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1.  Age and clinical outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes☆ 
Context
Elderly patients have more cardiovascular risk factors and a greater burden of ischemic disease than younger patients.
Aims
To examine the impact of age on clinical presentation and outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods and material
Collected data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2), which is a prospective multicenter study from six adjacent Arab Middle Eastern Gulf countries. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their age: ≤50 years, 51–70 years and >70 years and their clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. Mortality was assessed at one and 12 months.
Statistical analysis used
One-way ANOVA test for continuous variables, Pearson chi-square (X2) test for categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression analysis for predictors were performed.
Results
Among 7930 consecutive ACS patients; 2755 (35%) were ≤50 years, 4110 (52%) were 51–70 years and 1065 (13%) >70 years old. The proportion of women increased with increasing age (13% among patients ≤50 years to 31% among patients > 70 years). The risk factor pattern varied with age; younger patients were more often obese, smokers and had a positive family history of CAD, whereas older patients more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Advancing age was associated with under-treatment evidence-based therapies. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for relevant covariates showed that old age was independent predictors for re-ischemia (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03–1.60), heart failure (OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.17–3.52) and major bleeding (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.37–11.77) and in-hospital mortality (age 51–70: OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.86–3.85, and age >70: OR 4.71; 95% CI 3.11–7.14).
Conclusion
Despite being higher risk group, elderly are less likely to receive evidence-based therapies and had worse outcomes. Guidelines adherence is highly recommended in elderly.
doi:10.1016/j.jcdr.2012.08.005
PMCID: PMC3770118  PMID: 24027372
Acute coronary syndrome; Age; Elderly
2.  Impact of diabetes on hospital adverse cardiovascular outcomes in acute coronary syndrome patients: Data from the Saudi project of acute coronary events 
Background
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. DM patients who present with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have worse cardiovascular outcomes. We characterized clinical features and hospital outcomes of diabetic patients with ACS in Saudi Arabia.
Methods
ACS patients enrolled in the Saudi Project for Assessment of Acute Coronary Syndrome (SPACE) study from December 2005 to December 2007, either with DM or newly diagnosed during hospitalization were eligible. Baseline demographics, clinical presentation, therapies, and in-hospital outcomes were compared with non-diabetic patients.
Results
Of the 5055 ACS patients enrolled in SPACE, 2929 (58.1%) had DM (mean age 60.2 ± 11.5, 71.6% male, and 87.6% Saudi nationals). Diabetic patients had higher risk-factor (e.g., hypertension, hyperlipidemia) prevalences and were more likely to present with non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction (40.2% vs. 31.4%, p < 0.001), heart failure (25.4% vs. 13.9%, p < 0.001), significant left ventricular systolic dysfunction and multi-vessel disease. Diabetic patients had higher in-hospital heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and re-infarction rates. Adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital mortality in diabetic patients was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.02–3.30, p = 0.042).
Conclusions
A substantial proportion of Saudi patients presenting with ACS have DM and a significantly worse prognosis. These data highlight the importance of cardiovascular preventative interventions in the general population.
doi:10.1016/j.jsha.2012.08.002
PMCID: PMC3809463  PMID: 24174830
Diabetes; Coronary artery disease; Saudi Arabia; Registry; Acute coronary syndrome; In-hospital mortality
3.  Polyvascular Disease in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Its Predictors and Outcomes 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:284851.
We evaluated prevalence and clinical outcome of polyvascular disease (PolyVD) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data for 7689 consecutive ACS patients were collected from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events between October 2008 and June 2009. Patients were divided into 2 groups (ACS with versus without PolyVD). All-cause mortality was assessed at 1 and 12 months. Patients with PolyVD were older and more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors. On presentation, those patients were more likely to have atypical angina, high resting heart rate, high Killip class, and GRACE risk scoring. They were less likely to receive evidence-based therapies. Diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and hypertension were independent predictors for presence of PolyVD. PolyVD was associated with worse in-hospital outcomes (except for major bleedings) and all-cause mortality even after adjusting for baseline covariates. Great efforts should be directed toward primary and secondary preventive measures.
doi:10.1100/2012/284851
PMCID: PMC3259691  PMID: 22272171
4.  Age and its relationship to acute coronary syndromes in the Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events (SPACE) registry: The SPACE age study☆☆☆ 
Objective
To characterize risk profile of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in different age groups and compare management provided to in-hospital outcome.
Design
Prospective multi-hospital registry.
Setting
Seventeen secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia.
Patients
Five thousand and fifty-five patients with ACS. They were divided into four groups: ⩽40 years, 41–55 years, 56–70 years and ⩾70 years. Main outcome measures: prevalence, utilization and mortality.
Results: Ninety-four percent of patients <40 years compared to 68% of patients >70 years were men. Diabetes was present in 70% of patients aged 56–70 years. Smoking was present in 66% of those <40 years compared to 7% of patients >70 years. Fifty-three percent of the patients >70 years and 25% of those <40 years had history of ischemic heart disease. Sixty percent of patients <40 years presented with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) while non-ST elevation myocardial infarction was the presentation in 49% of patients >70 years. Thirty-four percent of patients >70 years compared to 10% of patients <40 years presented >12 h from symptom onset with STEMI. Fifty-four percent of patients >70 compared to 64–71% of those <70 years had coronary angiography. Twenty-four percent of patients >70 compared to 34–40% of those <70 years had percutaneous coronary intervention. Reperfusion shortfall for STEMI was 16–18% in patients >56 years compared to 11% in patients <40 years. Mortality was 7% in patients >70 years compared to 1.6–3% in patients <70 years. For all comparisons (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Young and old ACS patients have unique risk factors and present differently. Older patients have higher in-hospital mortality as they are treated less aggressively. There is an urgent need for a national prevention program as well as a systematic improvement in the care for patients with ACS including a system of care for STEMI patients. For older patients there is a need to identify medical as well as social factors that influence the therapeutic management plans.
doi:10.1016/j.jsha.2011.08.001
PMCID: PMC3727458  PMID: 23960662
Age; Mortality; In-hospital outcome; Acute coronary syndrome
5.  Baseline characteristics, management practices, and in-hospital outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes: Results of the Saudi project for assessment of coronary events (SPACE) registry 
Objectives
The Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events (SPACE) registry is the first in Saudi Arabia to study the clinical features, management, and in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients.
Methods
We conducted a prospective registry study in 17 hospitals in Saudi Arabia between December 2005 and December 2007. ACS patients included those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina; both were reported collectively as NSTEACS (non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome).
Results
5055 patients were enrolled with mean age ± SD of 58 ± 12.9 years; 77.4% men, 82.4% Saudi nationals; 41.5% had STEMI, and 5.1% arrived at the hospital by ambulance. History of diabetes mellitus was present in 58.1%, hypertension in 55.3%, hyperlipidemia in 41.1%, and 32.8% were current smokers; all these were more common in NSTEACS patients, except for smoking (all P < 0.0001). In-hospital medications were: aspirin (97.7%), clopidogrel (83.7%), beta-blockers (81.6%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (75.1%), and statins (93.3%). Median time from symptom onset to hospital arrival for STEMI patients was 150 min (IQR: 223), 17.5% had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), 69.1% had thrombolytic therapy, and 14.8% received it at less than 30 min of hospital arrival. In-hospital outcomes included recurrent myocardial infarction (1.5%), recurrent ischemia (12.6%), cardiogenic shock (4.3%), stroke (0.9%), major bleeding (1.3%). In-hospital mortality was 3.0%.
Conclusion
ACS patients in Saudi Arabia present at a younger age, have much higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, less access to ambulance use, delayed treatment by thrombolytic therapy, and less primary PCI compared with patients in the developed countries. This is the first national ACS registry in our country and it demonstrated knowledge-care gaps that require further improvements.
doi:10.1016/j.jsha.2011.05.004
PMCID: PMC3727434  PMID: 23960654
Acute coronary syndromes; Acute myocardial infarction; Unstable angina; Registry; Saudi Arabia; Middle East
6.  The Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events (SPACE) registry: Design and results of a phase I pilot study 
The Canadian Journal of Cardiology  2009;25(7):e255-e258.
OBJECTIVE:
The delay between the availability of clinical evidence and its application to the care of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia remains undefined. The Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events (SPACE) registry provides a comprehensive view of the current diagnostic and treatment strategies for patients with ACS; thus, the registry may be used to identify opportunities to improve the care of these patients.
METHODS:
Eight hospitals in different regions of Saudi Arabia were involved in the pilot phase of the registry, from December 2005 to July 2006. The study patients included individuals with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI and unstable angina.
RESULTS:
A total of 435 patients (77% men and 80% Saudis) with a mean age of 57.1 years were enrolled. Medical history included previously diagnosed ischemic heart disease (32%), percutaneous coronary intervention (12%), diabetes mellitus (53%), hypertension (48%), current smoking (39%), hyperlipidemia (31%) and family history of premature coronary artery disease (11%). The median door-to-needle time for fibrinolytic therapy received by patients with STEMIs was 90 min. Inhospital medications included acetylsalicylic acid (98%), clopidogrel (73%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (74%), beta-blockers (73%), statins (88%), unfractionated heparin (80%), low-molecular weight heparin (22%) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (9%). The inhospital mortality rate was 5%.
CONCLUSION:
The first nationwide registry of patients with ACS in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. In contrast to registries from developed countries, our cohort is characterized by a younger age at presentation and a much higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Most patients with STEMIs did not receive fibrinolytic therapy within the time recommended in the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. The results of the present pilot study show potential targets for improvement in care.
PMCID: PMC2723036  PMID: 19584982
Acute coronary syndrome; Fibrinolytic therapy; Middle East; Registry; Saudi Arabia
7.  Xylohypha bantiana multiple brain abscesses in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus 
Xylohypha bantiana is a rare cause of cerebral fungal infection (phaeohyphomycosis). We report on a 72-year-old man who, while taking several immunosuppressive medications for systemic lupus erythematosus, presented with multiple bilateral cerebral abscesses caused by X bantiana. The lesions were not surgically amenable and the patient died two months after discontinuing antifungal therapy.
PMCID: PMC2094907  PMID: 18159434
Brain abscess; Fungal infection; Immunosuppression; Xylohypha bantiana
8.  Gender Disparities in the Presentation, Management and Outcomes of Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55508.
Background
Gender-related differences in mortality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been reported. The extent and causes of these differences in the Middle-East are poorly understood. We studied to what extent difference in outcome, specifically 1-year mortality are attributable to demographic, baseline clinical differences at presentation, and management differences between female and male patients.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Baseline characteristics, treatment patterns, and 1-year mortality of 7390 ACS patients in 65 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries were evaluated during 2008–2009, as part of the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2). Women were older (61.3±11.8 vs. 55.6±12.4; P<0.001), more overweight (BMI: 28.1±6.6 vs. 26.7±5.1; P<0.001), and more likely to have a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes. Fewer women than men received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE), aspirin, clopidogrel, beta blockers or statins at discharge. They also underwent fewer invasive procedures including angiography (27.0% vs. 34.0%; P<0.001), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (10.5% vs. 15.6%; P<0.001) and reperfusion therapy (6.9% vs. 20.2%; P<0.001) than men. Women were at higher unadjusted risk for in-hospital death (6.8% vs. 4.0%, P<0.001) and heart failure (HF) (18% vs. 11.8%, P<0.001). Both 1-month and 1-year mortality rates were higher in women than men (11% vs. 7.4% and 17.3% vs. 11.4%, respectively, P<0.001). Both baseline and management differences contributed to a worse outcome in women. Together these variables explained almost all mortality disparities.
Conclusions/Significance
Differences between genders in mortality appeared to be largely explained by differences in prognostic variables and management patterns. However, the origin of the latter differences need further study.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055508
PMCID: PMC3566183  PMID: 23405162

Results 1-8 (8)