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author:("lehre, Ludwig")
1.  Autosomal Recessive Dilated Cardiomyopathy due to DOLK Mutations Results from Abnormal Dystroglycan O-Mannosylation 
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(12):e1002427.
Genetic causes for autosomal recessive forms of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are only rarely identified, although they are thought to contribute considerably to sudden cardiac death and heart failure, especially in young children. Here, we describe 11 young patients (5–13 years) with a predominant presentation of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Metabolic investigations showed deficient protein N-glycosylation, leading to a diagnosis of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG). Homozygosity mapping in the consanguineous families showed a locus with two known genes in the N-glycosylation pathway. In all individuals, pathogenic mutations were identified in DOLK, encoding the dolichol kinase responsible for formation of dolichol-phosphate. Enzyme analysis in patients' fibroblasts confirmed a dolichol kinase deficiency in all families. In comparison with the generally multisystem presentation in CDG, the nonsyndromic DCM in several individuals was remarkable. Investigation of other dolichol-phosphate dependent glycosylation pathways in biopsied heart tissue indicated reduced O-mannosylation of alpha-dystroglycan with concomitant functional loss of its laminin-binding capacity, which has been linked to DCM. We thus identified a combined deficiency of protein N-glycosylation and alpha-dystroglycan O-mannosylation in patients with nonsyndromic DCM due to autosomal recessive DOLK mutations.
Author Summary
Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is estimated to be of genetic origin in 20%–48% of the patients. Almost all currently known genetic defects show dominant inheritance, although especially in younger children recessive causes have been proposed to contribute considerably to DCM. Knowledge of the genetic causes and pathophysiological mechanisms is essential for prognosis and treatment. Here, we studied several individual young patients (5–13 years old) with idiopathic and sometimes asymptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy. The key to identification of the gene was the finding of abnormal protein N-glycosylation. Via homozygosity mapping and functional knowledge of the N-glycosylation pathway, the causative gene could be identified as dolichol kinase (DOLK). Since DCM is very rare in N-glycosylation disorders (Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, CDG) and most patients with CDG present with a multisystem involvement, we studied the underlying pathophysiological cause of this life-threatening disease. Biochemical experiments in affected heart tissue showed deficient O-mannosylation of alpha-dystroglycan, which could be correlated with the dilated cardiomyopathy. Our results thus highlight nonsyndromic DCM as a novel presentation of DOLK-CDG, via deficient O-mannosylation of alpha-dystroglycan.
PMCID: PMC3248466  PMID: 22242004
2.  SRD5A3 is required for the conversion of polyprenol to dolichol, essential for N-linked protein glycosylation 
Cell  2010;142(2):203-217.
N-linked glycosylation is the most frequent modification of secreted and membrane-bound proteins in eukaryotic cells, disruption of which is the basis of the Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG). We describe a new type of CDG caused by mutations in the steroid 5α-reductase type 3 (SRD5A3) gene. Patients have mental retardation, ophthalmologic and cerebellar defects. We found that SRD5A3 is necessary for the reduction of the alpha-isoprene unit of polyprenols to form dolichols, required for synthesis of dolichol-linked monosaccharides and the oligosaccharide precursor used for N-glycosylation. The presence of residual dolichol in cells depleted for this enzyme suggests the existence of an unexpected alternative pathway for dolichol de novo biosynthesis. Our results thus suggest that SRD5A3 is likely to be the long-sought polyprenol reductase and reveal the genetic basis of one of the earliest steps in protein N-linked glycosylation.
PMCID: PMC2940322  PMID: 20637498
N-glycosylation; dolichol; polyprenol; SRD5A3
3.  Deletion of New Covalently Linked Cell Wall Glycoproteins Alters the Electrophoretic Mobility of Phosphorylated Wall Components of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
Journal of Bacteriology  1999;181(10):3076-3086.
The incorporation of radioactive orthophosphate into the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied. 33P-labeled cell walls were extensively extracted with hot sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Of the remaining insoluble radioactivity more than 90% could be released by laminarinase. This radioactive material stayed in the stacking gel during SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis but entered the separating gel upon treatment with N-glycosidase F, indicating that phosphate was linked directly or indirectly to N-mannosylated glycoproteins. The phosphate was bound to covalently linked cell wall proteins as mannose-6-phosphate, the same type of linkage shown previously for soluble mannoproteins (L. Ballou, L. M. Hernandez, E. Alvarado, and C. E. Ballou, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:3368–3372, 1990). From the phosphate-labeled glycoprotein fraction released by laminarinase, three cell wall mannoproteins, Ccw12p, Ccw13p and Ccw14p, were isolated and identified by N-terminal sequencing. For Ccw13p (encoded by DAN1 [also called TIR3]) and Ccw12p the association with the cell wall has not been described before; Ccw14p is identical with cell wall protein Icwp (I. Moukadiri, J. Armero, A. Abad, R. Sentandreu, and J. Zueco, J. Bacteriol. 179:2154–2162, 1997). In ccw12, ccw13, or ccw14 single or double mutants neither the amount of radioactive phosphate incorporated into cell wall proteins nor its position in the stacking gel was changed. However, the triple mutant brought about a shift of the 33P-labeled glycoprotein components from the stacking gel into the separating gel. The disruption of CCW12 results in a pronounced sensitivity of the cells to calcofluor white and Congo red. In addition, the ccw12 mutant shows a decrease in mating efficiency and a defect in agglutination.
PMCID: PMC93762  PMID: 10322008

Results 1-3 (3)