PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-15 (15)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Wealth and cardiovascular health: a cross-sectional study of wealth-related inequalities in the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in high-, middle- and low-income countries 
Background
Effective policies to control hypertension require an understanding of its distribution in the population and the barriers people face along the pathway from detection through to treatment and control. One key factor is household wealth, which may enable or limit a household’s ability to access health care services and adequately control such a chronic condition. This study aims to describe the scale and patterns of wealth-related inequalities in the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in 21 countries using baseline data from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology study.
Methods
A cross-section of 163,397 adults aged 35 to 70 years were recruited from 661 urban and rural communities in selected low-, middle- and high-income countries (complete data for this analysis from 151,619 participants). Using blood pressure measurements, self-reported health and household data, concentration indices adjusted for age, sex and urban-rural location, we estimate the magnitude of wealth-related inequalities in the levels of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in each of the 21 country samples.
Results
Overall, the magnitude of wealth-related inequalities in hypertension awareness, treatment, and control was observed to be higher in poorer than in richer countries. In poorer countries, levels of hypertension awareness and treatment tended to be higher among wealthier households; while a similar pro-rich distribution was observed for hypertension control in countries at all levels of economic development. In some countries, hypertension awareness was greater among the poor (Sweden, Argentina, Poland), as was treatment (Sweden, Poland) and control (Sweden).
Conclusion
Inequality in hypertension management outcomes decreased as countries became richer, but the considerable variation in patterns of wealth-related inequality - even among countries at similar levels of economic development - underscores the importance of health systems in improving hypertension management for all. These findings show that some, but not all, countries, including those with limited resources, have been able to achieve more equitable management of hypertension; and strategies must be tailored to national contexts to achieve optimal impact at population level.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12939-016-0478-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12939-016-0478-6
PMCID: PMC5146857  PMID: 27931255
Global health; Hypertension; Socioeconomic factors; Healthcare disparities
2.  Reference ranges of handgrip strength from 125,462 healthy adults in 21 countries: a prospective urban rural epidemiologic (PURE) study 
Abstract
Background
The measurement of handgrip strength (HGS) has prognostic value with respect to all‐cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular disease, and is an important part of the evaluation of frailty. Published reference ranges for HGS are mostly derived from Caucasian populations in high‐income countries. There is a paucity of information on normative HGS values in non‐Caucasian populations from low‐ or middle‐income countries. The objective of this study was to develop reference HGS ranges for healthy adults from a broad range of ethnicities and socioeconomically diverse geographic regions.
Methods
HGS was measured using a Jamar dynamometer in 125,462 healthy adults aged 35‐70 years from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study.
Results
HGS values differed among individuals from different geographic regions. HGS values were highest among those from Europe/North America, lowest among those from South Asia, South East Asia and Africa, and intermediate among those from China, South America, and the Middle East. Reference ranges stratified by geographic region, age, and sex are presented. These ranges varied from a median (25th–75th percentile) 50 kg (43–56 kg) in men <40 years from Europe/North America to 18 kg (14–20 kg) in women >60 years from South East Asia. Reference ranges by ethnicity and body‐mass index are also reported.
Conclusions
Individual HGS measurements should be interpreted using region/ethnic‐specific reference ranges.
doi:10.1002/jcsm.12112
PMCID: PMC4833755  PMID: 27104109
handgrip strength; muscle strength; reference range; normative range; reference value
3.  Acute heart failure with and without acute coronary syndrome: clinical correlates and prognostic impact (From the HEARTS registry) 
Background
Little is know about the outcomes of acute heart failure (AHF) with acute coronary syndrome (ACS-AHF), compared to those without ACS (NACS-AHF).
Methods
We conducted a prospective registry of AHF patients involving 18 hospitals in Saudi Arabia between October 2009 and December 2010. In this sub-study, we compared the clinical correlates, management and hospital course, as well as short, and long-term outcomes between AHF patients with and without ACS.
Results
Of the 2609 AHF patients enrolled, 27.8 % presented with ACS. Compared to NACS-AHF patients, ACS-AHF patients were more likely to be old males (Mean age = 62.7 vs. 60.8 years, p = 0.003, and 73.8 % vs. 62.7 %, p < 0.001, respectively), and to present with De-novo heart failure (56.6 % vs. 28.1 %, p < 0.001). Additionally they were more likely to have history of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and less likely to have chronic kidney disease (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). The prevalence of severe LV systolic dysfunction (EF < 30 %) was higher in ACS-AHF patients. During hospital stay, ACS-AHF patients were more likely to develop shock (p < 0.001), recurrent heart failure (p = 0.02) and needed more mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001). β blockers and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors were used more often in ACS-AHF patients (p = 0.001 and, p = 0.004 respectively). ACS- AHF patients underwent more coronary angiography and had higher prevalence of multi-vessel coronary artery disease (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). The unadjusted hospital and one-month mortality were higher in ACS-AHF patients (OR = 1.6 (1.2–2.2), p = 0.003 and 1.4 (1.0–1.9), p = 0.026 respectively). A significant interaction existed between the level of left ventricular ejection fraction and ACS-AHF status. After adjustment, ACS-AHF status was only significantly associated with hospital mortality (OR = 1.6 (1.1–2.4), p = 0.019). The three-years survival following hospital discharge was not different between the two groups.
Conclusion
AHF patients presenting with ACS had worse hospital prognosis, and an equivalent long-term survival compared to AHF patients without ACS. These findings underscore the importance of timely recognition and management of AHF patients with concomitant ACS given their distinct presentation and underlying pathophysiology compared to other AHF patients.
doi:10.1186/s12872-016-0267-6
PMCID: PMC4875586  PMID: 27206336
Heart failure complications/mortality/physiopathology; Acute coronary syndrome complications/mortality/physiopathology; Hospital Mortality; Saudi Arabia/epidemiology; Prospective Studies
4.  Reference ranges of handgrip strength from 125,462 healthy adults in 21 countries: a prospective urban rural epidemiologic (PURE) study 
Abstract
Background
The measurement of handgrip strength (HGS) has prognostic value with respect to all‐cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular disease, and is an important part of the evaluation of frailty. Published reference ranges for HGS are mostly derived from Caucasian populations in high‐income countries. There is a paucity of information on normative HGS values in non‐Caucasian populations from low‐ or middle‐income countries. The objective of this study was to develop reference HGS ranges for healthy adults from a broad range of ethnicities and socioeconomically diverse geographic regions.
Methods
HGS was measured using a Jamar dynamometer in 125,462 healthy adults aged 35‐70 years from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study.
Results
HGS values differed among individuals from different geographic regions. HGS values were highest among those from Europe/North America, lowest among those from South Asia, South East Asia and Africa, and intermediate among those from China, South America, and the Middle East. Reference ranges stratified by geographic region, age, and sex are presented. These ranges varied from a median (25th–75th percentile) 50 kg (43–56 kg) in men <40 years from Europe/North America to 18 kg (14–20 kg) in women >60 years from South East Asia. Reference ranges by ethnicity and body‐mass index are also reported.
Conclusions
Individual HGS measurements should be interpreted using region/ethnic‐specific reference ranges.
doi:10.1002/jcsm.12112
PMCID: PMC4833755  PMID: 27104109
handgrip strength; muscle strength; reference range; normative range; reference value
5.  Patient and System-Related Delays of Emergency Medical Services Use in Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results from the Third Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-3Ps) 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(1):e0147385.
Background
Little is known about Emergency Medical Services (EMS) use and pre-hospital triage of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Arabian Gulf countries.
Methods
Clinical arrival and acute care within 24 h of STEMI symptom onset were compared between patients transferred by EMS (Red Crescent and Inter-Hospital) and those transferred by non-EMS means. Data were retrieved from a prospective registry of 36 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries, from January 2014 to January 2015.
Results
We enrolled 2,928 patients; mean age, 52.7 (SD ±11.8) years; 90% men; and 61.7% non-Arabian Gulf citizens. Only 753 patients (25.7%) used EMS; which was mostly via Inter-Hospital EMS (22%) rather than direct transfer from the scene to the hospital by the Red Crescent (3.7%). Compared to the non-EMS group, the EMS group was more likely to arrive initially at a primary or secondary health care facility; thus, they had longer median symptom-onset-to-emergency department arrival times (218 vs. 158 min; p˂.001); they were more likely to receive primary percutaneous coronary interventions (62% vs. 40.5%, p = 0.02); they had shorter door-to-needle times (38 vs. 42 min; p = .04); and shorter door-to-balloon times (47 vs. 83 min; p˂.001). High EMS use was independently predicted mostly by primary/secondary school educational levels and low or moderate socioeconomic status. Low EMS use was predicted by a history of angina and history of percutaneous coronary intervention. The groups had similar in-hospital deaths and outcomes.
Conclusion
Most acute STEMI patients in the Arabian Gulf region did not use EMS services. Improving Red Crescent infrastructure, establishing integrated STEMI networks, and launching educational public campaigns are top health care system priorities.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147385
PMCID: PMC4726591  PMID: 26807577
6.  The Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events (SPACE) registry: Design and results of a phase I pilot study 
The Canadian Journal of Cardiology  2009;25(7):e255-e258.
OBJECTIVE:
The delay between the availability of clinical evidence and its application to the care of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia remains undefined. The Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events (SPACE) registry provides a comprehensive view of the current diagnostic and treatment strategies for patients with ACS; thus, the registry may be used to identify opportunities to improve the care of these patients.
METHODS:
Eight hospitals in different regions of Saudi Arabia were involved in the pilot phase of the registry, from December 2005 to July 2006. The study patients included individuals with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI and unstable angina.
RESULTS:
A total of 435 patients (77% men and 80% Saudis) with a mean age of 57.1 years were enrolled. Medical history included previously diagnosed ischemic heart disease (32%), percutaneous coronary intervention (12%), diabetes mellitus (53%), hypertension (48%), current smoking (39%), hyperlipidemia (31%) and family history of premature coronary artery disease (11%). The median door-to-needle time for fibrinolytic therapy received by patients with STEMIs was 90 min. Inhospital medications included acetylsalicylic acid (98%), clopidogrel (73%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (74%), beta-blockers (73%), statins (88%), unfractionated heparin (80%), low-molecular weight heparin (22%) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (9%). The inhospital mortality rate was 5%.
CONCLUSION:
The first nationwide registry of patients with ACS in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. In contrast to registries from developed countries, our cohort is characterized by a younger age at presentation and a much higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Most patients with STEMIs did not receive fibrinolytic therapy within the time recommended in the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. The results of the present pilot study show potential targets for improvement in care.
PMCID: PMC2723036  PMID: 19584982
Acute coronary syndrome; Fibrinolytic therapy; Middle East; Registry; Saudi Arabia
7.  Clinical characteristics, precipitating factors, management and outcome of patients with prior stroke hospitalised with heart failure: an observational report from the Middle East 
BMJ Open  2015;5(4):e007148.
Objectives
The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence, clinical characteristics, precipitating factors, management and outcome of patients with prior stroke hospitalised with acute heart failure (HF).
Design
Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.
Setting
Data were derived from Gulf CARE (Gulf aCute heArt failuRe rEgistry), a prospective multicentre study of consecutive patients hospitalised with acute HF in 2012 in seven Middle Eastern countries and analysed according to the presence or absence of prior stroke; demographics, management and outcomes were compared.
Participants
A total of 5005 patients with HF.
Outcome measures
In-hospital and 1-year outcome.
Results
The prevalence of prior stroke in patients with HF was 8.1%. Patients with stroke with HF were more likely to be admitted under the care of internists rather than cardiologists. When compared with patients without stroke, patients with stroke were more likely to be older and to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidaemia, chronic kidney disease, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease and left ventricular dysfunction (p=0.001 for all). Patients with stroke were less likely to be smokers (0.003). There were no significant differences in terms of precipitating risk factors for HF hospitalisation between the two groups. Patients with stroke with HF had a longer hospital stay (mean±SD days; 11±14 vs 9±13, p=0.03), higher risk of recurrent strokes and 1-year mortality rates (32.7% vs 23.2%, p=0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that stroke is an independent predictor of in-hospital and 1-year mortality.
Conclusions
This observational study reports high prevalence of prior stroke in patients hospitalised with HF. Internists rather than cardiologists were the predominant caregivers in this high-risk group. Patients with stroke had higher risk of in-hospital recurrent strokes and long-term mortality rates.
Trial registration number
NCT01467973.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007148
PMCID: PMC4410120  PMID: 25908674
STROKE MEDICINE
8.  Disparities in Health Care Delivery and Hospital Outcomes between Non-Saudis and Saudi Nationals Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndromes in Saudi Arabia 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(4):e0124012.
Background
Saudi Arabia has a non-Saudi workers population. We investigated the differences and similarities of expatriate non-Saudi patients (NS) and Saudi nationals (SN) presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with respect to therapies and clinical outcomes.
Methods
The study evaluated 2031 of the 5055 ACS patients enrolled in the Saudi Project for Assessment of Acute Coronary Syndrome (SPACE) from 2005 to 2007. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analysis were performed to account for major imbalances in age and sex in the two groups.
Results
The mean patient age was 56.2±9.8, and 83.5% of the study cohort were male. SN were more likely to have risk factors of atherosclerosis. ST-elevation MI (STEMI) was the most common ACS presentation in NS, while non-ST ACS was more common in SN. The median symptom-to-door time was significantly greater in NS patients (Median 175 min (197) vs. 130 min (167), p=0.027). The only difference in pharmacological therapies between the two groups was that NS were more likely to receive fibrinolytic therapy. NS were less likely than SN to undergo percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI; 32.6% vs. 42.8%, p=0.0001) or primary PCI (7.8% vs. 22.8%, p<0.001). Hospital mortality, cardiogenic shock, and heart failure were significantly higher in NS compared to SN. After adjusting for baseline variables and therapies, the odds ratios for hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock in NS were 2.9 (95% CI 1.5–6.2, p=0.004) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.5–4.9, p<0.001), respectively.
Conclusion
Our findings indicate disparities in hospital care between NS and SN ACS patients. NS patients had worse hospital outcomes, which may reflect unequal health coverage and access-to-care issues.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124012
PMCID: PMC4399885  PMID: 25881231
9.  Age and clinical outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes☆ 
Context
Elderly patients have more cardiovascular risk factors and a greater burden of ischemic disease than younger patients.
Aims
To examine the impact of age on clinical presentation and outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods and material
Collected data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2), which is a prospective multicenter study from six adjacent Arab Middle Eastern Gulf countries. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their age: ≤50 years, 51–70 years and >70 years and their clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. Mortality was assessed at one and 12 months.
Statistical analysis used
One-way ANOVA test for continuous variables, Pearson chi-square (X2) test for categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression analysis for predictors were performed.
Results
Among 7930 consecutive ACS patients; 2755 (35%) were ≤50 years, 4110 (52%) were 51–70 years and 1065 (13%) >70 years old. The proportion of women increased with increasing age (13% among patients ≤50 years to 31% among patients > 70 years). The risk factor pattern varied with age; younger patients were more often obese, smokers and had a positive family history of CAD, whereas older patients more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Advancing age was associated with under-treatment evidence-based therapies. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for relevant covariates showed that old age was independent predictors for re-ischemia (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03–1.60), heart failure (OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.17–3.52) and major bleeding (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.37–11.77) and in-hospital mortality (age 51–70: OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.86–3.85, and age >70: OR 4.71; 95% CI 3.11–7.14).
Conclusion
Despite being higher risk group, elderly are less likely to receive evidence-based therapies and had worse outcomes. Guidelines adherence is highly recommended in elderly.
doi:10.1016/j.jcdr.2012.08.005
PMCID: PMC3770118  PMID: 24027372
Acute coronary syndrome; Age; Elderly
10.  Gender Disparities in the Presentation, Management and Outcomes of Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55508.
Background
Gender-related differences in mortality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been reported. The extent and causes of these differences in the Middle-East are poorly understood. We studied to what extent difference in outcome, specifically 1-year mortality are attributable to demographic, baseline clinical differences at presentation, and management differences between female and male patients.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Baseline characteristics, treatment patterns, and 1-year mortality of 7390 ACS patients in 65 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries were evaluated during 2008–2009, as part of the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2). Women were older (61.3±11.8 vs. 55.6±12.4; P<0.001), more overweight (BMI: 28.1±6.6 vs. 26.7±5.1; P<0.001), and more likely to have a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes. Fewer women than men received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE), aspirin, clopidogrel, beta blockers or statins at discharge. They also underwent fewer invasive procedures including angiography (27.0% vs. 34.0%; P<0.001), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (10.5% vs. 15.6%; P<0.001) and reperfusion therapy (6.9% vs. 20.2%; P<0.001) than men. Women were at higher unadjusted risk for in-hospital death (6.8% vs. 4.0%, P<0.001) and heart failure (HF) (18% vs. 11.8%, P<0.001). Both 1-month and 1-year mortality rates were higher in women than men (11% vs. 7.4% and 17.3% vs. 11.4%, respectively, P<0.001). Both baseline and management differences contributed to a worse outcome in women. Together these variables explained almost all mortality disparities.
Conclusions/Significance
Differences between genders in mortality appeared to be largely explained by differences in prognostic variables and management patterns. However, the origin of the latter differences need further study.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055508
PMCID: PMC3566183  PMID: 23405162
11.  Impact of diabetes on hospital adverse cardiovascular outcomes in acute coronary syndrome patients: Data from the Saudi project of acute coronary events 
Background
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. DM patients who present with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have worse cardiovascular outcomes. We characterized clinical features and hospital outcomes of diabetic patients with ACS in Saudi Arabia.
Methods
ACS patients enrolled in the Saudi Project for Assessment of Acute Coronary Syndrome (SPACE) study from December 2005 to December 2007, either with DM or newly diagnosed during hospitalization were eligible. Baseline demographics, clinical presentation, therapies, and in-hospital outcomes were compared with non-diabetic patients.
Results
Of the 5055 ACS patients enrolled in SPACE, 2929 (58.1%) had DM (mean age 60.2 ± 11.5, 71.6% male, and 87.6% Saudi nationals). Diabetic patients had higher risk-factor (e.g., hypertension, hyperlipidemia) prevalences and were more likely to present with non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction (40.2% vs. 31.4%, p < 0.001), heart failure (25.4% vs. 13.9%, p < 0.001), significant left ventricular systolic dysfunction and multi-vessel disease. Diabetic patients had higher in-hospital heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and re-infarction rates. Adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital mortality in diabetic patients was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.02–3.30, p = 0.042).
Conclusions
A substantial proportion of Saudi patients presenting with ACS have DM and a significantly worse prognosis. These data highlight the importance of cardiovascular preventative interventions in the general population.
doi:10.1016/j.jsha.2012.08.002
PMCID: PMC3809463  PMID: 24174830
Diabetes; Coronary artery disease; Saudi Arabia; Registry; Acute coronary syndrome; In-hospital mortality
12.  Polyvascular Disease in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Its Predictors and Outcomes 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:284851.
We evaluated prevalence and clinical outcome of polyvascular disease (PolyVD) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data for 7689 consecutive ACS patients were collected from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events between October 2008 and June 2009. Patients were divided into 2 groups (ACS with versus without PolyVD). All-cause mortality was assessed at 1 and 12 months. Patients with PolyVD were older and more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors. On presentation, those patients were more likely to have atypical angina, high resting heart rate, high Killip class, and GRACE risk scoring. They were less likely to receive evidence-based therapies. Diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and hypertension were independent predictors for presence of PolyVD. PolyVD was associated with worse in-hospital outcomes (except for major bleedings) and all-cause mortality even after adjusting for baseline covariates. Great efforts should be directed toward primary and secondary preventive measures.
doi:10.1100/2012/284851
PMCID: PMC3259691  PMID: 22272171
13.  Age and its relationship to acute coronary syndromes in the Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events (SPACE) registry: The SPACE age study☆☆☆ 
Objective
To characterize risk profile of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in different age groups and compare management provided to in-hospital outcome.
Design
Prospective multi-hospital registry.
Setting
Seventeen secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia.
Patients
Five thousand and fifty-five patients with ACS. They were divided into four groups: ⩽40 years, 41–55 years, 56–70 years and ⩾70 years. Main outcome measures: prevalence, utilization and mortality.
Results: Ninety-four percent of patients <40 years compared to 68% of patients >70 years were men. Diabetes was present in 70% of patients aged 56–70 years. Smoking was present in 66% of those <40 years compared to 7% of patients >70 years. Fifty-three percent of the patients >70 years and 25% of those <40 years had history of ischemic heart disease. Sixty percent of patients <40 years presented with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) while non-ST elevation myocardial infarction was the presentation in 49% of patients >70 years. Thirty-four percent of patients >70 years compared to 10% of patients <40 years presented >12 h from symptom onset with STEMI. Fifty-four percent of patients >70 compared to 64–71% of those <70 years had coronary angiography. Twenty-four percent of patients >70 compared to 34–40% of those <70 years had percutaneous coronary intervention. Reperfusion shortfall for STEMI was 16–18% in patients >56 years compared to 11% in patients <40 years. Mortality was 7% in patients >70 years compared to 1.6–3% in patients <70 years. For all comparisons (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Young and old ACS patients have unique risk factors and present differently. Older patients have higher in-hospital mortality as they are treated less aggressively. There is an urgent need for a national prevention program as well as a systematic improvement in the care for patients with ACS including a system of care for STEMI patients. For older patients there is a need to identify medical as well as social factors that influence the therapeutic management plans.
doi:10.1016/j.jsha.2011.08.001
PMCID: PMC3727458  PMID: 23960662
Age; Mortality; In-hospital outcome; Acute coronary syndrome
14.  Baseline characteristics, management practices, and in-hospital outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes: Results of the Saudi project for assessment of coronary events (SPACE) registry 
Objectives
The Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events (SPACE) registry is the first in Saudi Arabia to study the clinical features, management, and in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients.
Methods
We conducted a prospective registry study in 17 hospitals in Saudi Arabia between December 2005 and December 2007. ACS patients included those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina; both were reported collectively as NSTEACS (non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome).
Results
5055 patients were enrolled with mean age ± SD of 58 ± 12.9 years; 77.4% men, 82.4% Saudi nationals; 41.5% had STEMI, and 5.1% arrived at the hospital by ambulance. History of diabetes mellitus was present in 58.1%, hypertension in 55.3%, hyperlipidemia in 41.1%, and 32.8% were current smokers; all these were more common in NSTEACS patients, except for smoking (all P < 0.0001). In-hospital medications were: aspirin (97.7%), clopidogrel (83.7%), beta-blockers (81.6%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (75.1%), and statins (93.3%). Median time from symptom onset to hospital arrival for STEMI patients was 150 min (IQR: 223), 17.5% had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), 69.1% had thrombolytic therapy, and 14.8% received it at less than 30 min of hospital arrival. In-hospital outcomes included recurrent myocardial infarction (1.5%), recurrent ischemia (12.6%), cardiogenic shock (4.3%), stroke (0.9%), major bleeding (1.3%). In-hospital mortality was 3.0%.
Conclusion
ACS patients in Saudi Arabia present at a younger age, have much higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, less access to ambulance use, delayed treatment by thrombolytic therapy, and less primary PCI compared with patients in the developed countries. This is the first national ACS registry in our country and it demonstrated knowledge-care gaps that require further improvements.
doi:10.1016/j.jsha.2011.05.004
PMCID: PMC3727434  PMID: 23960654
Acute coronary syndromes; Acute myocardial infarction; Unstable angina; Registry; Saudi Arabia; Middle East
15.  Xylohypha bantiana multiple brain abscesses in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus 
Xylohypha bantiana is a rare cause of cerebral fungal infection (phaeohyphomycosis). We report on a 72-year-old man who, while taking several immunosuppressive medications for systemic lupus erythematosus, presented with multiple bilateral cerebral abscesses caused by X bantiana. The lesions were not surgically amenable and the patient died two months after discontinuing antifungal therapy.
PMCID: PMC2094907  PMID: 18159434
Brain abscess; Fungal infection; Immunosuppression; Xylohypha bantiana

Results 1-15 (15)