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1.  Genotype-Phenotype Correlation of 2q37 Deletions Including NPPC Gene Associated with Skeletal Malformations 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66048.
Coordinated bone growth is controlled by numerous mechanisms which are only partially understood because of the involvement of many hormones and local regulators. The C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP), encoded by NPPC gene located on chromosome 2q37.1, is a molecule that regulates endochondral ossification of the cartilaginous growth plate and influences longitudinal bone growth. Two independent studies have described three patients with a Marfan-like phenotype presenting a de novo balanced translocation involving the same chromosomal region 2q37.1 and overexpression of NPPC. We report on two partially overlapping interstitial 2q37 deletions identified by array CGH. The two patients showed opposite phenotypes characterized by short stature and skeletal overgrowth, respectively. The patient with short stature presented a 2q37 deletion causing the loss of one copy of the NPPC gene and the truncation of the DIS3L2 gene with normal CNP plasma concentration. The deletion identified in the patient with a Marfan-like phenotype interrupted the DIS3L2 gene without involving the NPPC gene. In addition, a strongly elevated CNP plasma concentration was found in this patient. A possible role of NPPC as causative of the two opposite phenotypes is discussed in this study.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066048
PMCID: PMC3689787  PMID: 23805197
2.  Rat Model for Dominant Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa: Glycine Substitution Reduces Collagen VII Stability and Shows Gene-Dosage Effect 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64243.
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, a severely disabling hereditary skin fragility disorder, is caused by mutations in the gene coding for collagen VII, a specialized adhesion component of the dermal-epidermal junction zone. Both recessive and dominant forms are known; the latter account for about 40% of cases. Patients with dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa exhibit a spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild localized to generalized skin manifestations. Individuals with the same mutation can display substantial phenotypic variance, emphasizing the role of modifying genes in this disorder. The etiology of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa has been known for around two decades; however, important pathogenetic questions such as involvement of modifier genes remain unanswered and a causative therapy has yet to be developed. Much of the failure to make progress in these areas is due to the lack of suitable animal models that capture all aspects of this complex monogenetic disorder. Here, we report the first rat model of dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Affected rats carry a spontaneous glycine to aspartic acid substitution, p.G1867D, within the main structural domain of collagen VII. This confers dominant-negative interference of protein folding and decreases the stability of mutant collagen VII molecules and their polymers, the anchoring fibrils. The phenotype comprises fragile and blister-prone skin, scarring and nail dystrophy. The model recapitulates all signs of the human disease with complete penetrance. Homozygous carriers of the mutation are more severely affected than heterozygous ones, demonstrating for the first time a gene-dosage effect of mutated alleles in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. This novel viable and workable animal model for dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa will be valuable for addressing molecular disease mechanisms, effects of modifying genes, and development of novel molecular therapies for patients with dominantly transmitted skin disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064243
PMCID: PMC3662756  PMID: 23717576
3.  Defective cellular trafficking of missense NPR-B mutants is the major mechanism underlying acromesomelic dysplasia-type Maroteaux 
Human Molecular Genetics  2008;18(2):267-277.
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) comprise a family of structurally related but genetically distinct hormones that regulate a variety of physiological processes such as cardiac growth, blood pressure, axonal pathfinding and endochondral ossification leading to the formation of vertebrae and long bones. The biological actions of NPs are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptors (NPRs) A, B and C that are located on the cell surface. Mutations in NPR-B have been shown to cause acromesomelic dysplasia-type Maroteaux (AMDM), a growth disorder in humans and severe dwarfism in mice. We hypothesized that missense mutations of NPR-B associated with AMDM primarily affect NPR-B function by the arrest of receptor trafficking at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), due to conformational change, rather than an impairment of ligand binding, transmission of signal through the membrane or catalytic activity. Twelve missense mutations found in AMDM patients and cn/cn mice were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and transiently overexpressed in HeLa cells. Confocal microscopy revealed that 11 out of 12 mutants were retained in the ER. Determination of the ligand-dependent cGMP response confirmed that ER-retained NPR-B mutants are non-functional. Meanwhile, the only cell surface-targeted NPR-B missense mutant (D176E) displayed greatly reduced enzymatic activity due to impaired ligand binding. Thus, in the majority of cases of AMDM associated with missense NPR-B mutation, disease appears to result from defects in the targeting of the ER receptor to the plasma membrane.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddn354
PMCID: PMC2638773  PMID: 18945719
4.  The receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2 is essential for sensory axon bifurcation within the spinal cord 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2007;179(2):331-340.
Sensory axonal projections into the spinal cord display a highly stereotyped pattern of T- or Y-shaped axon bifurcation at the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ). Here, we provide evidence that embryonic mice with an inactive receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2 or deficient for cyclic guanosine monophosphate–dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) lack the bifurcation of sensory axons at the DREZ, i.e., the ingrowing axon either turns rostrally or caudally. This bifurcation error is maintained to mature stages. In contrast, interstitial branching of collaterals from primary stem axons remains unaffected, indicating that bifurcation and interstitial branching are processes regulated by a distinct molecular mechanism. At a functional level, the distorted axonal branching at the DREZ is accompanied by reduced synaptic input, as revealed by patch clamp recordings of neurons in the superficial layers of the spinal cord. Hence, our data demonstrate that Npr2 and cGKI are essential constituents of the signaling pathway underlying axonal bifurcation at the DREZ and neuronal connectivity in the dorsal spinal cord.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200707176
PMCID: PMC2064768  PMID: 17954614

Results 1-4 (4)