The influx of extracellular Ca2+ into mast cells is critical for the FcεR1-dependent release of preformed granule-derived mediators and newly synthesised autacoids and cytokines. The Orai(CRACM) ion channel family provide the major pathway through which this Ca2+ influx occurs. However the individual role of each of the three members of the Orai channel family in Ca2+ influx and mediator release has not been defined in human mast cells.
To assess whether there might be value in targeting individual Orai family members for the inhibition of FcεRI-dependent human lung mast cells (HLMC) mediator release.
We used an adenoviral delivery system to transduce HLMCs with shRNAs targeted against Orai1 and Orai2 or with cDNAs directing the expression of dominant-negative mutations of the three known Orai channels.
shRNA-mediated knockdown of Orai1 resulted in a significant reduction of approximately 50% in Ca2+ influx and in the release of β-hexosaminidase (a marker of degranulation) and newly synthesized LTC4 in activated HLMCs. In contrast shRNA knockdown of Orai2 resulted in only marginal reductions of Ca2+ influx, degranulation and LTC4 release. Transduced dominant-negative mutants of Orai1, -2 and -3 markedly reduced Orai currents and completely inhibited HLMC degranulation suggesting that Orai channels form heteromultimers in HLMCs, and that Orai channels comprise the dominant Ca2+ influx pathway following FceRI-dependent HLMC activation. Inhibition of Orai currents did not alter HLMC survival. In addition we observed a significant down-regulation of the level of CRACM3 mRNA transcripts together with a small increase in the level of CRACM1 and CRACM2 transcripts following a period of sustained HLMC activation.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance
Orai1 plays an important role in Ca2+ influx and mediator release from HLMCs. Strategies which target Orai1 will effectively inhibit FcεRI-dependent HLMC activation, but spare off-target inhibition of Orai2 in other cells and body systems.
Nebivolol, a third generation β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) antagonist (β-blocker), causes vasodilation by inducing nitric oxide (NO) production. The mechanism via which nebivolol induces NO production remains unknown, resulting in the genesis of much of the controversy regarding the pharmacological action of nebivolol. Carvedilol is another β-blocker that induces NO production. A prominent pharmacological mechanism of carvedilol is biased agonism that is independent of Gαs and involves G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)/β-arrestin signaling with downstream activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Due to the pharmacological similarities between nebivolol and carvedilol, we hypothesized that nebivolol is also a GRK/β-arrestin biased agonist. We tested this hypothesis utilizing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that solely express β2-ARs, and HL-1 cardiac myocytes that express β1- and β2-ARs and no detectable β3-ARs. We confirmed previous reports that nebivolol does not significantly alter cAMP levels and thus is not a classical agonist. Moreover, in both cell types, nebivolol induced rapid internalization of β-ARs indicating that nebivolol is also not a classical β-blocker. Furthermore, nebivolol treatment resulted in a time-dependent phosphorylation of ERK that was indistinguishable from carvedilol and similar in duration, but not amplitude, to isoproterenol. Nebivolol-mediated phosphorylation of ERK was sensitive to propranolol (non-selective β-AR-blocker), AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor), indicating that the signaling emanates from β-ARs and involves the EGFR. Furthermore, in MEFs, nebivolol-mediated phosphorylation of ERK was sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of GRK2 as well as siRNA knockdown of β-arrestin 1/2. Additionally, nebivolol induced redistribution of β-arrestin 2 from a diffuse staining pattern into more intense punctate spots. We conclude that nebivolol is a β2-AR, and likely β1-AR, GRK/β-arrestin biased agonist, which suggests that some of the unique clinically beneficial effects of nebivolol may be due to biased agonism at β1- and/or β2-ARs.
Toxoplasma gondii is well-known to subvert normal immune responses, however, mechanisms are incompletely understood. In particular, its capacity to alter receptor-activated Ca2+-mediated signaling processes has not been well-characterized. In initial experiments, we found evidence that T. gondii infection inhibits Ca2+ responses to fMetLeuPhe in murine macrophages. To further characterize the mechanism of inhibition of Ca2+ mobilization by T. gondii, we used the well-studied RBL mast cell model to probe the capacity of T. gondii to modulate IgE receptor-activated signaling within the first hour of infection. Ca2+ mobilization that occurs via IgE/FcεRI signaling leads to granule exocytosis in mast cells. We found that T. gondii inhibits antigen-stimulated degranulation in infected cells in a strain-independent manner. Under these conditions, we found that cytoplasmic Ca2+ mobilization, particularly antigen-mediated Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, is significantly reduced. Furthermore, stimulation-dependent activation of Syk kinase leading to tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase Cγ is inhibited by infection. Therefore, we conclude that inhibitory effects of infection are likely due to parasite-mediated inhibition of the tyrosine kinase signaling cascade that results in reduced hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Interestingly, inhibition of IgE/FcεRI signaling persists when tachyzoite invasion is arrested via cytochalasin D treatment, suggesting inhibition is mediated by a parasite-derived factor secreted into the cells during the invasion process. Our study provides direct evidence that immune subversion by T. gondii is initiated concurrently with invasion.
IgE; FcεRI; Syk kinase
Antigen-mediated crosslinking of IgE bound to its receptor, FcεRI, initiates a transmembrane signaling cascade that results in mast cell activation in the allergic response. Using immunogold labeling of intact RBL mast cells and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we visualize molecular reorganization of IgE-FcεRI and early signaling proteins on both leaflets of the plasma membrane, without the need for ripped off membrane sheets. As quantified by pair correlation analysis, we observe dramatic changes in the nano-scale distribution of IgE-FcεRI after binding of multivalent antigen to stimulate transmembrane signaling, and this is accompanied by similar clustering of Lyn and Syk tyrosine kinases, and adaptor protein LAT. We find that Lyn co-redistributes with IgE-FcεRI into clusters that cross-correlate throughout 20 min of stimulation. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase activity reduces the numbers of both IgE-FcεRI and Lyn in stimulated clusters. Coupling of these proteins is also decreased when membrane cholesterol is reduced either before or after antigen addition. These results provide evidence for involvement of FcεRI phosphorylation and cholesterol dependent membrane structure in the interactions that accompany IgE-mediated activation of RBL mast cells. More generally, this SEM view of intact cell surfaces provides new insights into the nano-scale organization of receptor-mediated signaling complexes in the plasma membrane.
electron microscopy; membrane domains; IgE-receptors; antigen crosslinking; lipid rafts; transmembrane signaling
Many cellular signaling processes are initiated by dimerization or oligomerization of membrane proteins. However, since the spatial scale of these interactions is below the diffraction limit of the light microscope, the dynamics of these interactions have been difficult to study on living cells. We have developed a novel high-speed hyperspectral microscope (HSM) to perform single particle tracking of up to 8 spectrally distinct species of quantum dots (QDs) at 27 frames per second. The distinct emission spectra of the QDs allows localization with ∼10 nm precision even when the probes are clustered at spatial scales below the diffraction limit. The capabilities of the HSM are demonstrated here by application of multi-color single particle tracking to observe membrane protein behavior, including: 1) dynamic formation and dissociation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor dimers; 2) resolving antigen induced aggregation of the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεR1; 3) four color QD tracking while simultaneously visualizing GFP-actin; and 4) high-density tracking for fast diffusion mapping.
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway important for cellular homeostasis and survival. Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is the best known trigger for autophagy stimulation. In addition, intracellular Ca2+ regulates autophagy, but its exact role remains ambiguous. Here, we report that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, while enhancing autophagy, also remodeled the intracellular Ca2+-signaling machinery. These alterations include a) an increase in the endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) Ca2+-store content, b) a decrease in the ER Ca2+-leak rate, and c) an increased Ca2+ release through the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), the main ER-resident Ca2+-release channels. Importantly, buffering cytosolic Ca2+ with BAPTA impeded rapamycin-induced autophagy. These results reveal intracellular Ca2+ signaling as a crucial component in the canonical mTOR-dependent autophagy pathway.
Recently we described a new, evolutionarily conserved cellular stress response characterized by a reversible reorganization of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes that is distinct from canonical ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Apogossypol, a putative broad spectrum BCL-2 family antagonist, was the prototype compound used to induce this ER membrane reorganization. Following microarray analysis of cells treated with apogossypol, we used connectivity mapping to identify a wide range of structurally diverse chemicals from different pharmacological classes and established their ability to induce ER membrane reorganization. Such structural diversity suggests that the mechanisms initiating ER membrane reorganization are also diverse and a major objective of the present study was to identify potentially common features of these mechanisms. In order to explore this, we used hierarchical clustering of transcription profiles for a number of chemicals that induce membrane reorganization and discovered two distinct clusters. One cluster contained chemicals with known effects on Ca2+ homeostasis. Support for this was provided by the findings that ER membrane reorganization was induced by agents that either deplete ER Ca2+ (thapsigargin) or cause an alteration in cellular Ca2+ handling (calmodulin antagonists). Furthermore, overexpression of the ER luminal Ca2+ sensor, STIM1, also evoked ER membrane reorganization. Although perturbation of Ca2+ homeostasis was clearly one mechanism by which some agents induced ER membrane reorganization, influx of extracellular Na+ but not Ca2+ was required for ER membrane reorganization induced by apogossypol and the related BCL-2 family antagonist, TW37, in both human and yeast cells. Not only is this novel, non-canonical ER stress response evolutionary conserved but so also are aspects of the mechanism of formation of ER membrane aggregates. Thus perturbation of ionic homeostasis is important in the regulation of ER membrane reorganization.
Fc receptor signaling plays a fundamental role in the adaptive immune response. A plethora of Fc receptors (e.g. Fc gamma, Fc-alpha and Fc-epsilon) are expressed on different immune cells, including natural killer cells, macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils. Receptor clustering and activation by multivalent ligands or opsonized particles induces a signaling cascade that leads to targeted secretion of chemical mediators (i.e. histamine, cytokines and chemokines) and phagocytosis, among other responses. Spatial targeting and compartmentalization are common mechanisms of regulation in Fc receptor signaling. However, the tools for studying these dynamic interactions have been limited. To overcome these limitations in our model system, microfabricated surfaces containing spatially defined ligands are used to cluster and activate IgE receptors (FcεRI), involved in allergic responses by mast cells. Micron-scale control of cell activation allows investigation of spatially regulated mechanisms for intracellular signaling with fluorescence microscopy. This approach in conjunction with biochemical techniques has proven to be valuable for investigating immune receptor signaling.
Protozoans of the Leishmania genus are the etiological agents of a wide spectrum of diseases commonly known as leishmaniases. Lipid organization of the plasma membrane of the parasite may mimic the lipid organization of mammalian apoptotic cells and play a role in phagocytosis and parasite survival in the mammal host. Here, we analyzed the phospholipid dynamics in the plasma membrane of both the L. (Leishmania) and the L. (Viannia) subgenera. We found that the activity and substrate specificity of the inward translocation machinery varied between Leishmania species. The differences in activity of inward phospholipid transport correlated with the different sensitivities of the various species towards the alkyl-phospholipid analogue miltefosine. Furthermore, all species exhibited a phospholipid scramblase activity in their plasma membranes upon stimulation with calcium ionophores. However, binding of annexin V to the parasite surface was only detected for a subpopulation of parasites during the stationary growth phase and only marginally enhanced by scramblase activation.
Ras is a signaling protein involved in a variety of cellular processes. Hence, studying Ras signaling with high spatiotemporal resolution is crucial to understanding the roles of Ras in many important cellular functions. Previously, fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based Ras activity sensors, FRas and FRas-F, have been demonstrated to be useful for measuring the spatiotemporal dynamics of Ras signaling in subcellular micro-compartments. However the predominantly nuclear localization of the sensors' acceptor has limited its sensitivity. Here, we have overcome this limitation and developed two variants of the existing FRas sensor with different affinities: FRas2-F (Kd∼1.7 µM) and FRas2-M (Kd∼0.5 µM). We demonstrate that, under 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, FRas2 sensors provide higher sensitivity compared to previous sensors in 293T cells and neurons.
We present a model of the early events in mast cell signaling mediated by FcεRI where the plasma membrane is composed of many small ordered lipid domains (rafts), surrounded by a non-order region of lipids consisting of the remaining plasma membrane. The model treats the rafts as transient structures that constantly form and breakup, but that maintain a fixed average number per cell. The rafts have a high propensity for harboring Lyn kinase, aggregated, but not unaggregated receptors, and the linker for the activation of T cells (LAT). Phosphatase activity in the rafts is substantially reduced compared to the nonraft region. We use the model to analyze published experiments on the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cell line that seem to contradict the notion that rafts offer protection. In these experiments IgE was cross-linked with a multivalent antigen and then excess monovalent hapten was added to break-up cross-links. The dephosphorylation of the unaggregated receptor (nonraft associated) and of LAT (raft associated) were then monitored in time and found to decay at similar rates, leading to the conclusion that rafts offer no protection from dephosphorylation. In the model, because the rafts are transient, a protein that is protected while in a raft will be subject to dephosphorylation when the raft breaks up and the protein finds itself in the nonraft region of the membrane. We show that the model is consistent with the receptor and LAT dephosphorylation experiments while still allowing rafts to enhance signaling by providing substantial protection from phosphatases.
Regulation of critical cellular functions, including Ca2+-dependent gene expression, is determined by the temporal and spatial aspects of agonist-induced Ca2+ signals. Stimulation of cells with physiological concentrations of agonists trigger increases [Ca2+]i due to intracellular Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx. While Orai1-STIM1 channels account for agonist-stimulated [Ca2+]i increase as well as activation of NFAT in cells such as lymphocytes, RBL and mast cells, both Orai1-STIM1 and TRPC1-STIM1 channels contribute to [Ca2+]i increases in human submandibular gland (HSG) cells. However, only Orai1-mediated Ca2+ entry regulates the activation of NFAT in HSG cells. Since both TRPC1 and Orai1 are activated following internal Ca2+ store depletion in these cells, it is not clear how the cells decode individual Ca2+ signals generated by the two channels for the regulation of specific cellular functions. Here we have examined the contributions of Orai1 and TRPC1 to carbachol (CCh)-induced [Ca2+]i signals and activation of NFAT in single cells. We report that Orai1-mediated Ca2+ entry generates [Ca2+]i oscillations at different [CCh], ranging from very low to high. In contrast, TRPC1-mediated Ca2+ entry generates sustained [Ca2+]i elevation at high [CCh] and contributes to frequency of [Ca2+]i oscillations at lower [agonist]. More importantly, the two channels are coupled to activation of distinct Ca2+ dependent gene expression pathways, consistent with the different patterns of [Ca2+]i signals mediated by them. Nuclear translocation of NFAT and NFAT-dependent gene expression display “all-or-none” activation that is exclusively driven by local [Ca2+]i generated by Orai1, independent of global [Ca2+]i changes or TRPC1-mediated Ca2+ entry. In contrast, Ca2+ entry via TRPC1 primarily regulates NFκB-mediated gene expression. Together, these findings reveal that Orai1 and TRPC1 mediate distinct local and global Ca2+ signals following agonist stimulation of cells, which determine the functional specificity of the channels in activating different Ca2+-dependent gene expression pathways.
In this paper, we designed a quantitative model of biological membranes by the deposition of planar lipid membranes on solid substrates (called supported membranes), and immobilized biotinylated oligomers of hyaluronic acid (oligo-HA, 6–8 disaccharide units in length) to the membrane surface via neutravidin cross-linkers. By controlling the self-assembly of biotinylated lipid anchors, the mean distance between the oligo-HA molecules on the membrane could be controlled to nm accuracy. The adhesion and motility of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells expressing different splice variants of the HA-binding cell surface receptor CD44 on these surfaces were investigated quantitatively. The combination of label-free, time-lapse imaging of living cells and statistical analysis suggests that the static morphology (global shape and cytoskeleton remodeling) of cells, their stochastic morphological dynamics, and the probability of directed motion reflect the metastatic behaviour of the cancer cells.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which regulates cell growth and survival, is integral to colon tumorigenesis. Lipid rafts play a role in regulating EGFR signaling, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is known to perturb membrane domain organization through changes in lipid rafts. Therefore, we investigated the mechanistic link between EGFR function and DHA. Membrane incorporation of DHA into immortalized colonocytes altered the lateral organization of EGFR. DHA additionally increased EGFR phosphorylation but paradoxically suppressed downstream signaling. Assessment of the EGFR-Ras-ERK1/2 signaling cascade identified Ras GTP binding as the locus of the DHA-induced disruption of signal transduction. DHA also antagonized EGFR signaling capacity by increasing receptor internalization and degradation. DHA suppressed cell proliferation in an EGFR-dependent manner, but cell proliferation could be partially rescued by expression of constitutively active Ras. Feeding chronically-inflamed, carcinogen-injected C57BL/6 mice a fish oil containing diet enriched in DHA recapitulated the effects on the EGFR signaling axis observed in cell culture and additionally suppressed tumor formation. We conclude that DHA-induced alteration in both the lateral and subcellular localization of EGFR culminates in the suppression of EGFR downstream signal transduction, which has implications for the molecular basis of colon cancer prevention by DHA.
Recent studies have shown that zinc ion (Zn) can behave as an intracellular signaling molecule. We previously demonstrated that mast cells stimulated through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) rapidly release intracellular Zn from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and we named this phenomenon the “Zn wave”. However, the molecules responsible for releasing Zn and the roles of the Zn wave were elusive. Here we identified the pore-forming α1 subunit of the Cav1.3 (α1D) L-type calcium channel (LTCC) as the gatekeeper for the Zn wave. LTCC antagonists inhibited the Zn wave, and an agonist was sufficient to induce it. Notably, α1D was mainly localized to the ER rather than the plasma membrane in mast cells, and the Zn wave was impaired by α1D knockdown. We further found that the LTCC-mediated Zn wave positively controlled cytokine gene induction by enhancing the DNA-binding activity of NF- κB. Consistent with this finding, LTCC antagonists inhibited the cytokine-mediated delayed-type allergic reaction in mice without affecting the immediate-type allergic reaction. These findings indicated that the LTCC α1D subunit located on the ER membrane has a novel function as a gatekeeper for the Zn wave, which is involved in regulating NF-κB signaling and the delayed-type allergic reaction.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a sphingolipid metabolite that is produced inside
the cells, regulates a variety of physiological and pathological responses via
S1P receptors (S1P1–5). Signal transduction between cells consists of
three steps; the synthesis of signaling molecules, their export to the
extracellular space and their recognition by receptors. An S1P concentration
gradient is essential for the migration of various cell types that express S1P
receptors, such as lymphocytes, pre-osteoclasts, cancer cells and endothelial
cells. To maintain this concentration gradient, plasma S1P concentration must be
at a higher level. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism by
which S1P is supplied to extracellular environments such as blood plasma. Here,
we show that SPNS2 functions as an S1P transporter in vascular endothelial cells
but not in erythrocytes and platelets. Moreover, the plasma S1P concentration of
SPNS2-deficient mice was reduced to approximately 60% of wild-type, and
SPNS2-deficient mice were lymphopenic. Our results demonstrate that SPNS2 is the
first physiological S1P transporter in mammals and is a key determinant of
lymphocyte egress from the thymus.
A new strategy for interfering with phosphoinositide-dependent processes at the plasma membrane uses high-avidity association of the polybasic MARCKS effector domain with negatively charged phospholipids to provide new insights into roles for phosphoinositides in IgE receptor signaling leading to exocytosis.
Protein kinase C β (PKCβ) participates in antigen-stimulated mast cell degranulation mediated by the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E, FcεRI, but the molecular basis is unclear. We investigated the hypothesis that the polybasic effector domain (ED) of the abundant intracellular substrate for protein kinase C known as myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS) sequesters phosphoinositides at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane until MARCKS dissociates after phosphorylation by activated PKC. Real-time fluorescence imaging confirms synchronization between stimulated oscillations of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and oscillatory association of PKCβ–enhanced green fluorescent protein with the plasma membrane. Similarly, MARCKS-ED tagged with monomeric red fluorescent protein undergoes antigen-stimulated oscillatory dissociation and rebinding to the plasma membrane with a time course that is synchronized with reversible plasma membrane association of PKCβ. We find that MARCKS-ED dissociation is prevented by mutation of four serine residues that are potential sites of phosphorylation by PKC. Cells expressing this mutated MARCKS-ED SA4 show delayed onset of antigen-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization and substantial inhibition of granule exocytosis. Stimulation of degranulation by thapsigargin, which bypasses inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production, is also substantially reduced in the presence of MARCKS-ED SA4, but store-operated Ca2+ entry is not inhibited. These results show the capacity of MARCKS-ED to regulate granule exocytosis in a PKC-dependent manner, consistent with regulated sequestration of phosphoinositides that mediate granule fusion at the plasma membrane.
We present an analytical method using correlation functions to quantify clustering in super-resolution fluorescence localization images and electron microscopy images of static surfaces in two dimensions. We use this method to quantify how over-counting of labeled molecules contributes to apparent self-clustering and to calculate the effective lateral resolution of an image. This treatment applies to distributions of proteins and lipids in cell membranes, where there is significant interest in using electron microscopy and super-resolution fluorescence localization techniques to probe membrane heterogeneity. When images are quantified using pair auto-correlation functions, the magnitude of apparent clustering arising from over-counting varies inversely with the surface density of labeled molecules and does not depend on the number of times an average molecule is counted. In contrast, we demonstrate that over-counting does not give rise to apparent co-clustering in double label experiments when pair cross-correlation functions are measured. We apply our analytical method to quantify the distribution of the IgE receptor (FcεRI) on the plasma membranes of chemically fixed RBL-2H3 mast cells from images acquired using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM/dSTORM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We find that apparent clustering of FcεRI-bound IgE is dominated by over-counting labels on individual complexes when IgE is directly conjugated to organic fluorophores. We verify this observation by measuring pair cross-correlation functions between two distinguishably labeled pools of IgE-FcεRI on the cell surface using both imaging methods. After correcting for over-counting, we observe weak but significant self-clustering of IgE-FcεRI in fluorescence localization measurements, and no residual self-clustering as detected with SEM. We also apply this method to quantify IgE-FcεRI redistribution after deliberate clustering by crosslinking with two distinct trivalent ligands of defined architectures, and we evaluate contributions from both over-counting of labels and redistribution of proteins.
CD36 is a ubiquitous membrane glycoprotein that binds long-chain fatty acids. The presence of a functional CD36 is required for the induction of satiety by a lipid load and its role as a lipid receptor driving cellular signal has recently been demonstrated. Our project aimed to further explore the role of intestinal CD36 in the regulation of food intake. Duodenal infusions of vehicle or sulfo-N-succinimidyl-oleate (SSO) was performed prior to acute infusions of saline or Intralipid (IL) in mice. Infusion of minute quantities of IL induced a decrease in food intake (FI) compared to saline. Infusion of SSO had the same effect but no additive inhibitory effect was observed in presence of IL. No IL- or SSO-mediated satiety occurred in CD36-null mice. To determine whether the CD36-mediated hypophagic effect of lipids was maintained in animals fed a satietogen diet, mice were subjected to a High-Protein diet (HPD). Concomitantly with the satiety effect, a rise in intestinal CD36 gene expression was observed. No satiety effect occurred in CD36-null mice. HPD-fed WT mice showed a diminished FI compared to control mice, after saline duodenal infusion. But there was no further decrease after lipid infusion. The lipid-induced decrease in FI observed on control mice was accompanied by a rise in jejunal oleylethanolamide (OEA). Its level was higher in HPD-fed mice than in controls after saline infusion and was not changed by lipids. Overall, we demonstrate that lipid binding to intestinal CD36 is sufficient to produce a satiety effect. Moreover, it could participate in the satiety effect induced by HPD. Intestine can modulate FI by several mechanisms including an increase in OEA production and CD36 gene expression. Furthermore, intestine of mice adapted to HPD have a diminished capacity to modulate their food intake in response to dietary lipids.
Background and Objective
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors that regulate a variety of physiological processes and represent potentially important targets for therapeutic intervention. mAChRs can be stimulated by full and partial orthosteric and allosteric agonists, however the relative abilities of such ligands to induce conformational changes in the receptor remain unclear. To gain further insight into the actions of mAChR agonists, we have developed a fluorescently tagged M1 mAChR that reports ligand-induced conformational changes in real-time by changes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET).
Variants of CFP and YFP were inserted into the third intracellular loop and at the end of the C-terminus of the mouse M1 mAChR, respectively. The optimized FRET receptor construct (M1-cam5) was expressed stably in HEK293 cells.
The variant CFP/YFP-receptor chimera expressed predominantly at the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells and displayed ligand-binding affinities comparable with those of the wild-type receptor. It also retained an ability to interact with Gαq/11 proteins and to stimulate phosphoinositide turnover, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and undergo agonist-dependent internalization. Addition of the full agonist methacholine caused a reversible decrease in M1 FRET (FEYFP/FECFP) that was prevented by atropine pre-addition and showed concentration-dependent amplitude and kinetics. Partial orthosteric agonists, arecoline and pilocarpine, as well as allosteric agonists, AC-42 and 77-LH-28-1, also caused atropine-sensitive decreases in the FRET signal, which were smaller in amplitude and significantly slower in onset compared to those evoked by methacholine.
The M1 FRET-based receptor chimera reports that allosteric and orthosteric agonists induce similar conformational changes in the third intracellular loop and/or C-terminus, and should prove to be a valuable molecular reagent for pharmacological and structural investigations of M1 mAChR activation.
Mobilization of Ca2+ in response to IgE receptor-mediated signaling is a key process in many aspects of mast cell function. Here we summarize our current understanding of the molecular bases for this process and the roles that it plays in physiologically relevant mast cell biology. Activation of IgE receptor signaling by antigen that crosslinks these complexes initiates Ca2+ mobilization as a fast wave that is frequently followed by a series of Ca2+ oscillations which are dependent on Ca2+ influx-mediated by coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum luminal Ca2+ sensor STIM1 to the calcium release activated calcium channel protein Orai1. Granule exocytosis depends on this process, together with the activation of protein kinase C isoforms, and specific roles for these signaling steps are beginning to be understood. Ca2+ mobilization also plays important roles in stimulated exocytosis of recycling endosomes and newly synthesized cytokines, as well as in antigen-mediated chemotaxis of rat mucosal mast cells. Phosphoinositide metabolism plays key roles in all of these processes, and we highlight these roles in several cases.
IgE receptors (FcεRI); store-operated Ca2+ entry; secretory lysosomes; phosphoinositides; chemotaxis
The P-type ATPase family constitutes a collection of ion pumps that form phosphorylated intermediates during ion transport. One of the best known members of this family is the Na+,K+-ATPase. The catalytic subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase includes several functional domains that determine its enzymatic and trafficking properties.
Using the yeast two-hybrid system we found that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic C-subunit is a specific Na+,K+-ATPase interacting protein. PP-2A C-subunit interacted with the Na+,K+-ATPase, but not with the homologous sequences of the H+,K+-ATPase. We confirmed that the Na+,K+-ATPase interacts with a complex of A- and C-subunits in native rat kidney. Arrestins and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are important regulators of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, and they also regulate Na+,K+-ATPase trafficking through direct association. PP2A inhibits association between the Na+,K+-ATPase and arrestin, and diminishes the effect of arrestin on Na+,K+-ATPase trafficking. GRK phosphorylates the Na+,K+-ATPase and PP2A can at least partially reverse this phosphorylation.
Taken together, these data demonstrate that the sodium pump belongs to a growing list of ion transport proteins that are regulated through direct interactions with the catalytic subunit of a protein phosphatase.
Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a ubiquitous signaling process in eukaryotic cells in which the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Ca2+ sensor, STIM1, activates the plasma membrane-localized Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel, Orai1, in response to emptying of ER Ca2+ stores. In efforts to understand this activation mechanism, we recently identified an acidic coiled-coil region in the C-terminus of Orai1 that contributes to physical association between these two proteins, as measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and is necessary for Ca2+ influx, as measured by an intracellular Ca2+ indicator. Here, we present evidence that a positively charged sequence of STIM1 in its CRAC channel activating domain, human residues 384-386, is necessary for activation of SOCE, most likely because this sequence interacts directly with the acidic coiled-coil of Orai1 to gate Ca2+ influx. We find that mutation to remove positive charges in these residues in STIM1 prevents its stimulated association with wild type Orai1. However, association does occur between this mutant STIM1 and Orai1 that is mutated to remove negative charges in its C-terminal coiled-coil, indicating that other structural features are sufficient for this interaction. Despite this physical association, we find that thapsigargin fails to activate SOCE following co-expression of mutant STIM1 with either wt or the mutant Orai1, implicating STIM1 384-386 in transmission of the Ca2+ gating signal to Orai1 following store depletion.
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition affecting the vascular system and is characterised by epistaxis, arteriovenous malformations and mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal telangiectases. This disorder affects approximately 1 in 8,000 people worldwide. Significant morbidity is associated with this condition in affected individuals, and anaemia can be a consequence of repeated haemorrhages from telangiectasia in the gut and nose. In the majority of the cases reported, the condition is caused by mutations in either ACVRL1 or endoglin genes, which encode components of the TGF-beta signalling pathway. Numerous missense mutations in endoglin have been reported as causative defects for HHT but the exact underlying cellular mechanisms caused by these mutations have not been fully established despite data supporting a role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control machinery. For this reason, we examined the subcellular trafficking of twenty-five endoglin disease-causing missense mutations. The mutant proteins were expressed in HeLa and HEK293 cell lines, and their subcellular localizations were established by confocal fluorescence microscopy alongside the analysis of their N-glycosylation profiles. ER quality control was found to be responsible in eight (L32R, V49F, C53R, V125D, A160D, P165L, I271N and A308D) out of eleven mutants located on the orphan extracellular domain in addition to two (C363Y and C382W) out of thirteen mutants in the Zona Pellucida (ZP) domain. In addition, a single intracellular domain missense mutant was examined and found to traffic predominantly to the plasma membrane. These findings support the notion of the involvement of the ER's quality control in the mechanism of a significant number, but not all, missense endoglin mutants found in HHT type 1 patients. Other mechanisms including loss of interactions with signalling partners as well as adverse effects on functional residues are likely to be the cause of the mutant proteins' loss of function.
As the first line of host defense, neutrophils are stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines from resting state, facilitating the execution of immunomodulatory functions in activation state. Sulfhydryl modification has a regulatory role in a wide variety of physiological functions through mediation of signaling transductions in various cell types. Recent research suggested that two kinds of sulfhydryl modification, S-nitrosylation by exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and alkylation by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), could induce calcium entry through a non-store-operated pathway in resting rat neutrophils and DDT1MF-2 cells, while in active human neutrophils a different process has been observed by us. In the present work, data showed that NEM induced a sharp rising of cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c) without external calcium, followed by a second [Ca2+]c increase with readdition of external calcium in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated human neutrophils. Meanwhile, addition of external calcium did not cause [Ca2+]c change of Ca2+-free PMA-activated neutrophils before application of NEM. These data indicated that NEM could induce believable store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in PMA-activated neutrophils. Besides, we found that sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of exogenous NO, resulted in believable SOCE in PMA-activated human neutrophils via S-nitrosylation modification. In contrast, NEM and SNP have no effect on [Ca2+]c of resting neutrophils which were performed in suspension. Furthermore, 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, a reliable blocker of SOCE and an inhibitor of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor, evidently abolished SNP and NEM-induced calcium entry at 75 µM, while preventing calcium release in a concentration-dependent manner. Considered together, these results demonstrated that NEM and SNP induced calcium entry through an IP3-sensitive store-operated pathway of human neutrophils via sulfhydryl modification in a PMA-induced activation-dependent manner.