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1.  Evolutionarily Assembled cis-Regulatory Module at a Human Ciliopathy Locus 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2012;335(6071):966-969.
Neighboring genes are often coordinately expressed within cis-regulatory modules, but evidence that nonparalogous genes share functions in mammals is lacking. Here, we report that mutation of either TMEM138 or TMEM216 causes a phenotypically indistinguishable human ciliopathy, Joubert syndrome. Despite a lack of sequence homology, the genes are aligned in a head-to-tail configuration and joined by chromosomal rearrangement at the amphibian-to-reptile evolutionary transition. Expression of the two genes is mediated by a conserved regulatory element in the noncoding intergenic region. Coordinated expression is important for their interdependent cellular role in vesicular transport to primary cilia. Hence, during vertebrate evolution of genes involved in ciliogenesis, nonparalogous genes were arranged to a functional gene cluster with shared regulatory elements.
doi:10.1126/science.1213506
PMCID: PMC3671610  PMID: 22282472
2.  CEP41 is mutated in Joubert syndrome and is required for tubulin glutamylation at the cilium 
Nature Genetics  2012;44(2):193-199.
Tubulin glutamylation is a post-translational modification (PTM) occurring predominantly on ciliary axonemal tubulin and has been suggested to be important for ciliary function 1,2. However, its relationship to disorders of the primary cilium, termed ‘ciliopathies’, has not been explored. Here, in Joubert syndrome (JBTS) 3, we identify the JBTS15 locus and the responsible gene as CEP41, encoding a centrosomal protein of 41 KDa 4. We show that CEP41 is localized to the basal body/primary cilium, and regulates the ciliary entry of TTLL6, an evolutionarily conserved polyglutamylase enzyme 5. Depletion of CEP41 causes ciliopathy-related phenotypes in zebrafish and mouse, and induces cilia axonemal glutamylation defects. Our data identify loss of CEP41 as a cause of JBTS ciliopathy and highlight involvement of tubulin PTM in pathogenesis of the ciliopathy spectrum.
doi:10.1038/ng.1078
PMCID: PMC3267856  PMID: 22246503
3.  Expanding the Clinical Spectrum of SPG11 Gene Mutations in Recessive Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia with Thin Corpus Callosum 
Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) represents a large group of neurological disorders characterized by progressive spasticity of the lower limbs. One subtype of HSP shows an autosomal recessive form of inheritance with this corpus callosum (ARHSP-TCC), and displays genetic heterogeneity with four known loci. We identified a consanguineous Egyptian family with five affected individuals with ARHSP-TCC. We found linkage to the SPG11 locus and identified a novel homozygous p.Q498X stop codon mutation in exon 7 in the SPG11 gene encoding Spatacsin. Cognitive impairment and polyneuropathy, reported as frequent in SPG11, were not evident. This family supports the importance of SPG11 as a frequent cause for ARHSP-TCC, and expands the clinic SPG11 spectrum.
doi:10.1016/j.ejmg.2010.10.006
PMCID: PMC3073376  PMID: 20971220
Hereditary spastic paraparesis; Thin corpus callosum; SPG11; Spatacsin; Linkage analysis; Autosomal recessive
4.  SRD5A3 is required for the conversion of polyprenol to dolichol, essential for N-linked protein glycosylation 
Cell  2010;142(2):203-217.
SUMMARY
N-linked glycosylation is the most frequent modification of secreted and membrane-bound proteins in eukaryotic cells, disruption of which is the basis of the Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG). We describe a new type of CDG caused by mutations in the steroid 5α-reductase type 3 (SRD5A3) gene. Patients have mental retardation, ophthalmologic and cerebellar defects. We found that SRD5A3 is necessary for the reduction of the alpha-isoprene unit of polyprenols to form dolichols, required for synthesis of dolichol-linked monosaccharides and the oligosaccharide precursor used for N-glycosylation. The presence of residual dolichol in cells depleted for this enzyme suggests the existence of an unexpected alternative pathway for dolichol de novo biosynthesis. Our results thus suggest that SRD5A3 is likely to be the long-sought polyprenol reductase and reveal the genetic basis of one of the earliest steps in protein N-linked glycosylation.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.06.001
PMCID: PMC2940322  PMID: 20637498
N-glycosylation; dolichol; polyprenol; SRD5A3
5.  Mutations in the inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase E gene link phosphatidyl inositol signaling to the ciliopathies 
Nature genetics  2009;41(9):1032-1036.
Phosphotidylinositol (PtdIns) signaling is tightly regulated, both spatially and temporally, by subcellularly localized PtdIns kinases and phosphatases that dynamically alter downstream signaling events 1. Joubert Syndrome (JS) characterized by a specific midbrain-hindbrain malformation (“molar tooth sign”) and variably associated retinal dystrophy, nephronophthisis, liver fibrosis and polydactyly 2, and is included in the newly emerging group of “ciliopathies”. In patients linking to JBTS1, we identified mutations in the INPP5E gene, encoding inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase E, which hydrolyzes the 5-phosphate of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(4,5)P2. Mutations clustered in the phosphatase domain and impaired 5-phosphatase activity, resulting in altered cellular PtdIns ratios. INPP5E localized to cilia in major organs affected in JS, and mutations promoted premature destabilization of cilia in response to stimulation. Thus, these data links PtdIns signaling to the primary cilium, a cellular structure that is becoming increasingly appreciated for its role in mediating cell signals and neuronal function.
doi:10.1038/ng.423
PMCID: PMC2746682  PMID: 19668216
6.  Spinophilin Facilitates PP1-Mediated Dephosphorylation of PSer297 Doublecortin in Microtubule Bundling at the Axonal “Wrist” 
Cell  2007;129(3):579-591.
The axonal shafts of neurons contain bundled microtubules, whereas extending growth cones contain unbundled microtubule filaments, suggesting that localized activation of microtubule-associated proteins (MAP) at the transition zone may bundle these filaments during axonal growth. Dephosphorylation is thought to lead to MAP activation, but specific molecular pathways have remained elusive. We find that Spinophilin, a Protein-phosphatase 1 (PP1) targeting protein, is responsible for the dephosphorylation of the MAP Doublecortin (Dcx) Ser 297 selectively at the “wrist” of growing axons, leading to activation. Loss of activity at the “wrist” is evident as an impaired microtubule cytoskeleton along the shaft. These findings suggest that spatially restricted adaptor-specific MAP reactivation through dephosphorylation is important in organization of the neuronal cytoskeleton.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.03.023
PMCID: PMC1920181  PMID: 17482550
Microtubule-associated; actin-binding; cytoskeleton; spinophilin; doublecortin; neurite; growth cone; axon

Results 1-6 (6)