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1.  Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in Oman 
This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of diabetes mellitus over the past two decades in Oman, particularly in terms of its prevalence and incidence. In addition, the study sought to estimate the future incidence of diabetes in Oman.
Three national and three regional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2010 were analysed to obtain the age-adjusted prevalence and undiagnosed proportion of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Omani subjects aged ≥20 years. Diabetes mellitus registers and published studies were used to determine incidence rates of both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and T2DM in Oman. Linear regression was used to determine trends and projections for diabetes in 2050.
The age-adjusted prevalence of T2DM in Oman varied from 10.4% to 21.1%, while the highest prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was found in males (35.1%). In comparison to men, higher incidence rates of T2DM were found in women (2.7 cases compared to 2.3 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively). No significant trends were observed for the prevalence or incidence of T2DM in both genders. Undiagnosed T2DM was more common in men (range: 33–68%) than women (range: 27–53%). The results of this study show that by 2050, there will be an estimated 350,000 people with T2DM living in Oman (a 174% increase compared to estimates for 2015).
Health authorities need to prioritise diabetes prevention and control in order to prevent or delay long-term complications and avert a potential epidemic of diabetes in Oman.
PMCID: PMC4450786  PMID: 26052456
Diabetes Mellitus; Epidemiology; Incidence; Prevalence; Trends; Oman
2.  Measuring Secondhand Smoke in Muscat, Oman 
This study aimed to measure exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and assess venue compliance with the municipal Law against smoking indoors in public places in Muscat, Oman.
Following the selection of 30 public indoor venues within the Muscat governorate, the concentration of suspended SHS particulate matter (PM2.5) in the venues’ indoor air was measured throughout July and August 2010.
Almost all of the venues were found to be compliant with the smoke-free municipal, with the exception of a café that served waterpipes for smoking indoors. The concentration of PM2.5 in this venue showed an average level of 256 µg/m3 which was 64 times the level of that found in the non-smoking venues.
Aside from one café, the majority of the assessed indoor public venues abided by the smoke-free municipal law. However, the enforcement of policies banning smoking in indoor public recreational venues should be re-examined in order to protect member of the public in Oman from exposure to SHS.
PMCID: PMC4450794  PMID: 26052464
Tobacco Products; Secondhand Smoke; Particulate Matter; Oman
3.  Trends in the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease among Adults with Diabetes in Oman 
This study aimed to investigate trends in the estimated 10-year risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adults with diagnosed diabetes in Oman. In addition, the effect of hypothetical risk reductions in this population was examined.
Data from 1,077 Omani adults aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes were collected and analysed from three national surveys conducted in 1991, 2000 and 2008 across all regions of Oman. The estimated 10-year CVD risk and hypothetical risk reductions were calculated using risk prediction algorithms from the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), Diabetes Epidemiology Collaborative Analysis of Diagnostic Criteria in Europe (DECODE) and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk tools.
Between 1991 and 2008, the estimated 10-year risk of CVD increased significantly in the total sample and among both genders, regardless of the risk prediction algorithm that was used. Hypothetical risk reduction models for three scenarios (eliminating smoking, controlling systolic blood pressure and reducing total cholesterol) identified that reducing systolic blood pressure to ≤130 mmHg would lead to the largest reduction in the 10-year risk of CVD in subjects with diabetes.
The estimated 10-year risk for CVD among adults with diabetes increased significantly between 1991 and 2008 in Oman. Focused public health initiatives, involving recognised interventions to address behavioural and biological risks, should be a national priority. Improvements in the quality of care for diabetic patients, both at the individual and the healthcare system level, are required.
PMCID: PMC4318604  PMID: 25685383
Risk Assessment; Risk Reduction Behavior; Trends; Diabetes Mellitus; Cardiovascular Disease; Oman
4.  Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components 
The study aimed to describe the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components among Omani adults.
The 2008 Oman World Health Survey dataset was used to determine the national prevalence of MS. Logistic regression using all key sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural variables was used to identify the associations of independent variables with MS.
The age-adjusted prevalence of MS was 23.6%. MS was significantly associated with age, marital and work status and wealth level. MS was more common for people aged 50 years and older compared to the youngest cohort (OR 3.6, CI: 2.4–5.3; P <0.001) and in people who were married or employed (OR 1.6, CI: 1.3–2.1; P <0.001 and OR 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.8; P = 0.043, respectively) compared to their unmarried and unemployed counterparts. MS was also more common in people in the second lowest wealth quintile (OR 1.6, CI: 1.2–2.2; P = 0.05) compared to the lowest quintile and in those who sat for more than six hours per day (OR 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.7; P = 0.035).
One in four adults had MS in Oman. This may fuel the epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Oman, particularly given the increasingly elderly population. Urgent action is required to ensure quality patient care at all levels of the healthcare system. Further research on behavioural risk factors is needed. Developing and implementing a multisectoral strategy to prevent NCDs should be at the top of the current health agenda for Oman.
PMCID: PMC4205056  PMID: 25364547
Metabolic Syndrome X; Chronic Diseases; Epidemiology; Public Health; Oman
5.  Age and clinical outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes☆ 
Elderly patients have more cardiovascular risk factors and a greater burden of ischemic disease than younger patients.
To examine the impact of age on clinical presentation and outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods and material
Collected data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2), which is a prospective multicenter study from six adjacent Arab Middle Eastern Gulf countries. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their age: ≤50 years, 51–70 years and >70 years and their clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. Mortality was assessed at one and 12 months.
Statistical analysis used
One-way ANOVA test for continuous variables, Pearson chi-square (X2) test for categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression analysis for predictors were performed.
Among 7930 consecutive ACS patients; 2755 (35%) were ≤50 years, 4110 (52%) were 51–70 years and 1065 (13%) >70 years old. The proportion of women increased with increasing age (13% among patients ≤50 years to 31% among patients > 70 years). The risk factor pattern varied with age; younger patients were more often obese, smokers and had a positive family history of CAD, whereas older patients more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Advancing age was associated with under-treatment evidence-based therapies. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for relevant covariates showed that old age was independent predictors for re-ischemia (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03–1.60), heart failure (OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.17–3.52) and major bleeding (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.37–11.77) and in-hospital mortality (age 51–70: OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.86–3.85, and age >70: OR 4.71; 95% CI 3.11–7.14).
Despite being higher risk group, elderly are less likely to receive evidence-based therapies and had worse outcomes. Guidelines adherence is highly recommended in elderly.
PMCID: PMC3770118  PMID: 24027372
Acute coronary syndrome; Age; Elderly
6.  Age at diagnosis of female breast cancer in Oman: Issues and implications 
South Asian Journal of Cancer  2014;3(2):101-106.
Female breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent malignancy diagnosed globally, about 23% of the diagnosed cancers. BC incidence varies geographically, highest in Western Europe and lowest in Africa. BC in females is strongly correlated to age, the highest incidence rate amongst older women reinforcing the importance of hormonal status. BC in young females has an aggressive phenotype. There is a shared observation amongst practicing oncologists that BC in Middle East and the developing world presents at an earlier age.
Aim and Objective:
The aims of this study are to evaluate the age at presentation of female BC in Oman, and to compare our data with international and regional published data. It discusses the impact of young age Breast Cancer.
Materials and Methods:
All diagnosed female BC cases registered from 1996-2010 all over the country, were retrieved from the National Cancer Registry, Ministry of Health. BC cases were analyzed with respect to age at presentation. The data were compared with regional and international data.
A total of 14,109 cancer cases were recorded during the period of study. BC was the leading malignancy as 1,294 cases (9.1%). Female BC patients were 1,230; denoting 19.2% of all female cancers. 53.5% of female BC presented below 50 years of age. Male BC constituted 5% of total, with 67% of male BC occurring over 50 years of age. Compared with data from Oman, the highest rates in UK and other Western countries are above 50 years of age. These rates are four to 10 times higher than local in different age groups. Interestingly, these rates increase with increasing age in UK from 40-45 to up to 85+, keep on increasing and go up to four times higher with higher age. This phenomenon, of increasing incidence rates with age, is not observed in our local population.
BC is significantly correlated to age as reported from Western population. BC is reported at a younger age from developing and Arab World, which need to be further studied and validated. This phenomenon of BC in younger age may have significant implications and effects ranging from screening, diagnosis, management, prognosis, and cost of treatment.
The impact on young women diagnosed with BC is enormous, ranging from psychosocial to healthcare services and economics. There is a need to study it further in depth in developing World.
PMCID: PMC4014639  PMID: 24818104
Breast cancer; breast cancer in Oman; young age; young breast cancer
7.  Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region 
World Journal of Cardiology  2013;5(11):397-403.
Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse.
PMCID: PMC4017343  PMID: 24829628
Drug abuser; Illicit drugs; Infective endocarditis; Tricuspid valve; Middle East
8.  Analysis of Inflammatory Mediators in Type 2 Diabetes Patients 
The main aim of this study is to assess the inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by measuring some cytokines concentrations and lymphocytes subset and correlate them with other laboratory investigations. Fifty-seven patients with type-2 diabetes and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Data for the C-reactive protein (CRP), haemoglobin, HbA1c, and autoantibody levels were obtained from the patients files. The cytokine concentrations were measured in patient's serum using commercially available ELISA assays. Lymphocytes subsets were measured by flow cytometric methods. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-15, and TNF-α were found to be decreased in T2DM patients, whereas the levels of IL-10, IFN-γ, and caspase-1 were increased, compared to normal controls. T2DM patients with hypertension show significantly decreased levels of IL-1β and caspase-1 compared to patients without hypertension. No significant differences in lymphocytes subset between cases and normal control were observed. Significant correlations were found between HbA1c and IL-6; body mass index (BMI) was significantly correlated with CRP, TNF-α, and phosphate; the weight (Wt) was associated with CRP and IFN-γ. In conclusion, an alteration in the function of the immune system was observed in T2DM patient.
PMCID: PMC3671680  PMID: 23762057
9.  The Epidemiology of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Oman 
This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology and coronary risk factors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Oman.
Data were collected through a prospective, multinational, multicentre survey of consecutive patients, hospitalised over a 5-month period in 2007 with a diagnosis of ACS, in Yemen and five Arabian Gulf countries (Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates). Here we present data of Omani patients aged ≥20 years who received a provisional diagnosis of ACS and were consequently admitted to 14 different hospitals.
There where 1,340 confirmed ACS episodes in 748 men and 592 women (median age 61 years). The overall crude incidence rate of ACS was 338.9 per 100,000 person-years (P-Y). The age-standardised rate (ASR) of ACS was 779 and 674 per 100,000 P-Y for men and women, respectively. The ASR male-to-female rate ratio was highest in the ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) group (2.26, 95% confidence interval ([CI], 1.63 to 3.15) followed by the non-STEMI (NSTEMI) group (1.68, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.21) and unstable angina (0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.99). Unstable angina accounted for 55%, STEMI for 26% and NSTEMI for 19% of ACS cases. Among the coronary risk factors, there was a high prevalence of hypertension (68%), diabetes mellitus (DM) (36%), hyperlipidaemia (63%), and overweight/obesity (65%), with a relatively low rate of current tobacco use (11%).
Our study confirms a high incidence of ACS in Omanis and supports the notion that the cardiovascular disease epidemic is also sweeping developing countries.
PMCID: PMC3616799  PMID: 23573381
Acute coronary syndrome; Incidence; Cardiovascular disease; Ischemic heart disease; Risk factors; Oman
10.  HbA1c Levels among Primary Healthcare Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Oman 
Oman Medical Journal  2012;27(6):465-470.
To investigate whether younger patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels compared to older patients, and to determine the factors associated with higher HbA1c levels.
Data from 1,266 patients from all over Oman were used to obtain the mean HbA1c level, odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from multiple logistic regression models with age groups, sex, duration of diabetes, diabetes treatment, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), tobacco use, and healthcare index as predictors of good (HbA1c <7%) vs. poor (≥7%) glycemic control.
Mean HbA1c levels were 8.9, 8.3, and 7.8 in the age groups 20-39, 40-59 and 60+ years, respectively. After controlling for all other covariates, the OR of good glycemic control increased with age, 40-59 years old (OR=1.7; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6) and 60+ year (OR=2.5; 95% CI 1.6 to 4.0), female gender (OR=1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0) and in patients with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR=1.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3). Longer duration of diabetes (≥5 years) and treatment with oral agents or insulin were inversely related to good glycemic control.
Younger Omani adults exhibit worse glycemic levels compared to older adults posing a formidable challenge to diabetes care teams.
PMCID: PMC3515045  PMID: 23226816
Diabetes; Oman; HbA1c; Epidemiology
11.  Immediate and one-year outcome of patients presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome complicated by stroke: Findings from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2) 
Stroke is a potential complication of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence, risk factors predisposing to stroke, in-hospital and 1-year mortality among patients presenting with ACS in the Middle East.
For a period of 9 months in 2008 to 2009, 7,930 consecutive ACS patients were enrolled from 65 hospitals in 6 Middle East countries.
The prevalence of in-hospital stroke following ACS was 0.70%. Most cases were ST segment elevation MI-related (STEMI) and ischemic stroke in nature. Patients with in-hospital stroke were 5 years older than patients without stroke and were more likely to have hypertension (66% vs. 47.6%, P = 0.001). There were no differences between the two groups in regards to gender, other cardiovascular risk factors, or prior cardiovascular disease. Patients with stroke were more likely to present with atypical symptoms, advanced Killip class and less likely to be treated with evidence-based therapies. Independent predictors of stroke were hypertension, advanced killip class, ACS type –STEMI and cardiogenic shock. Stroke was associated with increased risk of in-hospital (39.3% vs. 4.3%) and one-year mortality (52% vs. 12.3%).
There is low incidence of in-hospital stroke in Middle-Eastern patients presenting with ACS but with very high in-hospital and one-year mortality rates. Stroke patients were less likely to be appropriately treated with evidence-based therapy. Future work should be focused on reducing the risk and improving the outcome of this devastating complication.
PMCID: PMC3480946  PMID: 22894647
Acute coronary syndrome; Myocardial infarction; Stroke; Risk factors; Prognosis
12.  Clinical Profile and Mortality of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Receiving Thrombolytic Therapy in the Middle East 
Little is known about thrombolytic therapy patterns in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical profile and mortality of STEMI patients who arrived in hospital within 12 hours from pain onset and received thrombolytic therapy.
Patients and Methods:
This was a prospective, multinational, multi-centre, observational survey of consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients admitted to 65 hospitals in six Middle Eastern countries during the period between October 2008 and June 2009, as part of Gulf RACE-II (Registry of Acute Coronary Events). Analyses were performed using univariate statistics.
Out of 2,465 STEMI patients, 66% (n = 1,586) were thrombolysed with namely: streptokinase (43%), reteplase (44%), tenecteplase (10%), and alteplase (3%). 22.7% received no reperfusion. Median age of the study cohort was 50 (45-59) years with majority being males (91%). The overall median symptom onset-to-presentation and door-to-needle times were 165 (95- 272) minutes and 38 (24-60) minutes, respectively. Generally, patients presenting with higher GRACE risk scores were treated with newer thrombolytic agents (reteplase and tenecteplase) (P < 0.001). The use of newer thrombolytic agents was associated with a significantly lower mortality at both 1-month (0.8% vs. 1.7% vs. 4.2%; P = 0.014) and 1-year (0% vs. 1.7% vs. 3.4%; P = 0.044) compared to streptokinase use.
Majority of STEMI patients from the Middle East were thrombolysed with streptokinase and reteplase in equal numbers. Nearly one-fifth of patients did not receive any reperfusion therapy. There was inappropriately long symptom-onset to hospital presentation as well as door-to-needle times. Use of newer thrombolytic agents in high risk patients was appropriate. Newer thrombolytic agents were associated with significantly lower mortality at 1-month and 1-year compared to the older agent, streptokinase.
PMCID: PMC3424777  PMID: 22919446
Acute coronary syndrome; GRACE score; Middle East; mortality; reteplase; STEMI; streptokinase; tenecteplase; thrombolytic therapy
13.  Weekend Versus Weekday, Morning Versus Evening Admission in Relationship to Mortality in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in 6 Middle Eastern Countries: Results from Gulf Race 2 Registry 
We used prospective cohort data of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to compare their management on weekdays/mornings with weekends/nights, and the possible impact of this on 1-month and 1-year mortality. Analyses were evaluated using univariate and multivariate statistics. Of the 4,616 patients admitted to hospitals with ACS, 76% were on weekdays. There were no significant differences in 1-month (odds ratio (OR), 0.88; 95% CI: 0.68-1.14) and 1-year mortality (OR, 0.88; 95% CI: 0.70-1.10), respectively, between weekday and weekend admissions. Similarly, there were no significant differences in 1-month (OR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.73-1.15) and 1-year mortality (OR, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.80-1.20), respectively, between nights and day admissions. In conclusion, apart from lower utilization of angiography (P < .001) at weekends, there were largely no significant discrepancies in the management and care of patients admitted with ACS on weekdays and during morning hours compared with patients admitted on weekends and night hours, and the overall 30-day and 1-year mortality was similar between both the cohorts.
PMCID: PMC3447162  PMID: 23002404
Acute coronary syndrome; Weekend; Weekday; Mortality; Admission.
14.  Control of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Among Adults with Previously Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Descriptive Study from a Middle Eastern Arab Population 
Despite the high burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Oman, there are scarce data from a nationally representative sample on the level of glycaemia and other cardiovascular (CVD) risk factor control.
To estimate the proportion of patients with T2DM at goal for glycaemia and CVD risk factors using the National Diabetes Guidelines (NDG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) clinical care guidelines; and to assess the quality of selected services provided to patients with T2DM.
A sample of 2,551 patients (47% men) aged ≥20 years with T2DM treated at primary health care centers was selected. Patient characteristics, medical history and treatment were collected from case notes, Diabetes Registers and computer frameworks including the use of the last 3 laboratory investigations results and blood pressure (BP) readings recorded in 2007.
The overall mean age of the cohort was 54±13 years with an average median duration of diabetes of 4 (range 2 to 6) years. Over 80% of patients were overweight or obese (body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 Kg/m2). Sixty-nine percent were on oral anti-diabetic medication, 52% on anti-hypertensives and 40% on lipid lowering drugs. Thirty percent of patients were at goal for glycosylated haemoglobin level (<7%), 26% for BP (systolic/diastolic <130/80 mmHg), 55% for total cholesterol (<5.2 mmol/l), 4.5% for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<1.8 mmol/l), 52% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (>1 mmol/l for men, >1.3 mmol/l for women), and 61% for triglycerides (<1.7 mmol/l). Over 37% had micro-albuminuria and 5% had diabetic nephropathy.
Control of hyperglycaemia and other CVD risk factor appears to be suboptimal in Omani patients with T2DM and need to be addressed in the triad of patient, physician and health system.
PMCID: PMC3496907  PMID: 23166566
Diabetes mellitus; glycosylated hemoglobin Alc; blood pressure; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; Oman.
15.  A Retrieval System for Patients with Avoidable Blindness Due to Diabetic Retinopathy who do not Present for Ophthalmic Assessment in Oman 
Many patients with diabetes do not present for eye examinations, foregoing the recommended management for diabetic eye care. Proactive steps are being taken in Oman to retrieve defaulters (patients who do not present or “no-show”) with Sight Threatening Diabetic Retinopathy (STDR). We present the outcomes of the defaulter retrieval system in five regions of Oman in 2009.
Materials and Methods:
Ophthalmologists examine eyes periodically, family physicians focus on primary prevention of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and medical retina specialists manage DR in Oman. A person with proliferative stage of DR (PDR) and/or Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) in either eye is considered as STDR and is registered at regional hospitals. The eye care staff identify the defaulters and the hospital staff help them retrieve the defaulters. The reminder of reappointment is sent using the text messages on telephone. The glycemic control of STDR cases was also noted in Nizwa Hospital.
We registered 654 STDR cases, of which 494 (75%) were defaulters. Lack of awareness, transport, absence of a decision maker, and fear of laser treatment were the main causes for defaulting. We successfully retrieved 328 (66.4%) defaulters. The retrieval rates among male and female patients were 51.2% and 82%, respectively. The retrieval varied by region. In Nizwa hospital, 114 of 131 STDR cases (85%) had poor glycemic control.
Defaulter retrieval system could help healthcare providers to identify and motivate patients with STDR towards better compliance. Primary prevention measures among STDR cases were poor and need further focus.
PMCID: PMC3119298  PMID: 21731317
Defaulter; Diabetes Mellitus; Diabetic Retinopathy
16.  Relationship Between Admitting Nonfasting Blood Glucose and In-Hospital Mortality Stratified by Diabetes Mellitus Among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in Oman 
Background and Objectives:
Hyperglycemia in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with increased in-hospital mortality. We evaluated the relationship between admitting (nonfasting) blood glucose and in-hospital mortality in patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) presenting with ACS in Oman.
Patients and Methods:
Data were analyzed from 1551 consecutive patients admitted to 15 hospitals throughout Oman, with the final diagnosis of ACS during May 8, 2006 to June 6, 2006 and January 29, 2007 to June 29, 2007, as part of Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events. Admitting blood glucose was divided into four groups, namely, euglycemia (≤7 mmol/l), mild hyperglycemia (>7-<9 mmol/l), moderate hyperglycemia (≥9-<11 - mmol/l), and severe hyperglycemia (≥11 mmol/l).
Of all, 38% (n = 584) and 62% (n = 967) of the patients were documented with and without a history of DM, respectively. Nondiabetic patients with severe hyperglycemia were associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared with those with euglycemia (13.1 vs 1.52%; P<0.001), mild hyperglycemia (13.1 vs 3.62%; P = 0.003), and even moderate hyperglycemia (13.1 vs 4.17%; P = 0.034). Even after multivariate adjustment, severe hyperglycemia was still associated with higher in-hospital mortality when compared with both euglycemia (odds ratio [OR], 6.3; P<0.001) and mild hyperglycemia (OR, 3.43; P = 0.011). No significant relationship was noted between admitting blood glucose and in-hospital mortality among diabetic ACS patients even after multivariable adjustment (all P values >0.05).
Admission hyperglycemia is common in ACS patients from Oman and is associated with higher in-hospital mortality among those patients with previously unreported DM.
PMCID: PMC3123510  PMID: 21731803
Acute coronary syndrome; admission hyperglycemia; diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; in-hospital mortality
17.  Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in a Large Middle Eastern Cohort 
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) can occur in patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In the Gulf Registry of acute coronary events (Gulf RACE), we identified the clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of these patients.
Clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes for 461 ACS patients with prior CABG are compared to 7715 ACS patients without prior CABG enrolled from 64 hospitals in 6 Gulf countries over a 6-month period.
The overall incidence of ACS with prior CABG was 5.6% out of 8176 patients. The ACS with prior CABG were older (63 vs 55 years, P<0.0001), had more history of diabetes (62.3 vs 37.6%, P <0.0001), dyslipidemia (70.3 vs 29.5%, P<0.0001), and hypertension (75.7 vs 47.8%, P<0.0001) compared with the non-CABG group. They presented more frequently with dyspnea (14.8 vs 9.5%, P<0.0005), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (41.4 vs 31.6%, P<0.0001) and echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular dysfunction (49.4 vs 29.8%, P<0.0001) than ACS without prior CABG. They had a complicated in-hospital course with more recurrent ischemia (13.9 vs 9.3%, P=0.0011), heart failure (24.1 vs 15.7%), and stroke (2.2 vs 0.6%) compared with those without CABG. The in-hospital mortality rate was 5.6% in the CABG group compared with 3.5% in the ACS without prior CABG group. After adjusting for confounders, prior CABG was independently associated with recurrent ischemia and shock, more in patients presenting with ST elevation than non-ST elevation ACS.
Patients with ACS and prior CABG are a high-risk group with poor outcomes irrespective of their older age and comorbidities. They should be identified and treated differently to improve their outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3170976  PMID: 21915225
Acute Coronary Syndrome; Angioplasty; Comorbidity; Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting; Risk factors; Stroke.
18.  Pregnancy outcomes of diabetic women: Charting Oman’s progress towards the goals of the Saint Vincent Declaration 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2010;30(4):265-270.
Oman provides comprehensive care for the detection and management of diabetes during pregnancy with the goal of reducing or eliminating adverse outcomes for mothers and newborns. We assessed the outcome of pregnancies complicated with diabetes as compared to healthy controls.
A 1-year retrospective review of registry records was conducted on pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM). Of the 5394 women registered, 225 had GDM and 56 had PGDM. Fourteen cases of GDM and 2 cases of PGDM were excluded. For each patient recruited, the next healthy control of the same age and parity was selected.
Nearly 80% of diabetic women achieved good glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c <7%). Adjusted for hypertension and body mass index, the risk of macrosomia was three times higher among women with GDM (OR=3.03, 95% CI=1.36-6.75) and up to seven times higher among those with PGDM (OR=7.20, 95% CI=2.30-22.61). A significantly higher risk of cesarean delivery was observed among women with GDM (OR=2.70, 95% CI=1.17-4.03) and PGDM (OR=4.39, 95% CI=1.68-11.49). Admission to the special care baby unit was higher among infants born to mothers with PGDM (OR=5.70, 95% CI=2.40-13.51) and GDM (OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.68-4.83).
The findings indicate that many of the unfavorable pregnancy outcomes of diabetes for women and infants have not been brought under control despite the comprehensive care provided. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the system of care provided to pregnant women and to identify gaps in achieving the goals of the St. Vincent Declaration.
PMCID: PMC2931776  PMID: 20622342
19.  Knowledge, attitudes and prevalence of tobacco use among physicians and dentists in Oman 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2009;29(2):128-133.
Tobacco use among Omani physicians and dentists has not been studied, so we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a WHO questionnaire to measure prevalence and to learn about smoking practices among this population and about their knowledge and attitudes of the health effects of tobacco use and tobacco control. The 1191 subjects who participated (787 men and 404 women) ranged in age from 24 to 65 years with a mean (SD) of 41.7 (6.8) years for men and 38.1 (6.9) years for women. The prevalence of tobacco use was 16.4% among males and less than 1% among females. Manufactured cigarettes were the most common form of tobacco used (14.7%), followed by smokeless tobacco (2.2%) and waterpipes (1.7%). Tobacco users were significantly less favorable to strict control and policy measures than never tobacco users and had less knowledge of some of the heatlh effects of tobacco use. Tobacco use among physicians and dentists in Oman is lower than in other countries in the region, but remains a cause of concern. Programs and policies should strive to maintain the low level of tobacco use or reduce it further.
PMCID: PMC2813638  PMID: 19318747
20.  Addressing the Threat of Chronic Diseases in Oman 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2008;5(3):A99.
The overall health status of the Omani population has evolved over the past 4 decades from one dominated by infectious disease to one in which chronic disease poses the main challenge. Along with a marked reduction in the incidence of infectious diseases, improvements in health care and socioeconomic status have resulted in sharp declines in infant and early childhood mortality and dramatic increases in life expectancy.
Focusing on the time period from 1990 through 2005, we reviewed relevant epidemiological studies and reports and examined socioeconomic indicators to assess the impact of the changing disease profile on Oman's economy and its health care infrastructure.
Over the next 25 years, the elderly population of Oman will increase 6-fold, and the urbanization rate is expected to reach 86%. Currently, more than 75% of the disease burden in Oman is attributable to noncommunicable diseases, with cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death. The distribution of chronic diseases and related risk factors among the general population is similar to that of industrialized nations: 12% of the population has diabetes, 30% is overweight, 20% is obese, 41% has high cholesterol, and 21% has the metabolic syndrome.
Unless reforms are introduced to the current health care system, chronic diseases will constitute a major drain on Oman's human and financial resources, threatening the advances in health and longevity achieved over the past 4 decades.
PMCID: PMC2483565  PMID: 18558048
21.  Prevalence and Determinants of Waterpipe Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Oman 
To assess the prevalence and determinants of waterpipe use among school-going adolescents in Oman.
A cross-sectional, school-based study was conducted in 2003 involving 9 regions of Oman, as part of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were requested to complete an anonymous questionnaire containing demographic characteristics, current and previous use of waterpipe tobacco, attitudes towards cigarette smoking, parents’ and friends’ cigarette smoking habits. Proportions were used to calculate prevalence rates and logistic regression analysis to obtain odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
1,962 students participated of whom 1,005 (51.2%) were males. Eighty-eight percent were between 13 and 16 years of age. Five hundred and twenty-two (26.6%) reported ever smoking waterpipe tobacco while 189 (9.6%) were current users. Among males, 155 (15.5%) were current users while among females only 24 (2.6%) smoked currently. Study participants were more likely to use waterpipe if they had a parent or friend who smoked cigarettes. Adolescents were, however, less likely to use waterpipe tobacco if they believed that cigarette smoking was harmful to health. Students who were receiving 500 Baisas (US$ 1.3) or more per day pocket money were more likely to use waterpipe tobacco compared to those receiving less (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.3 to 4.6). In multivariate analysis, the OR for males being a smoker of waterpipe tobacco compared to females was 4.46 (95% CI, 2.38 to 8.35); while the OR for most or all friends smoking cigarettes compared to non-smoking was OR 5.65 (95% CI 2.87 to 11.13). Study participants who perceived smoking as harmful to health were less likely to use waterpipe tobacco compared to those who did not believe smoking was harmful (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.92) and those receiving 500 Baisas or more (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.2).
Waterpipe smoking among Omani adolescents is an emerging public health concern. Efforts to prevent adolescent smoking should be designed with knowledge of associated factors of such behaviour and should include all forms of tobacco.
PMCID: PMC3087736  PMID: 21654955
Tobacco; Waterpipe; Adolescents; Oman
23.  Diabetes and urbanization in the Omani population: an analysis of national survey data  
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Oman is high and appears to be rising. Rising rates of diabetes and associated risk factors have been observed in populations undergoing epidemiological transition and urbanization. A previous study in Oman indicated that urban-dwellers were not significantly more likely to have diabetes. This study was undertaken to determine if a more accurate urban and rural categorization would reveal different findings.
This study included 7179 individuals aged 20 years or above who participated in a cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey in Oman including blood and anthropomorphic tests. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the factors associated with diabetes, first in the whole population and then stratified according to region.
The prevalence of diabetes (fasting blood glucose ≥ 7 mmol/l) in the capital region of Muscat was 17.7% compared to 10.5% in rural areas. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 4.3%. Urban residence was significantly associated with diabetes (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4–2.1), as was age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1- 1.2), obesity (abnormal waist circumference) (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.5–2.1), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) 120–139 (OR = 1.4, 95% CI:1.04–1.8), SBP 140–159 (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4–2.6), SBP ≥ 160 (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–2.5). Stratified analyses revealed higher education was associated with reduced likelihood of diabetes in rural areas (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4–0.9).
A high prevalence of diabetes, obesity, hypertension and high cholesterol exist in the Omani population, particularly among urban-dwellers and older individuals. It is vital to continue monitoring chronic disease in Oman and to direct public health policy towards preventing an epidemic.
PMCID: PMC1459877  PMID: 16635266

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