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1.  Age and clinical outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes☆ 
Elderly patients have more cardiovascular risk factors and a greater burden of ischemic disease than younger patients.
To examine the impact of age on clinical presentation and outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods and material
Collected data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2), which is a prospective multicenter study from six adjacent Arab Middle Eastern Gulf countries. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their age: ≤50 years, 51–70 years and >70 years and their clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. Mortality was assessed at one and 12 months.
Statistical analysis used
One-way ANOVA test for continuous variables, Pearson chi-square (X2) test for categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression analysis for predictors were performed.
Among 7930 consecutive ACS patients; 2755 (35%) were ≤50 years, 4110 (52%) were 51–70 years and 1065 (13%) >70 years old. The proportion of women increased with increasing age (13% among patients ≤50 years to 31% among patients > 70 years). The risk factor pattern varied with age; younger patients were more often obese, smokers and had a positive family history of CAD, whereas older patients more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Advancing age was associated with under-treatment evidence-based therapies. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for relevant covariates showed that old age was independent predictors for re-ischemia (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03–1.60), heart failure (OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.17–3.52) and major bleeding (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.37–11.77) and in-hospital mortality (age 51–70: OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.86–3.85, and age >70: OR 4.71; 95% CI 3.11–7.14).
Despite being higher risk group, elderly are less likely to receive evidence-based therapies and had worse outcomes. Guidelines adherence is highly recommended in elderly.
PMCID: PMC3770118  PMID: 24027372
Acute coronary syndrome; Age; Elderly
2.  Mortality Trends in Patients Hospitalized with the Initial Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Middle Eastern Country over 20 Years 
We aimed to define the temporal trend in the initial Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) management and outcome during the last two decades in a Middle Eastern country. A total of 10,915 patients were admitted with initial AMI with mean age of 53 ± 11.8 years. Comparing the two decades (1991–2000) to (2001–2010), the use of antiplatelet drugs increased from 84% to 95%, β-blockers increased from 38% to 56%, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) increased from 12% to 36% (P < 0.001 for all). The rates of PCI increased from 2.5% to 14.6% and thrombolytic therapy decreased from 71% to 65% (P < 0.001 for all). While the rate of hospitalization with Initial MI increased from 34% to 66%, and the average length of hospital stay decreased from 6.4 ± 3 to 4.6 ± 3, all hospital outcomes parameters improved significantly including a 39% reduction in in-hospital Mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher utilization of antiplatelet drugs, β-blockers, and ACEI were the main contributors to better hospital outcomes. Over the study period, there was a significant increase in the hospitalization rate in patients presenting with initial AMI. Evidence-based medical therapies appear to be associated with a substantial improvement in outcome and in-hospital mortality.
PMCID: PMC4020445  PMID: 24868481
3.  Blunt traumatic injury in the Arab Middle Eastern populations 
Trauma represents a global public health concern with an estimated 5 million deaths annually. Moreover, the incidence of blunt traumatic injuries (BTI) particularly road traffic accidents (RTAs) and workplace-related injuries are rising throughout the world-wide. Objectives: We aimed to review the epidemiology and prevention of BTI, in the Arab Middle East.
Materials and Methods:
A traditional narrative literature review was carried out using PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE search engines. We used the keywords “traumatic injuries”, “blunt” “epidemiology”, “Arab Middle East” between December 1972 and March 2013.
The most common mechanisms of BTI in our region are RTAs, falls from height, struck by heavy objects and pedestrian motor vehicle trauma crashes. The rate of RTA and occupational injuries are markedly increased in the region due to rapid industrial development, extreme climatic conditions and unfamiliar working environment. However, lack of reliable information on these unintentional injuries is mainly responsible for the underestimation of this trauma burden. This knowledge deficit shields the extent of the problem from policy makers, leading to continued fatalities. These preventable injuries in turn add to the overall financial burden on the society through loss of productivity and greater need of medical and welfare services.
In the Arab Middle East, population-based studies on the incidence, mechanism of injury, prevention and outcome of BTI are not well-documented. Therefore, region-specific BTI studies would strengthen surveillance to better understand the burden of these injuries in the region.
PMCID: PMC4013743  PMID: 24812453
Arab Middle East; blunt traumatic injuries; fall; pedestrians; road traffic accident
4.  Workplace-Related Traumatic Injuries: Insights from a Rapidly Developing Middle Eastern Country 
Traumatic workplace-related injuries (WRIs) carry a substantial negative impact on the public health worldwide. We aimed to study the incidence and outcomes of WRIs in Qatar. We conducted occupational injury surveillance for all WRI patients between 2010 and 2012. A total of 5152 patients were admitted to the level 1 trauma unit in Qatar, of which 1496 (29%) sustained WRI with a mean age of 34.3 ± 10.3. Fall from height (FFH) (51%) followed by being struck by heavy objects (FHO) (18%) and motor vehicle crashes (MVC) (17%) was the commonest mechanism of injury (MOI). WRI patients were mainly laborers involved in industrial work (43%), transportation (18%), installation/repair (12%), carpentry (9%), and housekeeping (3%). Use of protective device was not observed in 64% of cases. The mean ISS was 11.7 ± 8.9, median ICU stay was 3 days (1–64), and total hospital stay was 6 days (1–192). The overall case fatality was 3.7%. Although the incidence of WRI in Qatar is quite substantial, its mortality rate is relatively low in comparison to other countries of similar socioeconomic status. Prolonged hospital stay and treatment exert a significant socioeconomic burden on the nation's and families' resources. Focused and efficient injury prevention strategies are mandatory to prevent future WRI.
PMCID: PMC3964690  PMID: 24734049
5.  Implications of Foot Ulceration in Hemodialysis Patients: A 5-Year Observational Study 
Journal of Diabetes Research  2014;2014:945075.
Foot ulceration (FU) remains a serious concern for patients worldwide. We analyzed the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of FU in hemodialysis (HD) patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted for 252 HD patients who were followed up for 5 years. Patients were categorized according to whether they developed FU or not. The FU group (17%) was older and had significantly higher incidence of nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral (PAD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and diabetes mellitus (DM) as compared to no-FU group. FU group had higher frequency of major amputation (P = 0.001) and HD vascular access (P = 0.01). Patients with combined DM and PAD had a 10-fold increased risk of FU in comparison to those who had DM alone. Presence of PAD was the main independent predictor for development of FU in HD with an adjusted odd ratio (aOR) of 16.0 (95% CI: 4.41–62.18; P = 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and CAD, predictors for mortality were PAD (aOR 4.3), FU (aOR 3.6), and DM (aOR 2.6). FU is common in HD patients regardless of DM. However, the presence of PAD is significantly associated with more FU and mortality in HD. HD patients need intensive foot care and warrant progressive modification of vascular risk factors.
PMCID: PMC3958654  PMID: 24724108
6.  Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Coronary Artery Disease in a Small Country with High Cardiovascular Burden 
ISRN Cardiology  2014;2014:825461.
We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical profiles and outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), and their association with coronary artery disease (CAD) in a small country with high cardiovascular burden. Methods. Data were collected for all adult patients who underwent abdominal computed tomography scans at Hamad General Hospital in Qatar between 2004 and 2008. Results. Out of 13,115 screened patients for various reasons, 61 patients (0.5%) had abdominal aneurysms. The majority of AAA patients were male (82%) with a mean age of 67 ± 12 years. The incidence of AAA substantially increased with age reaching up to 5% in patients >80 yrs. Hypertension was the most prevalent risk factor for AAA followed by smoking, dyslipidemia, renal impairment, and diabetes mellitus. CAD and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) were observed in 36% and 13% of AAA patients, respectively. There were no significant correlations between CAD or PAD and site and size of AAA. Conclusion. This is the largest study in our region that describes the epidemiology of AAA with concomitant CAD. As the mortality rate is quite high in this high risk population, routine screening for AAA in CAD patients and vice versa needs further studies for proper risk stratification.
PMCID: PMC3950591  PMID: 24701361
7.  Rollover Car Crashes with Ejection: A Deadly Combination—An Analysis of 719 Patients 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:250540.
Rollover car crashes (ROCs) are serious public safety concerns worldwide. Objective. To determine the incidence and outcomes of ROCs with or without ejection of occupants in the State of Qatar. Methods. A retrospective study of all patients involved in ROCs admitted to Level I trauma center in Qatar (2011-2012). Patients were divided into Group I (ROC with ejection) and Group II (ROC without ejection). Results. A total of 719 patients were evaluated (237 in Group I and 482 in Group II). The mean age in Group I was lower than in Group II (24.3 ± 10.3 versus 29 ± 12.2; P = 0.001). Group I had higher injury severity score and sustained significantly more head, chest, and abdominal injuries in comparison to Group II. The mortality rate was higher in Group I (25% versus 7%; P = 0.001). Group I patients required higher ICU admission rate (P = 0.001). Patients in Group I had a 5-fold increased risk for age-adjusted mortality (OR 5.43; 95% CI 3.11–9.49), P = 0.001). Conclusion. ROCs with ejection are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality compared to ROCs without ejection. As an increased number of young Qatari males sustain ROCs with ejection, these findings highlight the need for research-based injury prevention initiatives in the country.
PMCID: PMC3947784  PMID: 24693231
8.  Prehospital Intubation in Patients with Isolated Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A 4-Year Observational Study 
Objectives. To study the effect of prehospital intubation (PHI) on survival of patients with isolated severe traumatic brain injury (ISTBI). Method. Retrospective analyses of all intubated patients with ISTBI between 2008 and 2011 were studied. Comparison was made between those who were intubated in the PHI versus in the trauma resuscitation unit (TRU). Results. Among 1665 TBI patients, 160 met the inclusion criteria (105 underwent PHI, and 55 patients were intubated in TRU). PHI group was younger in age and had lower median scene motor GCS (P = 0.001). Ventilator days and hospital length of stay (P = 0.01 and 0.006, resp.) were higher in TRUI group. Mean ISS, length of stay, initial blood pressure, pneumonia, and ARDS were comparable among the two groups. Mortality rate was higher in the PHI group (54% versus 31%, P = 0.005). On multivariate regression analysis, scene motor GCS (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.41–0.73) was an independent predictor for mortality. Conclusion. PHI did not offer survival benefit in our group of patients with ISTBI based on the head AIS and the scene motor GCS. However, more studies are warranted to prove this finding and identify patients who may benefit from this intervention.
PMCID: PMC3914516  PMID: 24527211
9.  Prehospital versus Emergency Room Intubation of Trauma Patients in Qatar: A-2-year Observational Study 
The impact of prehospital intubation (PHI) in improving outcome of trauma patients has not been adequately evaluated in the developing countries.
The present study analyzed the outcome of PHI versus emergency room intubation (ERI) among trauma patients in Qatar.
Materials and Methods:
Data were retrospectively reviewed for all intubated trauma patients between 2010 and 2011. Patients were classified according to location of intubation (PHI: Group-1 versus ERI: Group-2). Data were analyzed and compared.
Out of 570 intubated patients; 482 patients (239 in group-1 and 243 in group-2) met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 32 ΁ 14.6 years Head injury (P = 0.003) and multiple trauma (P = 0.004) were more prevalent in group-1, whereas solid organ injury predominated in group-2 (P = 0.02). Group-1 had significantly higher mean injury severity scoring (ISS), lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS), greater head abbreviated injury score and longer activation, response, scene and total emergency medical services times. The mortality was higher in group-1 (53% vs. 18.5%; P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that GCS [odds ratio (OR) 0.78, P = 0.005) and ISS (OR 1.12, P = 0.001) were independent predictors of mortality.
PHI is associated with high mortality when compared with ERI. However, selection bias cannot be ruled out and therefore, PHI needs further critical assessment in Qatar.
PMCID: PMC3938867  PMID: 24678471
Emergency room; intubation; mode of transport; on-scene; prehospital; trauma
10.  Conservative Management of Major Liver Necrosis after Angioembolization in a Patient with Blunt Trauma 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:954050.
Management of liver injury is challenging particularly for the advanced grades. Increased utility of nonoperative management strategies increases the risk of developing massive liver necrosis (MLN). We reported a case of a 19-year-old male who presented with a history of motor vehicle crash. Abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed large liver laceration (Grade 4) with blush and moderate free hemoperitoneum in 3 quadrants. Patient was managed nonoperatively by angioembolization. Two anomalies in hepatic arteries origin were reported and both vessels were selectively cannulated and bilateral gel foam embolization was achieved successfully. The patient developed MLN which was successfully treated conservatively. The follow-up CT showed progressive resolution of necrotic areas with fluid replacement and showed remarkable regeneration of liver tissues. We assume that patients with high-grade liver injuries could be managed successfully with a carefully designed protocol. Special attention should be given to the potential major associated complications. A tailored multidisciplinary approach to manage the subsequent complications would represent the best recommended strategy for favorable outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3888687  PMID: 24455392
11.  Adherence of Surgeons to Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Guidelines in a Tertiary General Hospital in a Rapidly Developing Country 
Objectives. To assess the standard practice of care of surgeons regarding surgical antibiotic prophylaxis, to identify gaps, and to set recommendations. Methods. A retrospective analysis of data obtained from different surgical units in a single center in Qatar over a 3-month period in 2012. A total of 101 patients who underwent surgery and followed regimes for surgical prophylaxis as per hospital guidelines were included in the study. Results. The overall use of antibiotic was 89%, whereas the current practice did not match the recommended hospital protocols in 53.5% of cases. Prolonged antibiotics use (59.3%) was the commonest reason for nonadherence followed by the use of an alternative antibiotic to that recommended in the protocol (31.5%) and no prophylaxis was used in 9.2% of cases. The rate of compliance was significantly higher among clean surgery than clean contaminated group (P = 0.03). Forty-four percent of clean and 65% of clean-contaminated procedures showed noncompliance with the recommended surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis hospital guidelines. Conclusion. Lack of adherence to hospital protocols is not uncommon. This finding remains a challenge to encourage clinicians to follow hospital guidelines appropriately and to consistently apply the surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. The role of clinical pharmacist may facilitate this process across all surgical disciplines.
PMCID: PMC3885161  PMID: 24454349
12.  Delayed Presentation of Intussusception with Perforation after Splenectomy in Patient with Blunt Abdominal Trauma 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:510701.
Adult intussusception (AI) following blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is a rare surgical condition. We present a case of delayed diagnosis of ileocecal junction intussusception with a perforation of small bowel in a 34-year-old male with a history of fall from height. Initial exploratory laparotomy revealed shattered spleen requiring splenectomy. Initial abdominal computerized tomography scanning (CT) scan showed dilated small bowel with no organic obstruction. Patient started to improve with partial distention and was shifted to rehabilitation unit. On the next day, he experienced severe abdominal distention and vomiting. Abdominal CT showed characteristic intussusception at the distal ileum. Secondary exploratory laparotomy revealed severe adhesions of stomach and small bowel to the anterior abdominal wall with dilated small bowel loops and intussusception near the ileocecal junction with perforation of small bowel. The affected area was resected and side-to-side stapled anastomosis was performed. Though small bowel intussusception is a rare event, BAT patients with delayed symptoms of bowel obstruction should be carefully evaluated for missed intussusception.
PMCID: PMC3877598  PMID: 24455385
13.  Registration of Clinical Trials: Is it Really Needed? 
Background and Aims:
Withholding findings of clinical trials for publication or presentation to the regulatory authorities is a major concern. We aimed to address the importance of clinical trial registration and whether it is needed or not.
For ethical conduct of clinical trial, registration is an important but debatable issue due to proprietary interest of the pharmaceutical industry. Over the years, investigating agencies uncovered several instances of misconduct during the clinical trial. The International committee of medical journal editors requires registration of trial methodology, but does not require registration of trial results; however, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Amendments does require researchers to register results.
Prospective registration of clinical trial is mandatory for more transparent research and sustaining the validity of evidence based practice and availability of reliable data. Clinical trials registration has the potential to contribute substantially to improve clinical trial transparency and reducing publication bias and selective reporting.
PMCID: PMC3877534  PMID: 24404555
Clinical trials; Ethics; Healthcare; Registration; Research
14.  Blunt traumatic esophageal injury: Unusual presentation and approach☆ 
Blunt esophageal injury is extremely rare event. However, it is a potential morbid injury unless managed early.
We report a rare case of blunt esophageal injury for a 28-year old male who presented with history of fall of heavy object over the right side of the chest. Diagnostic work up including chest X-ray, computerized tomography scans and gastrografin esophagogram revealed lower esophageal rupture. Right mini-thoracotomy with esophageal repair was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful.
The exact mechanism of blunt esophageal injury remains uncertain. This report described a unique location of esophageal rupture after blunt trauma that happened on the right side. Diagnosis of esophageal injury needs high index of suspicion and accurate diagnostic workup.
Prompt diagnosis and management are the key for better prognosis in patients with blunt esophageal injury.
PMCID: PMC3907204  PMID: 24394856
Blunt trauma; Fall of heavy object; Esophageal injury
15.  Peripheral arterial disease in the Middle East: Underestimated predictor of worse outcome 
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of PAD in the developed world is approximately 12% among adult population, which is age-dependent and with men being affected slightly more than women. Despite the strikingly high prevalence of PAD, the disease is underdiagnosed. Surprisingly, more than 70% of primary health care providers in the US were unaware of the presence of PAD in their patients. The clinical presentation of PAD may vary from asymptomatic to intermittent claudication, atypical leg pain, rest pain, ischemic ulcers, or gangrene. Claudication is the typical symptomatic expression of PAD. However, the disease may remains asymptomatic in up to 50% of all PAD patients. PAD has also been reported as a marker of poor outcome among patients with coronary artery disease. Despite the fact that the prevalence of atherosclerotic disease is increasing in the Middle East with increasing cardiovascular risk factors (tobacco use, diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome), data regarding PAD incidence in the Middle East are scarce.
PMCID: PMC3963749  PMID: 24689007
Peripheral arterial disease; Middle East
16.  Epicardial Coronary Arteries in Khat Chewers Presenting with Myocardial Infarction 
Background. Khat chewing is a common habit in Yemen despite increased evidence of its negative impact on the cardiovascular system. Aims. We aimed to study the epicardial coronary arteries in khat chewers presenting with myocardial infarction (AMI). Materials and Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2008 and May 2009 in Yemen. AMI patients who underwent coronary angiogram were enrolled and divided into groups (gp): gp1 (diabetic and khat chewers), gp2 (khat chewers and nondiabetic), and gp3 (diabetic and non-khat users). Results. Of 347 AMI patients 63%, 21%, and 16% were in gp 2, 3, and 1, respectively. Khat chewers were younger in comparison to non-khat users. Group 3 patients were more likely to have multivessel disease, severe left anterior descending (LAD), right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis and total RCA, and left circumflex (Lcx) occlusion compared to other groups. Group 1 patients were more likely to have total LAD occlusion and severe Lcx lesions. In multivariate analysis, age, diabetes mellitus, and smoking were significant independent predictors for significant coronary artery lesions; however, khat chewing did not show such association. Conclusions. Coronary spasm is the main mechanism of AMI in khat chewers. The impact of our finding for risk stratification and management warrants further studies.
PMCID: PMC3814045  PMID: 24222853
17.  Mortality Trends in Women and Men Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Insights from a 20-Year Registry 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e70066.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The present study evaluated the impact of gender in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) over a 20-year period in Qatar.
Data were collected retrospectively from the registry of the department of cardiology for all patients admitted with ACS during the study period (1991–2010) and were analyzed according to gender.
Among 16,736 patients who were admitted with ACS, 14262 (85%) were men and 2474 (15%) were women. Cardiovascular risk factors were more prevalent among women in comparison to men. On admission, women presented mainly with non-ST-elevation ACS and were more likely to be undertreated with β-blockers (BB), antiplatelet agents and reperfusion therapy in comparison to men. However, from 1999 through 2010, the use of aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and BB increased from 66% to 79%, 27% to 41% and 17% to 49%, respectively in women. In the same period, relative risk reduction for mortality was 64% in women and 51% in men. Across the 20-year period, the mortality rate decreased from 27% to 7% among the Middle Eastern Arab women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female gender was independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (odd ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.27–1.79).
Women presenting with ACS are high-risk population and their in-hospital mortality remains higher for all age groups in comparison to men. Although, substantial improvement in the hospital outcome has been observed, guidelines adherence and improvement in the hospital care have not yet been optimized.
PMCID: PMC3729461  PMID: 23936143
18.  Traumatic Brain Injury in Qatar: Age Matters—Insights from a 4-Year Observational Study 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:354920.
Background. Overall traumatic brain injury (TBI) incidence and related death rates vary across different age groups. Objectives. To evaluate the incidence, causes, and outcome of TBI in adolescents and young adult population in Qatar. Method. This was a retrospective review of all TBIs admitted to the trauma center between January 2008 and December 2011. Demographics, mechanism of injury, morbidity, and mortality were analyzed in different age groups. Results. A total of 1665 patients with TBI were admitted; the majority were males (92%) with a mean age of 28 ± 16 years. The common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle crashes and falls from height (51% and 35%, resp.). TBI was incidentally higher in young adults (34%) and middle age group (21%). The most frequent injuries were contusion (40%), subarachnoid (25%), subdural (24%), and epidural hemorrhage (18%). The mortality rate was 11% among TBI patients. Mortality rates were 8% and 12% among adolescents and young adults, respectively. The highest mortality rate was observed in elderly patients (35%). Head AIS, ISS, and age were independent predictors for mortality. Conclusion. Adolescents and adults sustain significant portions of TBI, whereas mortality is much higher in the older group. Public awareness and injury prevention campaigns should target young population.
PMCID: PMC3745961  PMID: 23983630
19.  Abdominal Cocoon and Adhesiolysis: A Case Report and a Literature Review 
Abdominal cocoon is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to diagnose in most of the cases preoperatively. Surgical removal of the membrane resulted in complete recovery in the majority of the cases. The exact etiology of abdominal cocoon is still unknown. We reported a male patient who presented with features of intestinal obstruction and has been diagnosed as abdominal cocoon intraoperatively.
PMCID: PMC3588397  PMID: 23476828
20.  Epidemiology of workplace-related fall from height and cost of trauma care in Qatar 
This study was designed to identify the incidence, injury patterns, and actual medical costs of occupational-related falls in Qatar, in order to provide a reference for establishing fall prevention guidelines and recommendations.
Settings and Design:
Retrospective database registry review in Level 1 Trauma Center at Tertiary Hospital in Qatar.
Materials and Methods:
During a 12-month period between November 1st 2007 and October 31st 2008, construction workers who fell from height were enrolled. A database was designed to characterize demographics, injury severity score (ISS), total hospital length of stay, resource utilization, and cost of care.
Statistical Analysis:
Data were presented as proportions, mean ± standard deviation or median and range as appropriate. In addition, case fatality rate and cost analysis were obtained from the Biostatistics and finance departments of the same hospital.
There were 315 fall-related injuries, of which 298 were workplace related. The majority (97%) were male immigrants with mean age of 33 ± 11 years. The most common injuries were to the spine, head, and chest. Mean ISS was 16.4 ± 10. There was total of 29 deaths (17 pre-hospital and 12 in-hospital deaths) for a case fatality rate of 8.6%. Mean cost of care (rounded figures) included pre-hospital services Emergency Medical Services (EMS), trauma resuscitation room, radiology and imaging, operating room, intensive care unit care, hospital ward care, rehabilitation services, and total cost (123, 82, 105, 130, 496, 3048,434, and 4418 thousand United States Dollars (USD), respectively). Mean cost of care per admitted patient was approximately 16,000 USD.
Falling from height at a construction site is a common cause of trauma that poses a significant financial burden on the health care system. Injury prevention efforts are warranted along with strict regulation and enforcement of occupational laws.
PMCID: PMC3665115  PMID: 23724377
Cost of care; falls from height; Qatar; workplace
21.  Delayed Presentation of Traumatic Intraperitoneal Rupture of Urinary Bladder 
Case Reports in Urology  2012;2012:430746.
Blunt injury of the urinary bladder is well known and usually associates pelvic fractures. Isolated bladder injury is a rare condition and on the other hand, delayed bladder perforation is an extremely rare entity. Herein, we described an unusual case of isolated delayed intraperitoneal bladder rupture that occurred on the third post injury day in a young male in the absence of free intraperitoneal fluid and pelvic fracture. The diagnostic workup, course and the need for surgical repair of the injury is presented.
PMCID: PMC3521404  PMID: 23259148
22.  Left Internal Mammary Artery Injury Requiring Resuscitative Thoracotomy: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Surgery  2012;2012:459841.
Background. Penetrating injuries to the chest and in particular to the heart that results in pericardial tamponade and cardiac arrest requires immediate resuscitative thoracotomy as the only lifesaving technique and should be performed without delay. Objective. To describe an external cardiac tamponade caused by massive tension hemothorax from penetrating injury of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA). Method. A case presentation treated at the Level I trauma center at Hamad General Hospital, in Doha, Qatar and review of the literature on LIMA injuries reported cases. Results. LIMA injury as a cause of hemothorax is not uncommon, but to our knowledge our case is the first massive tension hemothorax with witnessed cardiac arrest reported in the literature requiring emergency thoracotomy, performed in trauma room, with full recovery. Conclusion. Injury to the LIMA with massive tension hemothorax requires immediate resuscitative thoracotomy.
PMCID: PMC3541570  PMID: 23326745
23.  Presentation and outcome of traumatic spinal fractures 
Motor vehicle crashes and falls account for most of the spine fractures with subsequent serious disability.
To define the incidence, causes, and outcome of spinal fractures.
Materials and Methods:
Data were collected retrospectively from trauma registry database of all traumatic spinal injuries admitted to the section of trauma surgery in Qatar from November 2007 to December 2009.
Among 3712 patients who were admitted to the section of trauma surgery, 442 (12%) injured patients had spinal fractures with a mean age of 33.2 ± 12 years. The male to female ratio was 11.6:1. Motor vehicle crashes (36.5%) and falls from height (19.3%) were the leading causes of cervical injury (P = 0.001). The injury severity score ranged between 4 and 75. Nineteen percent of cases with cervical injury had thoracic injury as well (P = 0.04). Lumber injury was associated with thoracic injury in 27% of cases (P < 0.001). Combined thoracic and lumber injuries were associated with cervical injury in 33% of cases (P < 0.001). The total percent of injuries associated with neurological deficit was 5.4%. Fifty-three cases were managed surgically for spine fractures; 14 of them had associated neurological deficits. Overall mortalityrate was 5%.
Spine fractures are not uncommon in Qatar. Cervical and thoracic spine injuries carry the highest incidence of associated neurological deficit and injuries at other spinal levels. Young males are the most exposed population that deserves more emphasis on injury prevention programs in the working sites and in enforcement of traffic laws.
PMCID: PMC3519044  PMID: 23248500
Cord injury; fracture; spine; trauma; Qatar
24.  Myocardial Viability: What We Knew and What Is New 
Some patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction have shown significant improvements of contractility with favorable long-term prognosis after revascularization. Several imaging techniques are available for the assessment of viable myocardium, based on the detection of preserved perfusion, preserved glucose metabolism, intact cell membrane and mitochondria, and presence of contractile reserve. Nuclear cardiology techniques, dobutamine echocardiography and positron emission tomography are used to assess myocardial viability. In recent years, new advances have improved methods of detecting myocardial viability. This paper summarizes the pathophysiology, methods, and impact of detection of myocardial viability, concentrating on recent advances in such methods. We reviewed the literature using search engines MIDLINE, SCOUPS, and EMBASE from 1988 to February 2012. We used key words: myocardial viability, hibernation, stunning, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies showed that the presence of viable myocardium was associated with a greater likelihood of survival in patients with coronary artery disease and LV dysfunction, but the assessment of myocardial viability did not identify patients with survival benefit from revascularization, as compared with medical therapy alone. This topic is still debatable and needs more evidence.
PMCID: PMC3440854  PMID: 22988540
25.  Polyvascular Disease in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Its Predictors and Outcomes 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:284851.
We evaluated prevalence and clinical outcome of polyvascular disease (PolyVD) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data for 7689 consecutive ACS patients were collected from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events between October 2008 and June 2009. Patients were divided into 2 groups (ACS with versus without PolyVD). All-cause mortality was assessed at 1 and 12 months. Patients with PolyVD were older and more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors. On presentation, those patients were more likely to have atypical angina, high resting heart rate, high Killip class, and GRACE risk scoring. They were less likely to receive evidence-based therapies. Diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and hypertension were independent predictors for presence of PolyVD. PolyVD was associated with worse in-hospital outcomes (except for major bleedings) and all-cause mortality even after adjusting for baseline covariates. Great efforts should be directed toward primary and secondary preventive measures.
PMCID: PMC3259691  PMID: 22272171

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