudes; Breast cancer in the Middle East
13.  Difficult laryngoscopy and intubation in the Indian population: An assessment of anatomical and clinical risk factors 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2013;57(6):569-575.
Background and Aim:
Differences in patient characteristics due to race or ethnicity may influence the incidence of difficult airway. Our purpose was to determine the incidence of difficult laryngoscopy and intubation, as well as the anatomical features and clinical risk factors that influence them, in the Indian population.
Methods:
In 330 adult patients receiving general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation, airway characteristics and clinical factors were determined and their association with difficult laryngoscopy (Cormack and Lehane grade 3 and 4) was analysed. Intubation Difficulty Scale score was used to identify degree of difficult laryngoscopy.
Results:
The incidence of difficult laryngoscopy and intubation was 9.7% and 4.5%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that increasing age and weight, male gender, modified Mallampati class (MMC) 3 and 4 in sitting and supine positions, inter-incisor distance (IID) ≤3.5 cm, thyromental (TMD) and sternomental distance, ratio of height and TMD, short neck, limited mandibular protrusion, decreased range of neck movement, history of snoring, receding mandible and cervical spondylosis were associated with difficult laryngoscopy. Multivariate analysis identified four variables that were independently associated with difficult laryngoscopy: MMC class 3 and 4, range of neck movement <80°, IID ≤ 3.5 cm and snoring.
Conclusions:
We found an incidence of 9.7% and 4.5% for difficult laryngoscopy and difficult intubation, respectively, in Indian patients with apparently normal airways. MMC class 3 and 4, range of neck movement <80°, IID ≤ 3.5 cm and snoring were independently related to difficult laryngoscopy. There was a high incidence (48.5%) of minor difficulty in intubation.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.123329
PMCID: PMC3883391  PMID: 24403616
Airway evaluation; difficult intubation; difficult laryngoscopy; intubation difficulty scale
14.  Study exploring depression and cardiovascular diseases amongst Arabic speaking patients living in the State of Qatar: Rationale and methodology 
Abstract: In Qatar, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. Studies show that depression is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality among cardiovascular patients. Thus, early detection of, and intervention for, depression among cardiovascular patients can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and save health care costs. To date there is no study in the Gulf region exploring depression among cardiovascular patients. The goals of our three-phase research program are to (1) understand the mental health issues, specifically depression, as experienced by cardiovascular patients living in the State of Qatar; (2) identify and implement strategies that would prevent depression and assist patients to deal with depression; and (3) evaluate, facilitate, and sustain strategies that are effective at reducing depression and foster its treatment among cardiovascular patients. This paper describe phase I of the research program. Using both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, we will investigate (1) the prevalence and severity of depression among patients who have confirmed diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (2) how contextual factors such as social, cultural, and economic factors contribute to the risk of depression and its management among cardiovascular patients, and (3) formulate effective intervention strategies that are expected to increase awareness, prevention of and treatment for depression among cardiovascular patients, thus reducing cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality in Qatar.
doi:10.5339/gcsp.2012.24
PMCID: PMC3963714  PMID: 24688991
15.  Transfusion of NOD mice with allogeneic newborn blood ameliorates autoimmune diabetes and modifies the expression of selected immune response genes1, 2 
Although allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has been shown to prevent autoimmune diabetes in heavily irradiated NOD mice, similar procedure is not suitable for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes because of associated severe side effects. Therefore, we evaluated whether mouse newborn blood, equivalent to human umbilical cord blood, could be used for diabetes prevention without recipient preconditioning. To test this hypothesis, unconditioned, pre-diabetic female NOD mice were given a single injection of whole newborn blood derived from the allogeneic, diabetes-resistant mouse strain, C57BL/6. Transfusion of allogeneic newborn but not adult blood prevented diabetes incidence in a majority of treated mice for a prolonged period of time. This was accompanied by the release of insulin in response to a challenge with glucose. Invasive cellular infiltration of islets was also substantially reduced in these mice. Although newborn blood transfusion induced low level of hematopoietic microchimerism, it did not strictly correlate with amelioration of diabetes. Induction of genes implicated in diabetes such as, Il18, Tnfa, and Inos but not Il4, Il17 or Ifng was repressed in splenocytes derived from protected mice. Notably, expression of the transcription factor Tbet/Tbx21 but not Gata3 or Rorgt was upregulated in protected mice. These data indicate that allogeneic newborn blood transfusion can prevent diabetes in NOD mice associated with modulation of selected cytokine genes implicated in diabetes manifestation. The data presented herein provide the proof of principle for the utility of allogeneic umbilical cord blood transfusion to treat patients with autoimmune diabetes.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0903615
PMCID: PMC3779363  PMID: 20164427
16.  Mortality Trends in Women and Men Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Insights from a 20-Year Registry 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e70066.
Background
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The present study evaluated the impact of gender in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) over a 20-year period in Qatar.
Methods
Data were collected retrospectively from the registry of the department of cardiology for all patients admitted with ACS during the study period (1991–2010) and were analyzed according to gender.
Results
Among 16,736 patients who were admitted with ACS, 14262 (85%) were men and 2474 (15%) were women. Cardiovascular risk factors were more prevalent among women in comparison to men. On admission, women presented mainly with non-ST-elevation ACS and were more likely to be undertreated with β-blockers (BB), antiplatelet agents and reperfusion therapy in comparison to men. However, from 1999 through 2010, the use of aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and BB increased from 66% to 79%, 27% to 41% and 17% to 49%, respectively in women. In the same period, relative risk reduction for mortality was 64% in women and 51% in men. Across the 20-year period, the mortality rate decreased from 27% to 7% among the Middle Eastern Arab women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female gender was independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (odd ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.27–1.79).
Conclusions
Women presenting with ACS are high-risk population and their in-hospital mortality remains higher for all age groups in comparison to men. Although, substantial improvement in the hospital outcome has been observed, guidelines adherence and improvement in the hospital care have not yet been optimized.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070066
PMCID: PMC3729461  PMID: 23936143
17.  Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study 
SpringerPlus  2013;2:284.
The objective of the study is to assess maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India. Data for this study was derived from the children’s record of the 2007 India National Family Health Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Data is segregated according to birth order 1 to 5 to assess mother’s occupation, Mother’s education, child’s gender, Mother’s age, place of residence, wealth index, mother’s anaemia level, prenatal care, assistance at delivery , antenatal care, place of delivery and other maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality. Out of total 51555 births, analysis is restricted to 16567 children of first birth order, 14409 of second birth order, 8318 of third birth order, 5021 of fourth birth order and 3034 of fifth birth order covering 92% of the total births taken place 0–59 months prior to survey. Mother’s average age in years for birth orders 1 to 5 are 23.7, 25.8, 27.4, 29 and 31 years, respectively. Most mothers whose children died are Hindu, with no formal education, severely anaemic and working in the agricultural sector. In multivariate logistic models, maternal education, wealth index and breastfeeding are protective factors across all birth orders. In birth order model 1 and 2, mother’s occupation is a significant risk factor. In birth order models 2 to 5, previous birth interval of lesser than 24 months is a risk factor. Child’s gender is a risk factor in birth order 1 and 5. Information regarding complications in pregnancy and prenatal care act as protective factors in birth order 1, place of delivery and immunization in birth order 2, and child size at birth in birth order 4. Prediction models demonstrate high discrimination that indicates that our models fit the data. The study has policy implications such as enhancing the Information, Education and Communication network for mothers, especially at higher birth orders, in order to reduce under-five mortality. The study emphasises the need of developing interventions to address the issues of anaemia, mothers working in the agricultural sector and improving relevant literacy among mothers.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-284
PMCID: PMC3724980  PMID: 23961385
India; Under-five mortality; Demographic and health survey (DHS); Birth order
18.  Intraoperative conditions and quality of postoperative analgesia after adding dexmedetomidine to epidural bupivacaine and fentanyl in elective cesarean section using combined spinal-epidural anesthesia 
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of adding dexmedetomidine to regular mixture of epidural drugs for pregnant women undergoing elective cesarean section with special emphasis on their sedative properties, ability to improve quality of intraoperative, postoperative analgesia, and neonatal outcome.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty women of ASA physical status I or II at term pregnancy were enrolled randomly to receive plain bupivacaine plus fentanyl (BF Group) or plain bupivacaine plus mixture of fentanyl and dexmedetomidine (DBF Group). Incidence of hypotension, bradycardia, Apgar scores, intraoperative pain assessment, onset of postoperative pain, sedation scores, and side effects were recorded.
Results:
No difference in the times taken for block to reach T4 sensory level, to reach the highest level of sensory block, and interval between first neuraxial injection and onset of surgery between the groups was noted. Onset of postoperative pain was significantly delayed in the DBF group (P = 0.001), the need for supplementary fentanyl was significantly less in DBF group (P = 0.03), no significant difference was noted between both groups regarding neonatal Apgar scores as well as the incidence of hypotension, bradycardia, nausea, vomiting, and duration of motor blockade. DBF group had significantly less incidence of shivering (P = 0.03).
Conclusion:
Adding dexmedetomidine to regular mixture of epidural anesthetics in women undergoing elective cesarean section improved intraoperative conditions and quality of postoperative analgesia without maternal or neonatal significant side effects.
doi:10.4103/0259-1162.118947
PMCID: PMC4173533
Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia; elective caesarean section; epidural dexmedetomidine
19.  Does prior coronary artery bypass surgery alter the gender gap in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome? A 20-year retrospective cohort study 
BMJ Open  2012;2(6):e001969.
Objectives
Previous studies demonstrated women presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have poor outcomes when compared with men ‘the gender gap phenomenon’. The impact of prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) on women presenting with ACS is unknown. We hypothesised that the gender gap is altered in ACS patients with prior CABG. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients presenting with ACS according to their gender and history of prior CABG.
Design
Retrospective, observational (cohort) study.
Setting
Data were collected from hospital-based registry of patients hospitalised with ACS in Doha, Qatar, from 1991 through 2010. The data were analysed according to their gender and history of prior CABG.
Participants
A total of 16 750 consecutive patients with ACS were studied. In total, 693 (4.3%) patients had prior CABG; among them 125 (18%) patients were women.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Comparisons of clinical characteristics, inhospital treatment, and outcomes, including inhospital mortality and stroke were made.
Results
Women with or without prior CABG were older, less likely to be smokers, but more likely to have diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and renal impairment than men (p=0.001). Women were less likely to receive reperfusion and early invasive therapies. When compared with men, women without prior CABG carried higher inhospital mortality (11% vs 4.9%; p=0.001) and stroke rates (0.9% vs 0.3%; p=0.001). Female gender was independent predictor of poor outcome. Among prior CABG patients, despite the fact that women had worse baseline characteristics and were less likely to receive evidence-based therapy, there were no significant differences in mortality or stroke rates between the two groups.
Conclusions
Consistent with the world literature, women presenting with ACS and without prior CABG had higher death rates compared with men. Patients with prior CABG had comparable death rates regardless of the gender status.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001969
PMCID: PMC3533054  PMID: 23194954
acute coronary syndrome; coronary artery bypass surgery; gender gap; outcome
20.  Immediate and one-year outcome of patients presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome complicated by stroke: Findings from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2) 
Background
Stroke is a potential complication of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence, risk factors predisposing to stroke, in-hospital and 1-year mortality among patients presenting with ACS in the Middle East.
Methods
For a period of 9 months in 2008 to 2009, 7,930 consecutive ACS patients were enrolled from 65 hospitals in 6 Middle East countries.
Results
The prevalence of in-hospital stroke following ACS was 0.70%. Most cases were ST segment elevation MI-related (STEMI) and ischemic stroke in nature. Patients with in-hospital stroke were 5 years older than patients without stroke and were more likely to have hypertension (66% vs. 47.6%, P = 0.001). There were no differences between the two groups in regards to gender, other cardiovascular risk factors, or prior cardiovascular disease. Patients with stroke were more likely to present with atypical symptoms, advanced Killip class and less likely to be treated with evidence-based therapies. Independent predictors of stroke were hypertension, advanced killip class, ACS type –STEMI and cardiogenic shock. Stroke was associated with increased risk of in-hospital (39.3% vs. 4.3%) and one-year mortality (52% vs. 12.3%).
Conclusion
There is low incidence of in-hospital stroke in Middle-Eastern patients presenting with ACS but with very high in-hospital and one-year mortality rates. Stroke patients were less likely to be appropriately treated with evidence-based therapy. Future work should be focused on reducing the risk and improving the outcome of this devastating complication.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-64
PMCID: PMC3480946  PMID: 22894647
Acute coronary syndrome; Myocardial infarction; Stroke; Risk factors; Prognosis
21.  Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients with Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Observations from a 20-Year Registry in a Middle-Eastern Country 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e40571.
Objectives
Clinical characteristics and trends in the outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcomes in patients presented with ACS with or without a history of prior CABG over 2 decades.
Methods
Data were derived from hospital-based study for collected data from 1991 through 2010 of patients hospitalized with ACS in Doha, Qatar. Data were analyzed according to their history of prior CABG. Baseline clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcome were compared.
Results
A total 16,750 consecutive patients with ACS were studied, of which 693 (4.1%) had prior CABG. Patients with prior CABG were older (mean 60.5±11 vs. 53±12 years; P = 0.001), more likely to be females and have more cardiovascular risk factors than the non-CABG group. Prior CABG patients had larger infarct size, were less likely to receive reperfusion therapy, early invasive therapy and more likely to receive evidence-based therapies when compared to non-CABG patients. In-hospital mortality and stroke rates were comparable between the 2 groups. Over 2 decades, there was reduction in the in-hospital mortality rates and stroke rates in both groups (CABG, death; 13.2% to 4%, stroke; 1.9% to 0.0%, non-CABG, death; 10% to 3.2%, stroke 1.0% to 0.1%; all, p = 0.001).
Conclusion
Significant reduction in-hospital morbidity and mortality among ACS patients with prior CABG over a 20-year period.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040571
PMCID: PMC3399890  PMID: 22815766
22.  Evaluation of Hematological Parameters in Partial Exchange and Packed Cell Transfusion in Treatment of Severe Anemia in Pregnancy 
Anemia  2012;2012:608658.
Objectives. Anemia is a major public health problem throughout the world which assumes prominence in pregnant mothers. Patients with severe anemia continue to present themselves at term or in labor. This study was conducted to compare the improvements in hematological parameters of patients receiving partial exchange blood transfusion and transfusion of packed cells without exchange. Methods. One hundred and twenty-five severely anemic antenatal mothers were admitted from outpatient service. Partial exchange transfusion was given to sixty-six patients while fifty-nine received transfusion of packed cells with frusemide cover. Results. The two groups were comparable in terms of age, height, weight, religion, diet, education, occupation of self and husband, and income. Hemoglobin level in Group 1 was comparatively less than Group 2 at prelevel (5.2 ± 1.5 versus 6.6 ± 2.3, P = 0.001) and postlevel (7.2 ± 1.5 versus 8.6 ± 1.8, P = 0.001), respectively, but there was no significant difference between the two modes of transfusion (2.09 ± 1.6 versus 2.01 ± 1.5, P = 0.78). Conclusion. The study produced an equally significant improvement in hematological parameters in partial exchange and packed cell transfusion. Platelet counts were significantly less in partial exchange as compared with packed cell transfusion.
doi:10.1155/2012/608658
PMCID: PMC3368167  PMID: 22693662
23.  Intubating conditions following rapid sequence induction with three doses of succinylcholine 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;56(2):139-144.
Background:
The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare tracheal intubating conditions and the duration of apnoea following administration of 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 mg/kg of succinylcholine during simulated rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia.
Methods:
Anaesthesia was induced with fentanyl 2 μg/kg and propofol 2 mg/kg followed by application of cricoid pressure. Patients were randomly allocated to three groups according to the dose of succinylcholine administered (0.4, 0.6 or 1.0 mg/kg). Intubating conditions were assessed at 60 s after succinylcholine administration. Time to first diaphragmatic contraction (apnoea time) and time to resumption of regular spontaneous breathing were noted.
Results:
Excellent intubating conditions were obtained in 52.4%, 95.7% and 100% of the patients after 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 mg/kg succinylcholine, respectively; P<0.001. Acceptable intubating conditions (excellent and good grade combined) were obtained in 66.7%, 100% and 100% of the patients after 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 mg/ kg succinylcholine, respectively; P<0.001. Apnoea time and resumption of regular spontaneous breathing were dose-dependent. Apnoea time was 3.8±1.1 min, 4.3±0.9 min and 8.2±3.4 min in groups 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively; P<0.001. Time to regular spontaneous breathing was 5.3±1.2 min, 5.5±1.1 min and 8.9±3.5 min in groups 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively; P<0.001.
Conclusion:
A dose of 0.6 mg/kg succinylcholine can be used for rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia as it provides acceptable intubating conditions with a shorter apnoea time compared with a dose of 1 mg/kg.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.96309
PMCID: PMC3371488  PMID: 22701204
Anaesthesia; intubating conditions; neuromuscular blockers; rapid sequence induction; succinylcholine
24.  Effect of Age on Clinical Presentation and Outcome of Patients Hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome: A 20-Year Registry in a Middle Eastern Country 
Introduction:
Despite the fact that the elderly constitute an increasingly important group of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), they are often excluded from clinical trials and are underrepresented in clinical registries.
Aims:
To evaluate the impact of age in patients hospitalized with ACS.
Methods:
Data collected for all patients presenting with ACS (n=16,744) who were admitted in Qatar during the period (1991-2010) and were analyzed according to age into 3 groups (≤50 years [41.4%], 51-70 years [48.7%] and >70 years [9.8%]).
Results:
Older patients were more likely to be women and have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and renal failure, while younger patients were more likely to be smokers. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and heart failure were more prevalent in older patients. Older age was associated with undertreatment with evidence-based therapies and had higher mortality rate. Age was independent predictor for mortality. Over the study period, the relative reduction in mortality rates was higher in the younger compared with the older patients (61, 45.9 and 35.5%).
Conclusions:
Despite being a higher-risk group, older patients were undertreated with evidence based therapy and had worse short-term outcome. Guidelines adherence and improvement in hospital care for elderly patients with ACS may potentially reduce morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.2174/1874192401206010060
PMCID: PMC3367301  PMID: 22670161
Age; acute coronary syndrome; ST-elevation myocardial infarction; non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction; unstable angina; death.
25.  Comparative Evaluation of the Sniffing Position with Simple Head Extension for Laryngoscopic View and Intubation Difficulty in Adults Undergoing Elective Surgery 
The effect of patient position on mask ventilation, laryngoscopic view, intubation difficulty, and the stance adopted by the anesthesiologist during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation was investigated in 546 anesthetized adults in this prospective, randomized study. Patients were randomly assigned to either the sniffing position group or the simple extension group. The distribution of Cormack grades was comparable between the two groups (P = 0.144). The IDS score [median (IQR)] was 0 (0–2) in the sniffing group and 1 (0–2) in the simple extension group; P = 0.002. There were significant differences between groups with regard to intensity of lifting force, external laryngeal manipulation, alternate techniques used, number of attempts, and the stance adopted by anesthesiologist. We conclude that the sniffing position is superior to simple head extension with regard to ease of intubation as assessed by IDS. An upright stance is adopted by more anesthesiologists performing intubation with patients in the sniffing position.
doi:10.1155/2011/297913
PMCID: PMC3205597  PMID: 22110497

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