Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a major inflammatory condition of the skin caused by inherited skin barrier deficiency, with mutations in the filaggrin gene predisposing to development of AD. Support for barrier deficiency initiating AD came from flaky tail mice, which have a frameshift mutation in Flg and also carry an unknown gene, matted, causing a matted hair phenotype.
We sought to identify the matted mutant gene in mice and further define whether mutations in the human gene were associated with AD.
A mouse genetics approach was used to separate the matted and Flg mutations to produce congenic single-mutant strains for genetic and immunologic analysis. Next-generation sequencing was used to identify the matted gene. Five independently recruited AD case collections were analyzed to define associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human gene and AD.
The matted phenotype in flaky tail mice is due to a mutation in the Tmem79/Matt gene, with no expression of the encoded protein mattrin in the skin of mutant mice. Mattft mice spontaneously have dermatitis and atopy caused by a defective skin barrier, with mutant mice having systemic sensitization after cutaneous challenge with house dust mite allergens. Meta-analysis of 4,245 AD cases and 10,558 population-matched control subjects showed that a missense SNP, rs6694514, in the human MATT gene has a small but significant association with AD.
In mice mutations in Matt cause a defective skin barrier and spontaneous dermatitis and atopy. A common SNP in MATT has an association with AD in human subjects.
Allergy; association; atopic dermatitis; atopy; eczema; filaggrin; flaky tail; Matt; mattrin; mouse; mutation; Tmem79; AD, Atopic dermatitis; DM, Double mutant; FLG, Filaggrin; HDM, House dust mite; hpf, High-power field; MAPEG, Membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism; OR, Odds ratio; SNP, Single nucleotide polymorphism; TEWL, Transepidermal water loss; WT, Wild-type
In general, prokaryotes are considered to be single-celled organisms that lack internal membrane-bound organelles. However, many bacteria produce proteinaceous microcompartments that serve a similar purpose, i.e. to concentrate specific enzymic reactions together or to shield the wider cytoplasm from toxic metabolic intermediates. In this paper, a synthetic operon encoding the key structural components of a microcompartment was designed based on the genes for the Salmonella propanediol utilization (Pdu) microcompartment. The genes chosen included pduA, -B, -J, -K, -N, -T and -U, and each was shown to produce protein in an Escherichia coli chassis. In parallel, a set of compatible vectors designed to express non-native cargo proteins was also designed and tested. Engineered hexa-His tags allowed isolation of the components of the microcompartments together with co-expressed, untagged, cargo proteins. Finally, an in vivo protease accessibility assay suggested that a PduD–GFP fusion could be protected from proteolysis when co-expressed with the synthetic microcompartment operon. This work gives encouragement that it may be possible to harness the genes encoding a non-native microcompartment for future biotechnological applications.
Many pharmaceuticals used to treat cancer target the cell cycle or mitotic spindle dynamics, such as the anti-tumor drug, paclitaxel, which stabilizes microtubules. Here we show that, in cells arrested in mitosis with the spindle toxins, nocodazole, or paclitaxel, the endogenous protein phosphatase 4 (Ppp4) complex Ppp4c-R2-R3A is phosphorylated on its regulatory (R) subunits, and its activity is inhibited. The phosphorylations are blocked by roscovitine, indicating that they may be mediated by Cdk1-cyclin B. Endogenous Ppp4c is enriched at the centrosomes in the absence and presence of paclitaxel, nocodazole, or roscovitine, and the activity of endogenous Ppp4c-R2-R3A is inhibited from G1/S to the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Endogenous γ-tubulin and its associated protein, γ-tubulin complex protein 2, both of which are essential for nucleation of microtubules at centrosomes, interact with the Ppp4 complex. Recombinant γ-tubulin can be phosphorylated by Cdk1-cyclin B or Brsk1 and dephosphorylated by Ppp4c-R2-R3A in vitro. The data indicate that Ppp4c-R2-R3A regulates microtubule organization at centrosomes during cell division in response to stress signals such as spindle toxins, paclitaxel, and nocodazole, and that inhibition of the Ppp4 complex may be advantageous for treatment of some cancers.
Cdk1; cell cycle; centrosome; nocodazole; paclitaxel; protein phosphatase 4; γ-tubulin
In recent decades, the antihyperglycemic biguanide metformin has been used extensively in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, despite continuing uncertainty over its direct target. In this article, using two independent approaches, we demonstrate that cellular actions of metformin are disrupted by interference with its metal-binding properties, which have been known for over a century but little studied by biologists. We demonstrate that copper sequestration opposes known actions of metformin not only on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent signaling, but also on S6 protein phosphorylation. Biguanide/metal interactions are stabilized by extensive π-electron delocalization and by investigating analogs of metformin; we provide evidence that this intrinsic property enables biguanides to regulate AMPK, glucose production, gluconeogenic gene expression, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial copper binding. In contrast, regulation of S6 phosphorylation is prevented only by direct modification of the metal-liganding groups of the biguanide structure, supporting recent data that AMPK and S6 phosphorylation are regulated independently by biguanides. Additional studies with pioglitazone suggest that mitochondrial copper is targeted by both of these clinically important drugs. Together, these results suggest that cellular effects of biguanides depend on their metal-binding properties. This link may illuminate a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms enabling antihyperglycemic drug action.
In bony fishes, Bfsp2 orthologues are predicted to possess a C-terminal tail domain, which is absent from avian, amphibian and mammalian Bfsp2 sequences. These sequences, are however, not conserved between fish species and therefore questions whether they have a functional role. For other intermediate filament proteins, the C-terminal tail domain is important for both filament assembly and regulating interactions between filaments. We confirm that zebrafish has a single Bfsp2 gene by radiation mapping. Two transcripts (bfsp2α and bfsp2β) are produced by alternative splicing of the last exon. Using a polyclonal antibody specific to a tridecameric peptide in the C-terminal tail domain common to both zebrafish Bfsp2 splice variants, we have confirmed its expression in zebrafish lens fibre cells. We have also determined the in vitro assembly properties of zebrafish Bfsp2α and conclude that the C-terminal sequences are required to regulate not only the diameter and uniformity of the in vitro assembly filaments, but also their filament–filament associations in vitro. Therefore we conclude zebrafish Bfsp2α is a functional orthologue conforming more closely to the conventional domain structure of intermediate filament proteins. Data mining of the genome databases suggest that the loss of this tail domain could occur in several stages leading eventually to completely tailless orthologues, such as human BFSP2.
lens; cytoskeleton; beaded filaments; BFSP1; intermediate filament; evolution
Tenovin-6 (Tnv-6) is a bioactive small molecule with anti-neoplastic activity. Inhibition of the Sirtuin class of protein deacetylases with activation of p53 function is associated with the pro-apoptotic effects of Tnv-6 in many tumors. Here, we demonstrate that in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, Tnv-6 causes non-genotoxic cytotoxicity, without adversely affecting human clonogenic hematopoietic progenitors in vitro, or murine hematopoiesis. Mechanistically, exposure of CLL cells to Tnv-6 did not induce cellular apoptosis or p53-pathway activity. Transcriptomic profiling identified a gene program influenced by Tnv-6 that included autophagy-lysosomal pathway genes. The dysregulation of autophagy was confirmed by changes in cellular ultrastructure and increases in the autophagy-regulatory proteins LC3 (LC3-II) and p62/Sequestosome. Adding bafilomycin-A1, an autophagy inhibitor to Tnv-6 containing cultures did not cause synergistic accumulation of LC3-II, suggesting inhibition of late-stage autophagy by Tnv-6. Thus, in CLL, the cytotoxic effects of Tnv-6 result from dysregulation of protective autophagy pathways.
Electrical gradients are present in many developing and regenerating tissues and around tumours. Mimicking endogenous electric fields in vitro has profound effects on the behaviour of many cell types. Intriguingly, specific cell types migrate cathodally, others anodally and some polarise with their long axis perpendicular to the electric vector. These striking phenomena are likely to have in vivo relevance since one of the determining factors during cancer metastasis is the ability to switch between attractive and repulsive migration in response to extracellular guidance stimuli. We present evidence that the cervical cancer cell line HeLa migrates cathodally in a direct current electric field of physiological intensity, while the strongly metastatic prostate cancer cell line PC-3-M migrates anodally. Notably, genetic disruption of protein serine/threonine phosphatase-1 (PP1) and its regulator NIPP1 decrease directional migration in these cell lines. Conversely, the inducible expression of NIPP1 switched the directional response of HeLa cells from cathodal to slightly anodal in a PP1-dependent manner. Remarkably, induction of a hyperactive PP1/NIPP1 holoenzyme, further shifted directional migration towards the anode. We show that PP1 association with NIPP1 upregulates signalling by the GTPase Cdc42 and demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of Cdc42 in cells overexpressing NIPP1 recovered cathodal migration. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for regulation of directional cell migration by NIPP1. In addition, we identify PP1/NIPP1 as a novel molecular compass that controls directed cell migration via upregulation of Cdc42 signalling and suggest a way by which PP1/NIPP1 may contribute to the migratory properties of cancer cells.
The eye lens is avascular, deriving nutrients from the aqueous and vitreous humours. It is, however, unclear which mechanisms mediate the transfer of solutes between these humours and the lens' fibre cells (FCs). In this review, we integrate the published data with the previously unpublished ultrastructural, dye loading and magnetic resonance imaging results. The picture emerging is that solute transfer between the humours and the fibre mass is determined by four processes: (i) paracellular transport of ions, water and small molecules along the intercellular spaces between epithelial and FCs, driven by Na+-leak conductance; (ii) membrane transport of such solutes from the intercellular spaces into the fibre cytoplasm by specific carriers and transporters; (iii) gap-junctional coupling mediating solute flux between superficial and deeper fibres, Na+/K+-ATPase-driven efflux of waste products in the equator, and electrical coupling of fibres; and (iv) transcellular transfer via caveoli and coated vesicles for the uptake of macromolecules and cholesterol. There is evidence that the Na+-driven influx of solutes occurs via paracellular and membrane transport and the Na+/K+-ATPase-driven efflux of waste products via gap junctions. This micro-circulation is likely restricted to the superficial cortex and nearly absent beyond the zone of organelle loss, forming a solute exchange barrier in the lens.
vertebrate eye lens; solute flux; ultrastructure; gap junctions; MRI; dye loading
Compounds that inhibit signalling upstream of ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) are promising anticancer therapies, motivating research to define how this pathway promotes cancers. In the present study, we show that human capicúa represses mRNA expression for PEA3 (polyoma enhancer activator 3) Ets transcription factors ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5 (ETV is Ets translocation variant), and this repression is relieved by multisite controls of capicúa by ERK, p90RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) and 14-3-3 proteins. Specifically, 14-3-3 binds to p90RSK-phosphorylated Ser173 of capicúa thereby modulating DNA binding to its HMG (high-mobility group) box, whereas ERK phosphorylations prevent binding of a C-terminal NLS (nuclear localization sequence) to importin α4 (KPNA3). ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5 mRNA levels in melanoma cells are elevated by siRNA (small interfering RNA) knockdown of capicúa, and decreased by inhibiting ERK and/or expressing a form of capicúa that cannot bind to 14-3-3 proteins. Capicúa knockdown also enhances cell migration. The findings of the present study give further mechanistic insights into why ETV1 is highly expressed in certain cancers, indicate that loss of capicúa can desensitize cells to the effects of ERK pathway inhibitors, and highlight interconnections among growth factor signalling, spinocerebellar ataxias and cancers.
cancer; capicúa; Ets translocation variant 1 (ETV1); 14-3-3 protein; spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1); B2M, β2 microglobuluin; CRE, CIC-responsive element; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; DUX4, Double homeobox 4; ECL, enhanced chemiluminescence; EGF, epidermal growth factor; EMSA, electrophoretic mobility-shift assay; ERK, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase; ETV, Ets translocation variant; EWS, Ewing sarcoma protein; FBS, fetal bovine serum; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GFP, green fluorescent protein; GIST, gastrointestinal stromal tumour; HA, haemagglutinin; HEK, human embryonic kidney; HMG, high-mobility group; IGF1, insulin-like growth factor 1; KPNA3, importin α4/karyopherin α3; LC, liquid chromatography; MS/MS, tandem MS; NLS, nuclear localization sequence; p90RSK, p90 ribosomal S6 kinase; PEA3, polyoma enhancer activator 3; PDK1, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PKB, protein kinase B; PKC, protein kinase C; RT, reverse transcription; SCA, spinocerebellar ataxia; siRNA, small interfering RNA
LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2) is mutated in a significant number of Parkinson's
disease patients. Since a common mutation that replaces Gly2019 with a serine residue
enhances kinase catalytic activity, small-molecule LRRK2 inhibitors might have utility in treating
Parkinson's disease. However, the effectiveness of inhibitors is difficult to assess, as no
physiological substrates or downstream effectors have been identified that could be exploited to
develop a robust cell-based assay. We recently established that LRRK2 bound 14-3-3 protein isoforms
via its phosphorylation of Ser910 and Ser935. In the present study we show
that treatment of Swiss 3T3 cells or lymphoblastoid cells derived from control or a Parkinson's
disease patient harbouring a homozygous LRRK2(G2019S) mutation with two structurally unrelated
inhibitors of LRRK2 (H-1152 or sunitinib) induced dephosphorylation of endogenous LRRK2 at
Ser910 and Ser935, thereby disrupting 14-3-3 interaction. Our results suggest
that H-1152 and sunitinib induce dephosphorylation of Ser910 and Ser935 by
inhibiting LRRK2 kinase activity, as these compounds failed to induce significant dephosphorylation
of a drug-resistant LRRK2(A2016T) mutant. Moreover, consistent with the finding that
non-14-3-3-binding mutants of LRRK2 accumulated within discrete cytoplasmic pools resembling
inclusion bodies, we observed that H-1152 causes LRRK2 to accumulate within inclusion bodies. These
findings indicate that dephosphorylation of Ser910/Ser935, disruption of
14-3-3 binding and/or monitoring LRRK2 cytoplasmic localization can be used as an assay to assess
the relative activity of LRRK2 inhibitors in vivo. These results will aid the
elaboration and evaluation of LRRK2 inhibitors. They will also stimulate further research to
understand how phosphorylation of Ser910 and Ser935 is controlled by LRRK2,
and establish any relationship to development of Parkinson's disease.
cell-based assay; drug discovery; 14-3-3 protein kinase inhibitor; leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2 (LRRK2); Parkinson's disease; protein phosphorylation; DIG, digoxigenin; DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; EBV, Epstein–Barr virus; ERK, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase; FBS, fetal bovine serum; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HEK, human embryonic kidney; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; KLH, keyhole-limpet haemocyanin; LRRK2, leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; MEK, MAPK/ERK kinase; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; MYPT, myosin phosphatase-targeting; NP-40, Nonidet P40; PFA, paraformaldehyde; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; ROCK, Rho-kinase; TBST, Tris-buffered saline with Tween 20
LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2) is mutated in a significant number of Parkinson's disease patients, but still little is understood about how it is regulated or functions. In the present study we have demonstrated that 14-3-3 protein isoforms interact with LRRK2. Consistent with this, endogenous LRRK2 isolated from Swiss 3T3 cells or various mouse tissues is associated with endogenous 14-3-3 isoforms. We have established that 14-3-3 binding is mediated by phosphorylation of LRRK2 at two conserved residues (Ser910 and Ser935) located before the leucine-rich repeat domain. Our results suggests that mutation of Ser910 and/or Ser935 to disrupt 14-3-3 binding does not affect intrinsic protein kinase activity, but induces LRRK2 to accumulate within discrete cytoplasmic pools, perhaps resembling inclusion bodies. To investigate links between 14-3-3 binding and Parkinson's disease, we studied how 41 reported mutations of LRRK2 affected 14-3-3 binding and cellular localization. Strikingly, we found that five of the six most common pathogenic mutations (R1441C, R1441G, R1441H, Y1699C and I2020T) display markedly reduced phosphorylation of Ser910/Ser935 thereby disrupting interaction with 14-3-3. We have also demonstrated that Ser910/Ser935 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding to endogenous LRRK2 is significantly reduced in tissues of homozygous LRRK2(R1441C) knock-in mice. Consistent with 14-3-3 regulating localization, all of the common pathogenic mutations displaying reduced 14-3-3-binding accumulated within inclusion bodies. We also found that three of the 41 LRRK2 mutations analysed displayed elevated protein kinase activity (R1728H, ~2-fold; G2019S, ~3-fold; and T2031S, ~4-fold). These results provide the first evidence suggesting that 14-3-3 regulates LRRK2 and that disruption of the interaction of LRRK2 with 14-3-3 may be linked to Parkinson's disease.
cytoplasmic localization; 14-3-3 protein; leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2 (LRRK2); Parkinson's disease; pathogenic mutation; phosphorylation; CDC, cell division cycle; DIG, digoxigenin; DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; DTT, dithiothreitol; FBS, fetal bovine serum; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HEK-293, human embryonic kidney; Hsp90, heat-shock protein 90; IPI, International Protein Index; KLH, keyhole-limpet haemocyanin; LRRK2, leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2; MARK3, microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3; PD, Parkinson's disease; ROC, Ras of complex GTPase domain; COR, C-terminal of ROC; SILAC, stable isotope labelling of amino acids; TBST, Tris-buffered saline with Tween 20
A Trypanosoma brucei TbGPI12 null mutant that is unable to express cell surface procyclins and free glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPI) revealed that these are not the only surface coat molecules of the procyclic life cycle stage. Here, we show that non-GPI-anchored procyclins are N-glycosylated, accumulate in the lysosome, and appear as proteolytic fragments in the medium. We also show, using lectin agglutination and galactose oxidase-NaB3H4 labeling, that the cell surface of the TbGPI12 null parasites contains glycoconjugates that terminate in sialic acid linked to galactose. Following desialylation, a high-apparent-molecular-weight glycoconjugate fraction was purified by ricin affinity chromatography and gel filtration and shown to contain mannose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, and fucose. The latter has not been previously reported in T. brucei glycoproteins. A proteomic analysis of this fraction revealed a mixture of polytopic transmembrane proteins, including P-type ATPase and vacuolar proton-translocating pyrophosphatase. Immunolocalization studies showed that both could be labeled on the surfaces of wild-type and TbGPI12 null cells. Neither galactose oxidase-NaB3H4 labeling of the non-GPI-anchored surface glycoconjugates nor immunogold labeling of the P-type ATPase was affected by the presence of procyclins in the wild-type cells, suggesting that the procyclins do not, by themselves, form a macromolecular barrier.
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling induces a rapid reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured mouse dendritic cells (DC), leading to enhanced antigen endocytosis and a concomitant loss of filamentous actin–rich podosomes. We show that as podosomes are lost, TLR signaling induces prominent focal contacts and a transient reduction in DC migratory capacity in vitro. We further show that podosomes in mouse DC are foci of pronounced gelatinase activity, dependent on the enzyme membrane type I matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP), and that DC transiently lose the ability to degrade the extracellular matrix after TLR signaling. Surprisingly, MMP inhibitors block TLR signaling–induced podosome disassembly, although stimulated endocytosis is unaffected, which demonstrates that the two phenomena are not obligatorily coupled. Podosome disassembly caused by TLR signaling occurs normally in DC lacking MT1-MMP, and instead requires the tumor necrosis factor α–converting enzyme ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17), which demonstrates a novel role for this “sheddase” in regulating an actin-based structure.
A gene encoding Trypanosoma brucei
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase was identified, and the
recombinant protein was shown to have enzymatic activity. The parasite enzyme
is unusual in having a strict substrate specificity for
N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate and in being located inside a
peroxisome-like microbody, the glycosome. A bloodstream form T.
brucei conditional null mutant was constructed and shown to be unable to
sustain growth in vitro or in vivo under nonpermissive
conditions, demonstrating that there are no alternative metabolic or
nutritional routes to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and providing a genetic
validation for the enzyme as a potential drug target. The conditional null
mutant was also used to investigate the effects of
N-acetylglucosamine starvation in the parasite. After 48 h under
nonpermissive conditions, about 24 h before cell lysis, the status of parasite
glycoprotein glycosylation was assessed. Under these conditions,
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine levels were less than 5% of wild type. Lectin
blotting and fluorescence microscopy with tomato lectin revealed that
poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures were greatly reduced in the
parasite. The principal parasite surface coat component, the variant surface
glycoprotein, was also analyzed. Endoglycosidase digestions and mass
spectrometry showed that, under UDP-N-acetylglucosamine starvation,
the variant surface glycoprotein was specifically underglycosylated at its
C-terminal Asn-428 N-glycosylation site. The significance of this
finding, with respect to the hierarchy of site-specific
N-glycosylation in T. brucei, is discussed.
The lens is an avascular tissue, separated from the aqueous and vitreous humors by its own extracellular matrix, the lens capsule. Here we demonstrate that the lens capsule is a source of essential survival factors for lens epithelial cells. Primary and immortalized lens epithelial cells survive in low levels of serum and are resistant to staurosporine-induced apoptosis when they remain in contact with the lens capsule. Physical contact with the capsule is required for maximal resistance to stress. The lens capsule is also a source of soluble factors including fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and perlecan, an extracellular matrix component that enhances FGF-2 activity. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) inhibition as well as MMP-2 pretreatment of lens capsules greatly reduced the protective effect of the lens capsule, although this could be largely reversed by the addition of either conditioned medium or recombinant FGF-2. These data suggest that FGF-2 release from the lens capsule by MMP-2 is essential to lens epithelial cell viability and survival.
Recent studies indicate that the LKB1 is a key regulator of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which plays a crucial role in protecting cardiac muscle from damage during ischemia. We have employed mice that lack LKB1 in cardiac and skeletal muscle and studied how this affected the activity of cardiac AMPKα1/α2 under normoxic, ischemic, and anoxic conditions. In the heart lacking cardiac muscle LKB1, the basal activity of AMPKα2 was vastly reduced and not increased by ischemia or anoxia. Phosphorylation of AMPKα2 at the site of LKB1 phosphorylation (Thr172) or phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2, a downstream substrate of AMPK, was ablated in ischemic heart lacking cardiac LKB1. Ischemia was found to increase the ADP-to-ATP (ADP/ATP) and AMP-to-ATP ratios (AMP/ATP) to a greater extent in LKB1-deficient cardiac muscle than in LKB1-expressing muscle. In contrast to AMPKα2, significant basal activity of AMPKα1 was observed in the lysates from the hearts lacking cardiac muscle LKB1, as well as in cardiomyocytes that had been isolated from these hearts. In the heart lacking cardiac LKB1, ischemia or anoxia induced a marked activation and phosphorylation of AMPKα1, to a level that was only moderately lower than observed in LKB1-expressing heart. Echocardiographic and morphological analysis of the cardiac LKB1-deficient hearts indicated that these hearts were not overtly dysfunctional, despite possessing a reduced weight and enlarged atria. These findings indicate that LKB1 plays a crucial role in regulating AMPKα2 activation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2 phosphorylation and also regulating cellular energy levels in response to ischemia. They also provide genetic evidence that an alternative upstream kinase can activate AMPKα1 in cardiac muscle.
cellular energy metabolism; hypoxia; cardiovascular physiology; AMP-activated protein kinase
Experimental models using DNA vaccine has shown that this vaccine is efficient in generating humoral and cellular immune responses to a wide variety of DNA-derived antigens. Despite the progress in DNA vaccine development, the intracellular transport and fate of naked plasmid DNA in eukaryotic cells is poorly understood, and need to be clarified in order to facilitate the development of novel vectors and vaccine strategies.
Methodology and Principal Findings
Using confocal microscopy, we have demonstrated for the first time that after plasmid DNA uptake an inhibition of the acidification of the lysosomal compartment occurs. This lack of acidification impaired antigen presentation to CD4 T cells, but did not alter the recruitment of MyD88. The recruitment of Rab 5 and Lamp I were also altered since we were not able to co-localize plasmid DNA with Rab 5 and Lamp I in early endosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes, respectively. Furthermore, we observed that the DNA capture process in macrophages was by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In addition, we observed that plasmid DNA remains in vesicles until it is in a juxtanuclear location, suggesting that the plasmid does not escape into the cytoplasmic compartment.
Conclusions and Significance
Taken together our data suggests a novel mechanism involved in the intracellular trafficking of plasmid DNA, and opens new possibilities for the use of lower doses of plasmid DNA to regulate the immune response.
Mutations within the WNK1 (with-no-K[Lys] kinase-1) gene cause Gordon's hypertension syndrome. Little is known about how WNK1 is regulated. We demonstrate that WNK1 is rapidly activated and phosphorylated at multiple residues after exposure of cells to hyperosmotic conditions and that activation is mediated by the phosphorylation of its T-loop Ser382 residue, possibly triggered by a transautophosphorylation reaction. Activation of WNK1 coincides with the phosphorylation and activation of two WNK1 substrates, namely, the protein kinases STE20/SPS1-related proline alanine–rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress response kinase-1 (OSR1). Small interfering RNA depletion of WNK1 impairs SPAK/OSR1 activity and phosphorylation of residues targeted by WNK1. Hyperosmotic stress induces rapid redistribution of WNK1 from the cytosol to vesicular structures that may comprise trans-Golgi network (TGN)/recycling endosomes, as they display rapid movement, colocalize with clathrin, adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1), and TGN46, but not the AP-2 plasma membrane–coated pit marker nor the endosomal markers EEA1, Hrs, and LAMP1. Mutational analysis suggests that the WNK1 C-terminal noncatalytic domain mediates vesicle localization. Our observations shed light on the mechanism by which WNK1 is regulated by hyperosmotic stress.
Twenty Mimosa-nodulating bacterial strains from Brazil and Venezuela, together with eight reference Mimosa-nodulating rhizobial strains and two other β-rhizobial strains, were examined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. They fell into 16 patterns and formed a single cluster together with the known β-rhizobia, Burkholderia caribensis, Burkholderia phymatum, and Burkholderia tuberum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 15 of the 20 strains were determined, and all were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia; four distinct clusters could be discerned, with strains isolated from the same host species usually clustering very closely. Five of the strains (MAP3-5, Br3407, Br3454, Br3461, and Br3469) were selected for further studies of the symbiosis-related genes nodA, the NodD-dependent regulatory consensus sequences (nod box), and nifH. The nodA and nifH sequences were very close to each other and to those of B. phymatum STM815, B. caribensis TJ182, and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 but were relatively distant from those of B. tuberum STM678. In addition to nodulating their original hosts, all five strains could also nodulate other Mimosa spp., and all produced nodules on Mimosa pudica that had nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activities and structures typical of effective N2-fixing symbioses. Finally, both wild-type and green fluorescent protein-expressing transconjugant strains of Br3461 and MAP3-5 produced N2-fixing nodules on their original hosts, Mimosa bimucronata (Br3461) and Mimosa pigra (MAP3-5), and hence this confirms strongly that Burkholderia strains can form effective symbioses with legumes.
The R120G mutation in αB-crystallin causes desmin-related myopathy. There have been a number of mechanisms proposed to explain the disease process, from altered protein processing to loss of chaperone function. Here, we show that the mutation alters the in vitro binding characteristics of αB-crystallin for desmin filaments. The apparent dissociation constant of R120G αB-crystallin was decreased while the binding capacity was increased significantly and as a result, desmin filaments aggregated. These data suggest that the characteristic desmin aggregates seen as part of the disease histopathology can be caused by a direct, but altered interaction of R120G αB-crystallin with desmin filaments. Transfection studies show that desmin networks in different cell backgrounds are not equally affected. Desmin networks are most vulnerable when they are being made de novo and not when they are already established. Our data also clearly demonstrate the beneficial role of wild-type αB-crystallin in the formation of desmin filament networks. Collectively, our data suggest that R120G αB-crystallin directly promotes desmin filament aggregation, although this gain of a function can be repressed by some cell situations. Such circumstances in muscle could explain the late onset characteristic of the myopathies caused by mutations in αB-crystallin.
Loss of full-length adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein correlates with the development of colon cancers in familial and sporadic cases. In addition to its role in regulating β-catenin levels in the Wnt signaling pathway, the APC protein is implicated in regulating cytoskeletal organization. APC stabilizes microtubules in vivo and in vitro, and this may play a role in cell migration (Näthke, I.S., C.L. Adams, P. Polakis, J.H. Sellin, and W.J. Nelson. 1996. J. Cell Biol. 134:165–179; Mimori-Kiyosue, Y., N. Shiina, and S. Tsukita. 2000. J. Cell Biol. 148:505–517; Zumbrunn, J., K. Inoshita, A.A. Hyman, and I.S. Näthke. 2001. Curr. Biol. 11:44–49) and in the attachment of microtubules to kinetochores during mitosis (Fodde, R., J. Kuipers, C. Rosenberg, R. Smits, M. Kielman, C. Gaspar, J.H. van Es, C. Breukel, J. Wiegant, R.H. Giles, and H. Clevers. 2001. Nat. Cell Biol. 3:433–438; Kaplan, K.B., A. Burds, J.R. Swedlow, S.S. Bekir, P.K. Sorger, and I.S. Näthke. 2001. Nat. Cell Biol. 3:429–432). The localization of endogenous APC protein is complex: actin- and microtubule-dependent pools of APC have been identified in cultured cells (Näthke et al., 1996; Mimori-Kiyosue et al., 2000; Reinacher-Schick, A., and B.M. Gumbiner. 2001. J. Cell Biol. 152:491–502; Rosin-Arbesfeld, R., G. Ihrke, and M. Bienz. 2001. EMBO J. 20:5929–5939). However, the localization of APC in tissues has not been identified at high resolution. Here, we show that in fully polarized epithelial cells from the inner ear, endogenous APC protein associates with the plus ends of microtubules located at the basal plasma membrane. Consistent with a role for APC in supporting the cytoskeletal organization of epithelial cells in vivo, the number of microtubules is significantly reduced in apico-basal arrays of microtubule bundles isolated from mice heterozygous for APC.
microtubule organization; microtubule hook decoration; cytoskeleton; cochlea; min mouse