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1.  Patterns and outcomes of traumatic neck injuries: A population-based observational study 
Objectives:
We aimed to analyze the pattern and outcome of traumatic neck injury (TNI) in a small population.
Materials and Methods:
It is a retrospective analysis of all TNI patients who were admitted to the trauma center between 2008 and 2012. Patients’ demographics, details of TNI, associated injuries, hospital course, and mortality were analyzed.
Results:
A total of 51 TNI cases were included revealing an overall incidence of 0.61/100,000 population. The mean age was 31 ± 9 years. The most frequent mechanism of injury was motor vehicle crash (29.4%) followed by stab (17.6%), machinery injury (17.6%), fall (9.8%), and assault (7.8%). Larynx, thyroid gland, trachea, jugular veins, and carotid were the commonly injured structures. The majority of cases had Zone II TNI whereas isolated injury was observed in 11 cases. TNI were mainly presented with active bleeding (38%), hypovolemic shock (16%) and respiratory distress (16%). Surgical interventions mainly included simple repair and closure (53%), vein ligation (12%), repair of major arteries (4%), tracheal repair (6%), larynx and hypopharynx repair (4%), and repair of parotid gland (2%). Neck exploration was performed in 88%, and emergency tracheostomy was required in 18% of cases. Overall mortality rate was 11.8%, of which five patients had associated injuries, and one had isolated TNI.
Conclusion:
TNI are not frequent but represent an alarming serious entity in Qatar. Patients with persistent signs of major injuries should undergo early operative interventions. Moreover, the effective injury prevention program should be developed to minimize these preventable injuries in the majority of cases.
doi:10.4103/0974-2700.160723
PMCID: PMC4520029
Complications; management; neck injury; outcome; trauma
2.  Adrenal Mass in Patients who Underwent Abdominal Computed Tomography Examination 
Background:
Adrenal masses are usually discovered incidentally (IAM) during abdominal computed tomography (CT).
Aims:
We aimed to describe the prevalence, management, and outcome of incidentally discovered adrenal mass on radiological investigation.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective analysis was conducted to look for IAM identified by abdominal CT performed for other reasons between 2004 and 2008 and were followed for 4 years. IAM patients with known malignancy or clinically evident adrenal disease or overt disease originally missed due to insufficient clinical examination were excluded.
Results:
A total of 13,115 patients underwent abdominal CT, of which 136 were identified with adrenal mass (69 males and 67 females). Overall, 84 patients had benign IAM and six had primary adrenal carcinoma (all had tumor size ≥4 cm and five were males). Hormonal evaluation was performed in 80 cases, which revealed hypersecretion in 10 cases (six had Conn's syndrome and four had pheochromocytoma). Males had higher frequency of right-sided IAMs; whereas, left-sided IAM swere more common among females (P = 0.02). Seven patients underwent surgery and all were males (one Conn's syndrome, one pheochromocytoma, three primary adrenal adenocarcinoma, one benign nonfunctional adenoma, and one metastatic tumor). Only one patient died due to brain metastasis.
Conclusion:
The overall prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma is 1% in Qatar. Unfortunately, hormonal evaluation, surgical referral, and follow-up are not appropriate in this study. Moreover, screening of IAM warrants more attention to rule out malignancy. This work could be of value as a local auditing for the current management.
doi:10.4103/1947-2714.157482
PMCID: PMC4462817  PMID: 26110133
Adrenal mass; Computed tomography; Incidentaloma; Malignancy
3.  The cardiovascular implication of single nucleotide polymorphisms of chromosome 9p21 locus among Arab population 
Background:
Based on several reports including genome-wide association studies, genetic variability has been linked with higher (nearly half) susceptibility toward coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to evaluate the association of chromosome 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs2383207, rs10757278, and rs10757274 with the risk and severity of CAD among Arab population.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective observational case-control study was conducted between 2011 and 2012, in which 236 patients with CAD were recruited from the Heart Hospital in Qatar. Patients were categorized according to their coronary angiographic findings. Also, 152 healthy volunteers were studied to determine if SNPs are associated with risk of CAD. All subjects were genotyped for SNPs (rs2383207, rs2383206, rs10757274 and rs10757278) using allele-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Results:
Patients with CAD had a mean age of 57 ± 10; of them 77% were males, 54% diabetics, and 25% had family history of CAD. All SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except rs2383206, with call rate >97%. After adjusting for age, sex and body mass index, the carriers of GG genotype for rs2383207 have increased the risk of having CAD with odds ratio (OR) of 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-2.961, P = 0.046). Also, rs2383207 contributed to CAD severity with adjusted OR 1.80 (95% CI = 1.04-3.12, P = 0.035) based on the dominant genetic model. The other SNPs (rs10757274 and rs10757278) showed no significant association with the risk of CAD or its severity.
Conclusion:
Among Arab population in Qatar, only G allele of rs2483207 SNP is significantly associated with risk of CAD and its severity.
PMCID: PMC4468449  PMID: 26109989
Chromosome 9p21; coronary artery disease; Qatar; single nucleotide polymorphisms
4.  Khat Use: History and Heart Failure 
Oman Medical Journal  2015;30(2):77-82.
Recent reports suggest that 20 million people worldwide are regularly using khat as a stimulant, even though the habit of chewing khat is known to cause serious health issues. Historical evidence suggests khat use has existed since the 13th century in Ethiopia and the southwestern Arabian regions even before the cultivation and use of coffee. In the past three decades, its availability and use spread all over the world including the United States and Europe. Most of the consumers in the Western world are immigrant groups from Eastern Africa or the Middle East. The global transport and availability of khat has been enhanced by the development of synthetic forms of its active component. The World Health Organization considers khat a drug of abuse since it causes a range of health problems. However, it remains lawful in some countries. Khat use has long been a part of Yemeni culture and is used in virtually every social occasion. The main component of khat is cathinone, which is structurally and functionally similar to amphetamine and cocaine. Several studies have demonstrated that khat chewing has unfavorable cardiovascular effects. The effect on the myocardium could be explained by its effect on the heart rate, blood pressure, its vasomotor effect on the coronary vessels, and its amphetamine–like effects. However, its direct effect on the myocardium needs further elaboration. To date, there are few articles that contribute death among khat chewers to khat-induced heart failure. Further studies are needed to address the risk factors in khat chewers that may explain khat-induced cardiotoxicity, cardiomyopathy, and heart failure.
doi:10.5001/omj.2015.18
PMCID: PMC4412450  PMID: 25960830
Catha; Coronary Disease; Myocardium; Heart Failure; Cathinone; Yemen
5.  Outcome of Concurrent Occult Hemothorax and Pneumothorax in Trauma Patients Who Required Assisted Ventilation 
Background. The management and outcomes of occult hemopneumothorax in blunt trauma patients who required mechanical ventilation are not well studied. We aimed to study patients with occult hemopneumothorax on mechanical ventilation who could be carefully managed without tube thoracostomy. Methods. Chest trauma patients with occult hemopneumothorax who were on mechanical ventilation were prospectively evaluated. The presence of hemopneumothorax was confirmed by CT scanning. Hospital length of stay, complications, and outcome were recorded. Results. A total of 56 chest trauma patients with occult hemopneumothorax who were on ventilatory support were included with a mean age of 36 ± 13 years. Hemopneumothorax was managed conservatively in 72% cases and 28% underwent tube thoracostomy as indicated. 29% of patients developed pneumonia, 16% had Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), and 7% died. Thickness of hemothorax, duration of mechanical ventilation, and development of ARDS were significantly associated with tube thoracostomy in comparison to no-chest tube group. Conclusions. The majority of occult hemopneumothorax can be carefully managed without tube thoracostomy in patients who required positive pressure ventilation. Tube thoracotomy could be restricted to those who had evidence of increase in the size of the hemothorax or pneumothorax on follow-up chest radiographs or developed respiratory compromise.
doi:10.1155/2015/859130
PMCID: PMC4345256  PMID: 25785199
6.  Analysis of pediatric trauma data from a hospital based trauma registry in Qatar 
Background:
Trauma is the leading killer in the young age children, but data about the injury burden on pediatric population are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and outcome of the traumatic injuries among children in Qatar.
Materials and Methods:
This is a retrospective analysis of a trauma registry database, which reviewed all cases of serious traumatic injury (ISS ≥ 9) to children aged 0–18 years who were admitted to the national pediatric Level I trauma center at the Hamad General Hospital (HGH), over a period of one year. Data included demographics, day of injuries, location, time, type and mechanism of injuries, co-morbidity, safety equipment use, pre-hospital intubation, mode of pre-hospital transport, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), emergency department (ED) intervention, hospital length of stay and mortality outcome.
Results:
The incidence of severe pediatric trauma was 163 per 280,000 children who visited the ED of HGH in 2011. Out of them, 83% were male, mean age was 9.6 ± 5.9 years and mortality rate was 1.8%. On presentation to the ED, the mean ISS was 13.9 ± 6.6 and GCS was 13.4 ± 3.8. Over half of the patients needed ICU admission. For the ages 0-4 years, injuries most frequently occurred at home; for 5-9 years (59%) and 15-18 years (68%), the street; and for 10-14 years (50%), sports and recreational sites. The most common mechanisms of injury for the age groups were falls for 0-4 years, motor vehicle collision (MVC) or pedestrian injury for 5-9 years, all-terrain vehicle (ATV)/bicycle injuries for 10-14 years, and MVC injuries for 15-18 years. Head (34%) and long bone (18%) injuries were the most common, with 18% suffering from polytrauma. None of the patients were using safety equipment when injured.
Conclusion:
Traumatic injuries to children have an age- and mechanism-specific pattern in Qatar. This has important implications for the formulation of focused injury prevention programs for the children of Qatar.
doi:10.4103/2229-5151.152312
PMCID: PMC4366823  PMID: 25810960
Children; home safety; Qatar; road traffic injuries; trauma
7.  Seatbelt versus seatbelt and airbag injuries in a single motor vehicle crash 
Seatbelt restraints are important for occupant safety which substantially reduces morbidity and mortality in severe motor vehicle crashes (MVC). Though, it has been established that the air bag and seatbelt use reduce injury severity and mortality but still there is limited information on the pattern of injury by restraint type. Herein, we presented two case reports which describe the injury pattern of two patients (both were restrained but only driver had airbag) involved in a single MVC. Both of them had severe traumatic injuries, however, the restrained passenger without airbag, sustained more severe injuries of intestine, kidney and spinal cord. In addition to seatbelt, airbag provides considerable protection against severe blunt abdominal trauma. Therefore, installation of airbags especially for front seat passenger is imperative for minimizing the risk of significant traumatic injuries.
doi:10.4103/2229-5151.152344
PMCID: PMC4366828  PMID: 25810964
Abdominal trauma; airbag; injury pattern; motor vehicle crash; seatbelt
8.  Early laparoscopic approach to pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma 
Journal of Surgical Case Reports  2014;2014(12):rju129.
The incidence of pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma is rare. A timely accurate diagnosis of such injury is difficult and also the management remains controversial. Here, we reported the successful use of laparoscopy to diagnose, characterize and treat blunt pancreatic trauma in a 28-year-old male patient involved in a motor vehicle crash. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed peripancreatic fat stranding suggestive of pancreatic injury. With persistent clinical signs of peritonitis and laboratory investigations suggestive of pancreatitis, the patient underwent laparoscopic drainage of the lesser sac. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. The management of patients with blunt pancreatic injuries should be tailored to individual situations. Our experience suggests that a timely laparoscopic management of traumatic pancreatic injury is safe approach in selected cases.
doi:10.1093/jscr/rju129
PMCID: PMC4255133  PMID: 25477017
9.  Pneumoperitoneum in a patient with pneumothorax and blunt neck trauma 
Highlights
•Free air in the abdomen after blunt traumatic neck injury is very rare.•If pneumoperitoneum is suspected, exploratory laparotomy should be performed to rule out intraabdominal injury.•Conservative management for pneumoperitoneum in the absence of viscus perforation is still a safe option in carefully selected cases.
INTRODUCTION
Blunt trauma as a cause of pneumoperitoneum is less frequent and its occurrence without a ruptured viscus is rarely seen.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report a case of blunt neck trauma in which a motorcycle rider hit a fixed object causing severe laryngotracheal injury. The patient developed pneumothorax bilaterally and had pneumoperitoneum despite no injury to the internal viscus. Bilateral chest tube drainage and abdominal exploratory laparotomy was performed.
CONCLUSION
Free air in the abdomen after blunt traumatic neck injury is very rare. If pneumoperitoneum is suspected in the presence of pneumothorax, exploratory laparotomy should be performed to rule out intraabdominal injury. As, there is no consensus for this plan yet, further prospective studies are warrant. Conservative management for pneumoperitoneum in the absence of viscus perforation is still a safe option in carefully selected cases.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.11.022
PMCID: PMC4275790  PMID: 25460486
Pneumoperitoneum; Pneumothorax; Laryngotracheal injury; Blunt trauma
10.  Utility of bispectral index in the management of multiple trauma patients 
Background:
Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring in multiple trauma patients has become a common practice in monitoring the sedation levels. We aimed to assess the utility of BIS in the trauma intensive care unit (ICU).
Methods:
A prospective observational study was conducted in the trauma ICU at Hamad General Hospital in Qatar between 2011 and 2012. Patients were divided in two groups: Group I (without BIS monitoring) and Group II (with BIS monitoring). The depth of sedation was clinically evaluated with Ramsey Sedation Scale, changes in vital signs and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) level. Use of sedatives, analgesics, and muscle relaxants were also recorded. Data were compared using Chi-square and Student t-tests.
Results:
A total of 110 mechanically ventilated trauma patients were enrolled with a mean age of 36 ± 14 years. The rate of head injury was greater in Group I when compared with Group II (94% vs. 81%, P = 0.04). In comparison to Group I, patients in Group II had lower GCS and higher mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) (6.3 ± 2.5 vs. 7.4 ± 2.7 and 25.5 ± 8.5 vs. 21.2 ± 4.7, respectively, P = 0.03). The used midazolam dose was less in Group II in comparison to Group I (5.2 ± 2.3 vs. 6.1 ± 2.1, P = 0.03). Also, fentanyl dose was less in Group II (152 ± 58 vs. 187 ± 59, P = 0.004). The rate of agitation, failure of extubation and tracheostomy in Group II were lower than those in Group I, P = 0.001. The length of stay for patients Group I was longer (14.6 ± 7.1 vs. 10.2 ± 5.9 days) in comparison to group II, P = 0.001.
Conclusion:
Management of multiple trauma patients in the trauma ICU with BIS monitoring was found to be associated with better outcomes. BIS monitoring is a guide for adjusting the dosage of sedative agents. It can also minimize agitation, failure of extubation, and length of stay in ICU.
doi:10.4103/2152-7806.141890
PMCID: PMC4192905  PMID: 25317356
Analgesia; bispectral index; head injury; sedation; trauma
11.  Compartmental anatomical classification of traumatic abdominal injuries from the academic point of view and its potential clinical implication 
Background
The mechanism and outcome of traumatic abdominal injury (TAI) varies worldwide. Moreover, data comparing TAIs in each abdominal compartment are lacking. We aimed to assess from the academic point of view, TAI based on its anatomical compartments.
Patients & methods
We conducted a retrospective study for TAI patients between 2008 and 2011 in Qatar. Patients were categorized according to the involved anatomical compartment (C): intrathoracic (ITC), retroperitoneal (RPC), true abdomen (TAC), and pelvic abdomen (PAC) group. Chi Square test, One-Way ANOVA and multivariate regression analysis were appropriately performed.
Results
Of 6,888 patients admitted to the trauma unit, 1,036 (15%) had TAI that were grouped as ITC (65%), RPC (15%), TAC (13%), and PAC (7%). The mean age was lowest in ITC (29 ± 13) and highest in TAC (34 ± 11) group, (P = 0.001). Motor vehicle crash was the main mechanism of injury in all groups except for PAC, in which fall dominated. Vast majority of expatriates had PAC and TAC injuries. The main abdominal injuries included liver (35%; ITC), spleen (32%; ITC) and kidneys (18%; RPC). Extra-abdominal injuries involved the head in RPC and ITC, lung in ITC and RPC and extremities in PAC. Mean ISS was higher in RPC and ITC. Abdominal AIS was higher in TAC injuries. Overall hospital mortality was 10%: RPC (15%), TAC (11%), ITC (9.4%) and PAC (1.5%). Concurrent traumatic brain injury (OR 5.3; P = 0.001) and need for blood transfusion (OR 3.03; P = 0.003) were the main independent predictors of mortality.
Conclusion
In addition to its academic value, the anatomical approach of TAI would be a complementary tool for better understanding and prediction of the pattern and outcome of TAI. This would be possible if further research find accurate, early diagnostic tool for this anatomical classification.
doi:10.1186/1752-2897-8-14
PMCID: PMC4202251  PMID: 25332723
Trauma; Abdominal injury; Anatomical compartment; Mortality
12.  Traumatic injury among females: does gender matter? 
Background
Trauma remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Generally, the incidence of traumatic injuries is disproportionately high in males. However, trauma in females is underreported.
Aim
To study the epidemiology and outcome of different mechanisms and types of traumatic injuries in women.
Methods
We conducted a traditional narrative review using PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE, searching for English-language publications for gender-specific trauma between January 1993 and January 2013 using key words “trauma”, “gender”, “female” and “women”.
Results
Among 1150 retrieved articles, 71 articles were relevant over 20 years. Although it is an important public health problem, traumatic injuries among females remain under-reported.
Conclusion
There is a need for further research and evaluation of the exact burden of traumatic injuries among females together with the implementation of effective community based preventive programs.
doi:10.1186/1752-2897-8-8
PMCID: PMC4118222  PMID: 25089153
Trauma; Gender; Injury mechanisms; Female
13.  The therapeutic challenges of degloving soft-tissue injuries 
Background:
Degloving soft-tissue injuries are serious and debilitating conditions. Deciding on the most appropriate treatment is often difficult. However, their impact on patients’ outcomes is frequently underestimated.
Objectives:
We aimed to study the incidence, clinical presentation, management and outcome of degloving soft-tissue injuries.
Materials and Methods:
We conducted a narrative traditional review using the key words; degloving injury and soft-tissue injuries through search engines PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus.
Results:
There are several therapeutic options for treating degloving soft-tissue injuries; however, no evidence-based guidelines have been published on how to manage degloving soft-tissue injuries, although numerous articles outline the management of such injuries.
Conclusion:
Degloving soft-tissue injuries are underreported and potentially devastating. They require early recognition, and early management. A multidisciplinary approach is usually needed to ensure the effective rehabilitation of these patients.
doi:10.4103/0974-2700.136870
PMCID: PMC4126125  PMID: 25114435
Degloving; Morel-Lavallée lesions; soft-tissue injuries; trauma
14.  Predictors of Reintubation in Trauma Intensive Care Unit: Qatar Experience 
Oman Medical Journal  2014;29(4):289-293.
Objectives
To determine the causes, predictors and outcomes of re-intubation.
Methods
Retrospective analysis of data collected from the trauma data base registry was conducted to identify the extubation failure cases in Trauma ICU at Hamad General Hospital, the only Level I trauma center in Qatar between January 2009 and December 2010. Demographics, mechanism of Injury, complications, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), ICU-length of stay (LOS), and mortality were analyzed among trauma patients who need reintubation within 48 hrs after extubation (group 1) compared to successfully extubated patients (group 2).
Result
A total of 954 patients were admitted to the trauma ICU, of which 343 were intubated orotracheally. The mean age of patients was 32±12 years with male predominance (95%). Motor vehicle crash (41%), pedestrian injury (20%) and falls (18%) were the most common mechanisms of injury. Reintubation (group 1) was required in 24 patients (7%). Patients in group 1 had higher rate of head injury mainly SAH (88%), pneumonia (79%) and pulmonary contusion (58%). The mean ICU-LOS was higher in the reintubated patients (p=0.010) in comparison to group 2. Forty-six percent of reintubated patients required tracheostomy. The mean age, ISS, GCS and tube size was comparable among the two groups. Furthermore, reintubation was not associated with higher mortality rate (p=0.910). However, Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (odd ratio=3.61 [95% CI 1.25-10.44]; p=0.020) and ventilator days (odd ratio=1.09 [95% CI 1.024-1.153]; p=0.006) were independent predictors of reintubation by multivariate analysis.
Conclusion
Re-intubation is associated with increased ICU-LOS and need for tracheostomy. VAP and prolonged intubation are independent predictors of re-intubation. Our finding addresses the value of prevention and early treatment of infection in intubated patients. This study may represent an audit of local practice as well.
doi:10.5001/omj.2014.75
PMCID: PMC4137580  PMID: 25170412
trauma; re-intubation; failed extubation; tracheostomy; intensive care unit
15.  External air compression: A rare cause of blunt esophageal injury, managed by a stent 
INTRODUCTION
Blunt esophageal injuries secondary to external air compression of anterior chest and abdomen complicated with esophageal perforation are uncommon events associated with worse outcomes.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We reported a rare case of esophageal perforation following an external air-compression injury along with the relevant review of literatures. The patient presented with chest pain and shortness of breath and was managed with tube thoracostomy, followed by thoracotomy and eventually with temporary endoscopic stenting.
DISCUSSION
In such trauma case, the external pressurized air forms a shock wave which usually directed to the hollow viscus. Patients with external air-compression injury presented with chest pain and pneumothorax should be suspected for esophageal perforation.
CONCLUSION
High index of suspicion is needed for early diagnosis of esophageal perforation after blunt trauma. Appropriate drainage, antibiotic and temporary endoscopic esophageal stenting may be an optimal approach in selected patients, especially with delayed diagnosis.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.06.011
PMCID: PMC4200878  PMID: 25128727
Trauma; Blunt esophageal perforation; External air compression; Stenting
16.  Mediastinal emphysema following fracture of the orbital floor 
Journal of Surgical Case Reports  2014;2014(5):rju032.
Pneumomediastinum (PM) is mainly an atypical finding among traumatic neck or thoracic injury patients. Moreover, PM secondary to isolated orbital floor fracture remains a rare event which is infrequently associated with severe complications such as mediastinitis, airway obstruction and pneumothorax. Herein, we report an atypical case of mediastinal emphysema consequent to orbital floor fracture along with review of the literature.
doi:10.1093/jscr/rju032
PMCID: PMC4207256  PMID: 24876504
17.  Blunt traumatic injury in the Arab Middle Eastern populations 
Background:
Trauma represents a global public health concern with an estimated 5 million deaths annually. Moreover, the incidence of blunt traumatic injuries (BTI) particularly road traffic accidents (RTAs) and workplace-related injuries are rising throughout the world-wide. Objectives: We aimed to review the epidemiology and prevention of BTI, in the Arab Middle East.
Materials and Methods:
A traditional narrative literature review was carried out using PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE search engines. We used the keywords “traumatic injuries”, “blunt” “epidemiology”, “Arab Middle East” between December 1972 and March 2013.
Results:
The most common mechanisms of BTI in our region are RTAs, falls from height, struck by heavy objects and pedestrian motor vehicle trauma crashes. The rate of RTA and occupational injuries are markedly increased in the region due to rapid industrial development, extreme climatic conditions and unfamiliar working environment. However, lack of reliable information on these unintentional injuries is mainly responsible for the underestimation of this trauma burden. This knowledge deficit shields the extent of the problem from policy makers, leading to continued fatalities. These preventable injuries in turn add to the overall financial burden on the society through loss of productivity and greater need of medical and welfare services.
Conclusion:
In the Arab Middle East, population-based studies on the incidence, mechanism of injury, prevention and outcome of BTI are not well-documented. Therefore, region-specific BTI studies would strengthen surveillance to better understand the burden of these injuries in the region.
doi:10.4103/0974-2700.130878
PMCID: PMC4013743  PMID: 24812453
Arab Middle East; blunt traumatic injuries; fall; pedestrians; road traffic accident
18.  Workplace-Related Traumatic Injuries: Insights from a Rapidly Developing Middle Eastern Country 
Traumatic workplace-related injuries (WRIs) carry a substantial negative impact on the public health worldwide. We aimed to study the incidence and outcomes of WRIs in Qatar. We conducted occupational injury surveillance for all WRI patients between 2010 and 2012. A total of 5152 patients were admitted to the level 1 trauma unit in Qatar, of which 1496 (29%) sustained WRI with a mean age of 34.3 ± 10.3. Fall from height (FFH) (51%) followed by being struck by heavy objects (FHO) (18%) and motor vehicle crashes (MVC) (17%) was the commonest mechanism of injury (MOI). WRI patients were mainly laborers involved in industrial work (43%), transportation (18%), installation/repair (12%), carpentry (9%), and housekeeping (3%). Use of protective device was not observed in 64% of cases. The mean ISS was 11.7 ± 8.9, median ICU stay was 3 days (1–64), and total hospital stay was 6 days (1–192). The overall case fatality was 3.7%. Although the incidence of WRI in Qatar is quite substantial, its mortality rate is relatively low in comparison to other countries of similar socioeconomic status. Prolonged hospital stay and treatment exert a significant socioeconomic burden on the nation's and families' resources. Focused and efficient injury prevention strategies are mandatory to prevent future WRI.
doi:10.1155/2014/430832
PMCID: PMC3964690  PMID: 24734049
19.  Implications of Foot Ulceration in Hemodialysis Patients: A 5-Year Observational Study 
Journal of Diabetes Research  2014;2014:945075.
Foot ulceration (FU) remains a serious concern for patients worldwide. We analyzed the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of FU in hemodialysis (HD) patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted for 252 HD patients who were followed up for 5 years. Patients were categorized according to whether they developed FU or not. The FU group (17%) was older and had significantly higher incidence of nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral (PAD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and diabetes mellitus (DM) as compared to no-FU group. FU group had higher frequency of major amputation (P = 0.001) and HD vascular access (P = 0.01). Patients with combined DM and PAD had a 10-fold increased risk of FU in comparison to those who had DM alone. Presence of PAD was the main independent predictor for development of FU in HD with an adjusted odd ratio (aOR) of 16.0 (95% CI: 4.41–62.18; P = 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and CAD, predictors for mortality were PAD (aOR 4.3), FU (aOR 3.6), and DM (aOR 2.6). FU is common in HD patients regardless of DM. However, the presence of PAD is significantly associated with more FU and mortality in HD. HD patients need intensive foot care and warrant progressive modification of vascular risk factors.
doi:10.1155/2014/945075
PMCID: PMC3958654  PMID: 24724108
20.  Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Coronary Artery Disease in a Small Country with High Cardiovascular Burden 
ISRN Cardiology  2014;2014:825461.
We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical profiles and outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), and their association with coronary artery disease (CAD) in a small country with high cardiovascular burden. Methods. Data were collected for all adult patients who underwent abdominal computed tomography scans at Hamad General Hospital in Qatar between 2004 and 2008. Results. Out of 13,115 screened patients for various reasons, 61 patients (0.5%) had abdominal aneurysms. The majority of AAA patients were male (82%) with a mean age of 67 ± 12 years. The incidence of AAA substantially increased with age reaching up to 5% in patients >80 yrs. Hypertension was the most prevalent risk factor for AAA followed by smoking, dyslipidemia, renal impairment, and diabetes mellitus. CAD and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) were observed in 36% and 13% of AAA patients, respectively. There were no significant correlations between CAD or PAD and site and size of AAA. Conclusion. This is the largest study in our region that describes the epidemiology of AAA with concomitant CAD. As the mortality rate is quite high in this high risk population, routine screening for AAA in CAD patients and vice versa needs further studies for proper risk stratification.
doi:10.1155/2014/825461
PMCID: PMC3950591  PMID: 24701361
21.  Rollover Car Crashes with Ejection: A Deadly Combination—An Analysis of 719 Patients 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:250540.
Rollover car crashes (ROCs) are serious public safety concerns worldwide. Objective. To determine the incidence and outcomes of ROCs with or without ejection of occupants in the State of Qatar. Methods. A retrospective study of all patients involved in ROCs admitted to Level I trauma center in Qatar (2011-2012). Patients were divided into Group I (ROC with ejection) and Group II (ROC without ejection). Results. A total of 719 patients were evaluated (237 in Group I and 482 in Group II). The mean age in Group I was lower than in Group II (24.3 ± 10.3 versus 29 ± 12.2; P = 0.001). Group I had higher injury severity score and sustained significantly more head, chest, and abdominal injuries in comparison to Group II. The mortality rate was higher in Group I (25% versus 7%; P = 0.001). Group I patients required higher ICU admission rate (P = 0.001). Patients in Group I had a 5-fold increased risk for age-adjusted mortality (OR 5.43; 95% CI 3.11–9.49), P = 0.001). Conclusion. ROCs with ejection are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality compared to ROCs without ejection. As an increased number of young Qatari males sustain ROCs with ejection, these findings highlight the need for research-based injury prevention initiatives in the country.
doi:10.1155/2014/250540
PMCID: PMC3947784  PMID: 24693231
22.  Prehospital Intubation in Patients with Isolated Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A 4-Year Observational Study 
Objectives. To study the effect of prehospital intubation (PHI) on survival of patients with isolated severe traumatic brain injury (ISTBI). Method. Retrospective analyses of all intubated patients with ISTBI between 2008 and 2011 were studied. Comparison was made between those who were intubated in the PHI versus in the trauma resuscitation unit (TRU). Results. Among 1665 TBI patients, 160 met the inclusion criteria (105 underwent PHI, and 55 patients were intubated in TRU). PHI group was younger in age and had lower median scene motor GCS (P = 0.001). Ventilator days and hospital length of stay (P = 0.01 and 0.006, resp.) were higher in TRUI group. Mean ISS, length of stay, initial blood pressure, pneumonia, and ARDS were comparable among the two groups. Mortality rate was higher in the PHI group (54% versus 31%, P = 0.005). On multivariate regression analysis, scene motor GCS (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.41–0.73) was an independent predictor for mortality. Conclusion. PHI did not offer survival benefit in our group of patients with ISTBI based on the head AIS and the scene motor GCS. However, more studies are warranted to prove this finding and identify patients who may benefit from this intervention.
doi:10.1155/2014/135986
PMCID: PMC3914516  PMID: 24527211
23.  Prehospital versus Emergency Room Intubation of Trauma Patients in Qatar: A-2-year Observational Study 
Background:
The impact of prehospital intubation (PHI) in improving outcome of trauma patients has not been adequately evaluated in the developing countries.
Aims:
The present study analyzed the outcome of PHI versus emergency room intubation (ERI) among trauma patients in Qatar.
Materials and Methods:
Data were retrospectively reviewed for all intubated trauma patients between 2010 and 2011. Patients were classified according to location of intubation (PHI: Group-1 versus ERI: Group-2). Data were analyzed and compared.
Results:
Out of 570 intubated patients; 482 patients (239 in group-1 and 243 in group-2) met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 32 ΁ 14.6 years Head injury (P = 0.003) and multiple trauma (P = 0.004) were more prevalent in group-1, whereas solid organ injury predominated in group-2 (P = 0.02). Group-1 had significantly higher mean injury severity scoring (ISS), lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS), greater head abbreviated injury score and longer activation, response, scene and total emergency medical services times. The mortality was higher in group-1 (53% vs. 18.5%; P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that GCS [odds ratio (OR) 0.78, P = 0.005) and ISS (OR 1.12, P = 0.001) were independent predictors of mortality.
Conclusions:
PHI is associated with high mortality when compared with ERI. However, selection bias cannot be ruled out and therefore, PHI needs further critical assessment in Qatar.
doi:10.4103/1947-2714.125855
PMCID: PMC3938867  PMID: 24678471
Emergency room; intubation; mode of transport; on-scene; prehospital; trauma
24.  Conservative Management of Major Liver Necrosis after Angioembolization in a Patient with Blunt Trauma 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:954050.
Management of liver injury is challenging particularly for the advanced grades. Increased utility of nonoperative management strategies increases the risk of developing massive liver necrosis (MLN). We reported a case of a 19-year-old male who presented with a history of motor vehicle crash. Abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed large liver laceration (Grade 4) with blush and moderate free hemoperitoneum in 3 quadrants. Patient was managed nonoperatively by angioembolization. Two anomalies in hepatic arteries origin were reported and both vessels were selectively cannulated and bilateral gel foam embolization was achieved successfully. The patient developed MLN which was successfully treated conservatively. The follow-up CT showed progressive resolution of necrotic areas with fluid replacement and showed remarkable regeneration of liver tissues. We assume that patients with high-grade liver injuries could be managed successfully with a carefully designed protocol. Special attention should be given to the potential major associated complications. A tailored multidisciplinary approach to manage the subsequent complications would represent the best recommended strategy for favorable outcomes.
doi:10.1155/2013/954050
PMCID: PMC3888687  PMID: 24455392
25.  Adherence of Surgeons to Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Guidelines in a Tertiary General Hospital in a Rapidly Developing Country 
Objectives. To assess the standard practice of care of surgeons regarding surgical antibiotic prophylaxis, to identify gaps, and to set recommendations. Methods. A retrospective analysis of data obtained from different surgical units in a single center in Qatar over a 3-month period in 2012. A total of 101 patients who underwent surgery and followed regimes for surgical prophylaxis as per hospital guidelines were included in the study. Results. The overall use of antibiotic was 89%, whereas the current practice did not match the recommended hospital protocols in 53.5% of cases. Prolonged antibiotics use (59.3%) was the commonest reason for nonadherence followed by the use of an alternative antibiotic to that recommended in the protocol (31.5%) and no prophylaxis was used in 9.2% of cases. The rate of compliance was significantly higher among clean surgery than clean contaminated group (P = 0.03). Forty-four percent of clean and 65% of clean-contaminated procedures showed noncompliance with the recommended surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis hospital guidelines. Conclusion. Lack of adherence to hospital protocols is not uncommon. This finding remains a challenge to encourage clinicians to follow hospital guidelines appropriately and to consistently apply the surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. The role of clinical pharmacist may facilitate this process across all surgical disciplines.
doi:10.1155/2013/842593
PMCID: PMC3885161  PMID: 24454349

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