Fluorogenic reactions in which non- or weakly-fluorescent reagents produce highly fluorescent products can be exploited to detect a broad range of compounds including biomolecules and materials. We describe a modified dibenzocyclooctyne that under catalyst-free conditions undergoes fast strain-promoted cycloadditions with azides to yield strongly fluorescent triazoles. The cycloaddition products are more than 1000-fold brighter compared to the starting cyclooctyne, exhibit large Stokes shift, and can be excited above 350 nm, which is required for many applications. Quantum mechanical calculations indicate that the fluorescence increase upon triazole formation is due to large differences in oscillator strengths of the S0 <–> S1 transitions in the planar C2v-symmetric starting material compared to the symmetry-broken and non-planar cycloaddition products. The new fluorogenic probe was successfully employed for labeling of proteins modified by an azide moiety.
click chemistry; cycloaddition; bioorthogonal; fluorogenic probe; cyclooctyne
Bacteriophages express endolysins which are the enzymes that hydrolyze peptidoglycan resulting in cell lysis and release of bacteriophages. Endolysins have acquired stringent substrate specificities, which have been attributed to cell wall binding domains (CBD). Although it has been realized that CBDs of bacteriophages that infect Gram-positive bacteria target cell wall carbohydrate structures, molecular mechanisms that confer selectivity are not understood. A range of oligosaccharides, derived from the secondary cell wall polysaccharides of Bacillus anthracis, has been chemically synthesized. The compounds contain an α-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-ManNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc backbone that is modified by various patterns of α-D-Gal and β-D-Gal branching points. The library of compounds could readily be prepared by employing a core trisaccharide modified by the orthogonal protecting groups Nα-9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonate (Fmoc), 2-methylnaphthyl ether (Nap) and levulinoyl ester (Lev) and dimethylthexylsilyl ether (TDS) at key branching points. Dissociation constants for the binding the cell wall binding domains of the endolysins PlyL and PlyG were determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). It was found that the pattern of galactosylation greatly influenced binding affinities, and in particular a compound having a galactosyl moiety at C-4 of the non-reducing GlcNAc moiety bound in the low micromolar range. It is known that secondary cell wall polysaccharides of various bacilli may have both common and variable structural features and in particular differences in the pattern of galactosylation have been noted. Therefore, it is proposed that specificity of endolysins for specific bacilli is achieved by selective binding to a uniquely galactosylated core structure.
Francisella tularensis, which is a gram negative bacterium that causes tularemia, has been classified by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a category A bioweapon. The development of vaccines, immunotherapeutics and diagnostics for F. tularensis requires a detailed knowledge of the saccharide structures that can be recognized by protective antibodies. We have synthesized the inner core region of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of F. tularensis to probe antigenic responses elicited by a live and subunit vaccine. The successful preparation of the target compound relied on the use of a disaccharide which was modified by the orthogonal protecting groups diethylisopropylsilyl (DEIPS), 2-naphthylmethyl (Nap), allyl ether (All) and levulinoyl (Lev) ester. The ability to remove the protecting groups in different orders made it possible to establish the optimal glycosylations sequence to prepare a highly crowded 1,2,3-cis configured branching point. A variety of different methods were exploited to control anomeric selectivities of the glycosylations. A comparison of the 1H NMR spectra of isolated material and the synthetic derivative confirmed the reported structural assignment of the inner core oligosaccharide of F. tularensis. The observation that immunizations with LPS lead to antibody responses to the inner core saccharides provides an impetus to further explore this compound as a vaccine candidate.
The development of selectively protected monosaccharide building blocks that can reliably be glycosylated with a wide variety of acceptors is expected to make oligosaccharide synthesis a more routine operation. In particular, there is an urgent need for the development of modular building blocks that can readily be converted into glycosyl donors for glycosylations that give reliably high 1,2-cis-anomeric selectivity. We report here that 1,2-oxathiane ethers are stable under acidic, basic, and reductive conditions making it possible to conduct a wide range of protecting group manipulations and install selectively removable protecting groups such as levulinoyl (Lev) ester, fluorenylmethyloxy- (Fmoc) and allyloxy- (Alloc) carbonates, and 2-methyl naphthyl ethers (Nap). The 1,2-oxathiane ethers could easily be converted into bicyclic anomeric sulfonium ions by oxidization to sulfoxides and arylated with 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. The resulting sulfonium ions gave high 1,2-cis anomeric selectivity when glycosylated with a wide variety of glycosyl acceptors including properly protected amino acids, primary and secondary sugar alcohols and partially protected thioglycosides. The selective protected 1,2-oxathianes were successfully employed in the preparation of a branched glucoside derived from a glycogen-like polysaccharide isolated form the fungus Pseudallescheria boydii, which is involved in fungal phagocytosis and activation of innate immune responses. The compound was assembled by a latent-active glycosylation strategy in which an oxathiane was employed as an acceptor in a glycosylation with a sulfoxide donor. The product of such a glycosylation was oxidized to a sulfoxide for a subsequent glycosylation. The use of Nap and Fmoc as temporary protecting groups made it possible to install branching points.
stereoselective glycosylations; modular building blocks; auxiliary; sulfonium ions; glucosides
A new Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)-based chemo-mechanical tweezer has been developed that can measure mechanical properties of individual macromolecules in supramolecular assembly and reveal positions of azide-containing polymers. A key feature of the new technology is the use of an AFM tip densely modified with 4-dibenzocyclooctynols (chemo-mechanical tweezer) that can react with multiple azide containing macromolecules of micelles to give triazole “clicked” compounds, which during retracting phases of AFM imaging are removed from the macromolecular assembly thereby providing a surface topographical image and positions of azide-containing polymers. The force-distance curves gave mechanical properties of removal of individual molecules from a supramolecular assembly. The new chemo-mechanical tweezer will make it possible to characterize molecular details of macromolecular assemblies thereby offering new avenues to tailor properties of such assemblies.
Although strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloadditions (SPAAC) have found wide utility in biological and material sciences, the low polarity and limited water solubility of commonly used cyclooctynes represents a serious shortcoming. To address this problem, an efficient synthetic route has been developed for highly polar sulfated dibenzocyclooctynylamides (S-DIBO) by a Friedel-Crafts alkylation of 1,2-bis(3-methoxyphenyl)ethylamides with trichlorocyclopropenium cation followed by a controlled hydrolysis of the resulting dichlorocyclopropenes to give bis(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclooctacyclopropenones, which were subjected to methoxy group removal of the phenols, O-sulfation, and photochemical unmasking of the cyclopropenone moiety. Accurate rate measurements of the reaction of benzyl azide with various dibenzylcyclooctyne derivatives demonstrated that aromatic substitution and the presence of the amide function had only a marginal impact on the rate constants. Biotinylated S-DIBO 8 was successfully used for labeling azido-containing glycoconjugates of living cells. Furthermore, it was found that the substitution pattern of the dibenzylcyclooctynes influences subcellular location and in particular it has been shown that DIBO derivative 4 can enter cells thereby labeling intra- and extracellular azido-modified glycoconjugates, whereas S-DIBO 8 cannot pass the cell membrane and therefore is ideally suited for selective labeling of cell surface molecules. The ability to selectively label cell surface molecules will yield unique opportunities for glycomic analysis and the study of glycoprotein trafficking.
click chemistry; cycloaddition; carbohydrates; bioorthogonal; O-sulfated cyclooctynes
Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates provide a challenging analytical target for structural determination due to their polydisperse nature, non-template biosynthesis, and labile sulfate modifications. The resultant structures, although heterogeneous, contain domains which indicate a sulfation pattern or code that correlates to specific function. Mass spectrometry, in particular electron detachment dissociation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (EDD FT-ICR MS), provides a highly sensitive platform for GAG structural analysis by providing cross-ring cleavages for sulfation location and product ions specific to hexuronic acid stereochemistry. To investigate the effect of sulfation pattern and variations in stereochemistry on EDD spectra, a series of synthetic heparan sulfate (HS) tetrasaccharides are examined. Whereas previous studies have focused on lowly sulfated compounds (0.5–1 sulfate groups per disaccharide), the current work extends the application of EDD to more highly sulfated tetrasaccharides (1–2 sulfate groups per disaccharide) and presents the first EDD of a tetrasaccharide containing a sulfated hexuronic acid. For these more highly sulfated HS oligomers, alternative strategies are shown to be effective for extracting full structural details. These strategies inlcude sodium cation replacement of protons, for determining the sites of sulfation, and desulfation of the oligosaccharides for the generation of product ions for assigning uronic acid stereochemistry.
Glycosaminoglycan; electron detachment dissociation; EDD; FT-ICR; desulfation; heparan sulfate
Aberrant glycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) results in loss of interactions with the extracellular matrix and is central to the pathogenesis of several disorders. To examine protein glycosylation of α-DG, a facile synthetic approach has been developed for the preparation of unusual phosphorylated O-mannosyl glycopeptides derived from α-DG by a strategy in which properly protected phospho-mannosides are coupled with a Fmoc protected threonine derivative, followed by the use of the resulting derivatives in automated solid phase glycopeptide synthesis using hyper-acid sensitive Sieber amide resin. Synthetic efforts also provided a reduced phospho-trisaccharide and the NMR data of this derivative confirmed the proper structural assignment of the unusual phospho-glycan structure. The glycopeptides made it possible to explore factors that regulate the elaboration of critical glycans. It was established that a glycopeptide having a 6-phospho-O-mannosyl residue is not an acceptor for action by the enzyme POMGnT1, which attaches β(1,2)-GlcNAc to O-mannosyl moietes, whereas the unphosphorylated derivate was readily extended by the enzyme. This finding implies a specific sequence of events in determining the structural fate of the O-glycan. It has also been found that the activity of POMGnT1 is dependent on the location of the acceptor site in the context of the underlying polypeptide/glycopeptide sequence. Conformational analysis by NMR has shown that the O-mannosyl modification does not exert major conformational effect on the peptide backbone. It is, however, proposed that these residues, introduced at the early stages of glycoprotein glycosylation, have an ability to regulate the loci of subsequent O-GalNAc additions, which do exert conformational effects. The studies show that through access to discrete glycopeptide structures, it is possible to reveal complex regulation of O-glycan processing on α-DG that has significant implications both for its normal post-translational maturation, and the mechanisms of the pathologies associated with hypoglycosylated α-DG.
Mass spectrometry-based studies of proteins that are post-translationally modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) are challenged in effectively identifying the sites of modification while simultaneously sequencing the peptides. Here we tested the hypothesis that a combination of high-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) could specifically target the O-GlcNAc modified peptides and elucidate the amino acid sequence while preserving the attached GlcNAc residue for accurate site assignment. By taking advantage of the recently characterized O-GlcNAc-specific IgG monoclonal antibodies and the combination of HCD and ETD fragmentation techniques, O-GlcNAc modified proteins were enriched from HEK293T cells and subsequently characterized using the LTQ Orbitrap Velos™ ETD (Thermo Fisher Scientific) mass spectrometer. In our dataset, 83 sites of O-GlcNAc modification are reported with high confidence confirming that the HCD/ETD combined approach is amenable to the detection and site assignment of O-GlcNAc modified peptides. Realizing HCD triggered ETD fragmentation on a linear ion trap/Orbitrap platform for more in-depth analysis and application of this technique to other post-translationally modified proteins are currently underway. Furthermore, this report illustrates that the O-GlcNAc transferase appears to demonstrate promiscuity with regards to the hydroxyl-containing amino acid modified in short stretches of primary sequence of the glycosylated polypeptides.
O-GlcNAc; HCD; ETD; tandem mass spectrometry; site assignment; post-translational modification; glycosylation
We have shown that 4-Dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO), which can easily be obtained by a streamlined synthetic approach, reacts exceptionally fast in the absence of a CuI catalyst with azido-containing compounds to give stable triazoles. Chemical modifications of DIBO, such as oxidation of the alcohol to a ketone, increased the rate of strain promoted azide-alkyne cycloadditions (SPAAC). Installment of a ketone or oxime in the cyclooctyne ring resulted in fluorescent active compounds whereas this property was absent in the corresponding cycloaddition adducts, thereby providing the first example of a metal-free alkyne-azide fluoro-switch click reaction. The alcohol or ketone functions of the cyclooctynes offer a chemical handle to install a variety of different tags, thereby facilitating biological studies. It was found that DIBO modified with biotin combined with metabolic labeling with an azido-containing monosaccharide can determine relative quantities of sialic acid of living cells that have defects in glycosylation (Lec CHO cells). A combined use of metabolic labeling/SPAAC and lectin staining of cells that have defects in the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex revealed that such defects have a greater impact on O-glycan sialylation than galactosylation, whereas sialylation and galactosylation of N-glycans was similarly impacted. These results highlight that the fidelity of Golgi trafficking is a critical parameter for the types of oligosaccharides that are being biosynthesized by a cell. Furthermore, by modulating the quantity of biosynthesized sugar nucleotide, cells may have a means to selectively alter specific glycan structures of glycoproteins.
carbohydrates; glycoconjugates; click chemistry; azide; bioorthogonal
A significant need exists for improved biomarkers for differential diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of therapeutic interventions for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), inherited metabolic disorders that involve lysosomal storage of glycosaminoglycans. Here, we report a simple reliable method based on the detection of abundant non-reducing ends of the glycosaminoglycans that accumulate in cells, blood, and urine of MPS patients. In this method, glycosaminoglycans were enzymatically depolymerized releasing unique mono-, di-, or trisaccharides from the non-reducing ends of the chains. The composition of the released mono- and oligosaccharides depends on the nature of the lysosomal enzyme deficiency, and therefore they serve as diagnostic biomarkers. Analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry allowed qualitative and quantitative assessment of the biomarkers in biological samples. We provide a simple conceptual scheme for diagnosing MPS in uncharacterized samples and a method to monitor efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy or other forms of treatment.
Lysosomal storage disorders; mucopolysaccharidoses; glycosaminoglycans; mass spectrometry; Sensi-Pro assay
Electron transfer through gas-phase ion–ion reactions has led to the widespread application of electron-based techniques once only capable in ion trapping mass spectrometers. Although any mass analyzer can, in theory, be coupled to an ion–ion reaction device (typically a 3-D ion trap), some systems of interest exceed the capabilities of most mass spectrometers. This case is particularly true in the structural characterization of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides. To adequately characterize highly sulfated GAGs or oligosac charides above the tetrasaccharide level, a high-resolution mass analyzer is required. To extend previous efforts on an ion trap mass spectrometer, negative electron transfer dissociation coupled with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer has been applied to increasingly sulfated heparan sulfate and heparin tetrasaccharides as well as a dermatan sulfate octasaccharide. Results similar to those obtained by electron detachment dissociation are observed.
The social amoeba Dictyostelium expresses a hypoxia inducible factor-α (HIFα)-type prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H1) and an α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (Gnt1) that sequentially modify proline-143 of Skp1, a subunit of the SCF (Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein)-class of E3 ubiquitin-ligases. Prior genetic studies have implicated Skp1 and its modification by these enzymes in O2-regulation of development, suggesting the existence of an ancient O2-sensing mechanism related to modification of the transcription factor HIFα by animal prolyl 4-hydroxylases (PHDs). To better understand the role of Skp1 in P4H1-dependent O2-signaling, biochemical and biophysical studies were conducted to characterize the reaction product and the basis of Skp1 substrate selection by P4H1 and Gnt1. 1H-NMR demonstrated formation of 4(trans)-hydroxyproline as previously found for HIFα, and highly purified P4H1 was inhibited by Krebs cycle intermediates and other compounds that affect animal P4Hs. However, in contrast to hydroxylation of HIFα by PHDs, P4H1 depended on features of full-length Skp1, based on truncation, mutagenesis, and competitive inhibition studies. These features are conserved during animal evolution, as even mammalian Skp1, which lacks the target proline, became a good substrate upon its restoration. P4H1 recognition may depend on features conserved for SCF complex formation as heterodimerization with an F-box protein blocked Skp1 hydroxylation. The hydroxyproline-capping enzyme Gnt1 exhibited similar requirements for Skp1 as a substrate. These and other findings support a model in which the protist P4H1 conditionally hydroxylates Skp1 of E3SCFubiquitin-ligases to control half-lives of multiple targets, rather than the mechanism of animal PHDs where individual proteins are hydroxylated leading to ubiquitination by the evolutionarily-related E3VBCubiquitin-ligases.
4-hydroxyproline; cellular slime mold; cytoplasmic glycosylation; peptide NMR
Although metal free cycloadditions of cyclooctynes and azides to give stable 1,2,3-triazoles have found wide utility in chemical biology and material sciences, there is an urgent need for faster and more versatile bioorthogonal reactions. We have found that nitrile oxides and diazocarbonyl derivatives undergo facile 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions with cyclooctynes. Cycloadditions with diazocarbonyl derivatives exhibited similar kinetics compared to azides whereas the reaction rates of cycloadditions with nitrile oxides were much faster. Nitrile oxides could conveniently be prepared by direct oxidation of the corresponding oximes with BAIB and these conditions made it possible to perform oxime formation, oxidation and cycloaddition as a one-pot procedure. The methodology was employed to functionalize the anomeric center of carbohydrates with various tags. Furthermore, oximes and azides provide an orthogonal pair of functional groups for sequential metal free click reactions and this feature makes it possible to multi-functionalize biomolecules and materials by a simple synthetic procedure that does not require toxic metal catalysts.
click chemistry; cycloaddition; carbohydrates; bioorthogonal; multifunctional
Activation of a glycosyl donor protected with a 2-O-(S)-(phenylthiomethyl)benzyl ether chiral auxiliary results in the formation of an anomeric β-sulfonium ion, which can be displaced with sugar alcohols to give corresponding α-glycosides. Sufficient deactivation of such glycosyl donors by electron withdrawing protecting groups is, however, critical to avoid glycosylation of an oxa-carbenium ion intermediate. The latter type of glycosylation pathway can also be suppressed by installing additional substituents in the chiral auxiliary.
Multifunctional dendrimers bearing two or more surface functionalities have the promise to provide smart drug delivery devices that can for example combine tissue targeting and imaging or be directed more precisely to a specific tissue or cell type. We have developed a concise synthetic methodology for efficient dendrimer assembly and heterobifunctionalization based on three sequential azide-alkyne cycloadditions. The methodology is compatible with biologically important compounds rich in chemical functionalities such as peptides, carbohydrates and fluorescent tags. In the approach, a strain promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) between polyester dendrons modified at the focal point with an azido and 4-dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO) moiety provided dendrimers bearing terminal and TMS-protected alkynes at the periphery. The terminal alkynes were outfitted with azido-modified polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains or galactosyl residues using CuI catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC). Next, a one-pot TMS-deprotection and second click reaction of the resulting terminal alkyne with azido-containing compounds gave multifunctional dendrimers bearing complex biologically active moieties at the periphery.
dendrimers; carbohydrates; peptides; synthetic methods; drug delivery; click chemistry
Organomicelles modified by surface dibenzylcyclooctyne moieties can conveniently be functionalized by strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloadditions. The ligation approach is highly efficient, does not require toxic reagents and is compatible with a wide variety of functional modules. Interactions of proteins with surface ligands of the micelles have been studied by AFM, which revealed that it leads to disassembly of the particles thereby providing a mechanism for triggered drug release.
click chemistry; bioconjugation; nanocarrier; drug delivery; AFM
Mammalian Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs), similar to antimicrobial lectins, bind to bacterial cell wall and kill bacteria through an unknown mechanism. We show that PGRPs enter Gram-positive cell wall at the site of daughter cell separation during cell division. In Bacillus subtilis PGRPs activate the CssR-CssS two-component system that detects and disposes of misfolded proteins exported out of bacterial cells. This activation results in membrane depolarization, cessation of intracellular peptidoglycan, protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis, and production of hydroxyl radicals, which are responsible for bacterial death. PGRPs also bind to the outer membrane in Escherichia coli and activate functionally homologous CpxA-CpxR two-component system, which results in bacterial death. We excluded other potential bactericidal mechanisms (inhibition of extracellular peptidoglycan synthesis, hydrolysis of peptidoglycan, and membrane permeabilization). Thus we reveal a novel mechanism of bacterial killing by innate immunity proteins that bind to cell wall or outer membrane and exploit bacterial stress defense response to kill bacteria.
A microwave-assisted one-pot, three-step Sonogashira cross coupling-desilylation-cycloaddition sequence was developed for the convenient preparation of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles starting from a range of halides, acyl chlorides, ethynyltrimethylsilane and azides.
A strategy has been developed to deliver selectively chemotherapeutic drugs to B-cells by employing doxorubicin loaded liposomes modified by a ligand for the B cell-specific cell-surface protein CD22 also known as Siglec-2. The liposomes bound rapid and saturable to the human Burkitt lymphoma Daudi B-cell line and exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo compared to similar untargeted liposomes. The CD22-targeted liposome bound to B cells isolated from lymphoma patients and although binding was proportional to CD22 expression on the cell surface, low levels of expression on CLL cells were sufficient to effect cell neutralization. The glycan-based strategy for delivery chemotherapeutic agents may provide a new strategy for the treatment of B-cell lymphomas.
B-cell lymphomas; Siglec; CD22; liposomes; carbohydrate-based targeting
The Bacillus anthracis exosporium protein BclA contains an O-linked antigenic tetrasaccharide whose terminal sugar is known as anthrose (J. M. Daubenspeck et al., J. Biol. Chem. 279:30945–30953, 2004). We hypothesized that serologic responses to anthrose may have diagnostic value in confirming exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis. We evaluated the serologic responses to a synthetic anthrose-containing trisaccharide (ATS) in a group of five rhesus macaques that survived inhalation anthrax following exposure to B. anthracis Ames spores. Two of five animals (RM2 and RM3) were treated with ciprofloxacin starting at 48 hours postexposure and two (RM4 and RM5) at 72 h postexposure; one animal (RM1) was untreated. Infection was confirmed by blood culture and detection of anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) in plasma. Anti-ATS IgG responses were determined at 14, 21, 28, and 35 days postexposure, with preexposure serum as a control. All animals, irrespective of ciprofloxacin treatment, mounted a specific, measurable anti-ATS IgG response. The earliest detectable responses were on days 14 (RM1, RM2, and RM5), 21 (RM4), and 28 (RM3). Specificity of the anti-ATS responses was demonstrated by competitive-inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA), in which a 2-fold (wt/wt) excess of carbohydrate in a bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate of the oligosaccharide (ATS-BSA) effected >94% inhibition, whereas a structural analog lacking the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-butyryl moiety at the C-4" of the anthrosyl residue had no inhibition activity. These data suggest that anti-ATS antibody responses may be used to identify aerosol exposure to B. anthracis spores. The anti-ATS antibody responses were detectable during administration of ciprofloxacin.
A new set of orthogonal protecting groups has been developed based on the use of a diethylisopropylsilyl (DEIPS), methylnaphthyl (Nap), allyl ether and levulinoyl (Lev) ester. The protecting groups are ideally suited for the preparation of highly branched oligosaccharides and their usefulness has been demonstrated by the chemical synthesis of a β-d-Man-(1→4)-d-Man disaccharide, which is appropriately protected for making a range of part-structures of the unusual core region of the lipopolysaccharide of Francisella tularensis.
The structural characterization of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates by mass spectrometry has been a long standing analytical challenge due to the inherent heterogeneity of these biomolecules, specifically polydispersity, variability in sulfation, and hexuronic acid stereochemistry. Recent advances in tandem mass spectrometry methods employing threshold and electron-based ion activation have resulted in the ability to determine the location of the labile sulfate modification as well as assign the stereochemistry of hexuronic acid residues. To facilitate the analysis of complex electron detachment dissociation (EDD) spectra, principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to differentiate the hexuronic acid stereochemistry of four synthetic GAG epimers whose EDD spectra are nearly identical upon visual inspection. For comparison, PCA is also applied to infrared multiphoton dissociation spectra (IRMPD) of the examined epimers. To assess the applicability of multivariate methods in GAG mixture analysis, PCA is utilized to identify the relative content of two epimers in a binary mixture.
Multivariate analysis; Principal Component Analysis (PCA); Electron Detachment Dissociation (EDD); Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs); Epimers; Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS)
The objective of the present study is to identify proteins that change in the extent of the modification with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) in the kidney from diabetic model Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, and to discuss the relation between O-GlcNAcylation and the pathological condition in diabetes.
O-GlcNAcylated proteins were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and peptide mass fingerprinting. The level of O-GlcNAcylation of these proteins was examined by immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA).
O-GlcNAcylated proteins that changed significantly in the degree of O-GlcNAcylation were identified as cytoskeletal proteins (α-actin, α-tubulin, α-actinin 4, myosin) and mitochondrial proteins (ATP synthase β, pyruvate carboxylase). The extent of O-GlcNAcylation of the above proteins increased in the diabetic kidney. Immunofluorescence and in situ PLA studies revealed that the levels of O-GlcNAcylation of actin, α-actinin 4 and myosin were significantly increased in the glomerulus and the proximal tubule of the diabetic kidney. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that immunolabeling of α-actinin 4 is disturbed and increased in the foot process of podocytes of glomerulus and in the microvilli of proximal tubules.
These results suggest that changes in the O-GlcNAcylation of cytoskeletal proteins are closely associated with the morphological changes in the podocyte foot processes in the glomerulus and in microvilli of proximal tubules in the diabetic kidney. This is the first report to show that α-actinin 4 is O-GlcNAcylated. α-Actinin 4 will be a good marker protein to examine the relation between O-GlcNAcylation and diabetic nephropathy.
O-GlcNAc modification; Hexosamine biosynthetic pathway; Kidney; Glomerulus; Cytoskeleton; α-actinin; GK Rat; Mass spectrometry; Proximity Ligation Assay
Although studies have been performed to characterize responses of macrophages from individual anatomical sites (e.g., alveolar macrophages) or of murine-derived macrophage cell lines to microbial ligands, few studies compare these cell types in terms of phenotype and function. We directly compared the expression of cell surface markers and functional responses of primary cultures of three commonly used cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage (splenic macrophages, bone-marrow derived macrophages, and bone-marrow derived dendritic cells) with those of the murine-leukemic monocyte-macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. We hypothesized that RAW 264.7 cells and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages would be similar in phenotype and would respond similarly to microbial ligands that bind to either Toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4. Results indicate that RAW 264.7 cells most closely mimic bone marrow-derived macrophages in terms of cell surface receptors and response to microbial ligands that initiate cellular activation via Toll-like receptors 3 and 4. However, caution must be applied when extrapolating findings obtained with RAW 264.7 cells to those of other primary macrophage-lineage cells, primarily because phenotype and function of the former cells may change with continuous culture.
macrophages; RAW 264.7; bone marrow; spleen; Toll-like receptors