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1.  A community-based survey for different abnormal glucose metabolism among pregnant women in a random household study (SAUDI-DM) 
BMJ Open  2014;4(8):e005906.
Objective
To assess the prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a population known to have a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism.
Methods
A household random population-based cross-sectional study of 13 627 women in the childbearing age, who were subjected to fasting plasma glucose if they were not known to have been diagnosed before with any type of diabetes. GDM cases were diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IAPSG) criteria.
Results
The overall GDM prevalence was 36.6%, categorised into 32.4% new cases and 4.2% known cases. Another 3.6% had preconception type 1 or 2 diabetes. GDM cases were older and had a significantly higher body mass index, in addition to a higher rate of macrocosmic baby and history of GDM. Monthly income, educational level, living in urban areas and smoking were not found to be significantly different between normal and GDM cases. The most important and significant risk factors for GDM were history of GDM, macrosomic baby, obesity and age >30 years. However, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein, family history of diabetes and increased triglycerides did not show any significant effect on GDM prevalence in this cohort.
Conclusions
This society is facing a real burden of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy, where almost half of the pregnant women are subjected to maternal and neonatal complications. Early screening of pregnant women, especially those at a high risk for GDM, is mandatory to identify and manage those cases.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005906
PMCID: PMC4139649  PMID: 25138813
Diabetes & Endocrinology
2.  Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 
Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68%) women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80) g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was present in 40% (390) women. Mean (±SD) for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17) fL, 26.37 (±6.21) pg, 32.36 (±4.91) g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76) and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05) were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97) was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia.
doi:10.1155/2013/636585
PMCID: PMC3800602  PMID: 24205435
4.  Missed Opportunities for Immunization 
Canadian Family Physician  1992;38:1087-1091.
Missed opportunities for immunization were studied at five Saudi health centers. Of 383 children studied, 77.8% were up-to-date with their immunization, 10.2% had real contraindications, and 12.0% missed opportunities. Only 48.8% of mothers were up-to-date. We recommend that immunization be made available at all clinics and that presentation of immunization cards be required.
PMCID: PMC2145832  PMID: 21221325

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