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1.  Influencing factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels in Japanese chronic hepatitis C patients 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2015;15:344.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are generally lower in chronic hepatitis C patients than in healthy individuals. The purpose of this study is to clarify the factors which affect serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels using data obtained from Japanese chronic hepatitis C patients.
The subjects were 619 chronic hepatitis C patients. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were measured by using double-antibody radioimmunoassay between April 2009 and August 2014. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels of 20 ng/mL or less were classified as vitamin D deficiency, and those with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels of 30 ng/mL or more as vitamin D sufficiency. The relationship between patient-related factors and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels was analyzed.
The cohort consisted of 305 females and 314 males, aged between 18 and 89 years (median, 63 years). The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level was 21 ng/mL (range, 6–61 ng/mL). On the other hand, the median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level in the healthy subjects was 25 ng/mL (range, 7–52), being significantly higher than that those in 80 chronic hepatitis C patients matched for age, gender, and season (p = 1.16 × 10−8). In multivariate analysis, independent contributors to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 deficiency were as follows: female gender (p = 2.03 × 10−4, odds ratio = 2.290, 95 % confidence interval = 1.479–3.545), older age (p = 4.30 × 10−4, odds ratio = 1.038, 95 % confidence interval = 1.017–1.060), cold season (p = 0.015, odds ratio = 1.586, 95 % confidence interval = 1.095–2.297), and low hemoglobin level (p = 0.037, odds ratio = 1.165, 95 % confidence interval = 1.009–1.345). By contrast, independent contributors to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 sufficiency were male gender (p = 0.001, odds ratio = 3.400, 95 % confidence interval = 1.635–7.069), warm season (p = 0.014, odds ratio = 1.765, 95 % confidence interval = 1.117–2.789) and serum albumin (p = 0.016, OR = 2.247, 95 % CI = 1.163–4.342).
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels in chronic hepatitis C Japanese patients were influenced by gender, age, hemoglobin level, albumin and the season of measurement.
PMCID: PMC4543479  PMID: 26286329
Chronic hepatitis C; Vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D3
2.  Alcohol, postprandial plasma glucose, and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma 
AIM: To identify factors associated with prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after initial therapy.
METHODS: A total of 377 HCC patients who were newly treated at Katsushika Medical Center, Japan from January 2000 to December 2009 and followed up for > 2 years, or died during follow-up, were enrolled. The factors related to survival were first analyzed in 377 patients with HCC tumor stage T1-T4 using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A similar analysis was performed in 282 patients with tumor stage T1-T3. Additionally, factors associated with the period between initial and subsequent therapy were examined in 144 patients who did not show local recurrence. Finally, 214 HCC stage T1-T3 patients who died during the observation period were classified into four groups according to their alcohol consumption and postprandial glucose levels, and differences in their causes of death were examined.
RESULTS: On multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, the following were significantly associated with survival: underlying liver disease stage [non-cirrhosis/Child-Pugh A vs B/C, hazard ratio (HR): 0.603, 95% CI: 0.417-0.874, P = 0.0079], HCC stage (T1/T2 vs T3/T4, HR: 0.447, 95% CI: 0.347-0.576, P < 0.0001), and mean postprandial plasma glucose after initial therapy (< 200 vs ≥ 200 mg/dL, HR: 0.181, 95% CI: 0.067-0.488, P = 0.0008). In T1-T3 patients, uninterrupted alcohol consumption after initial therapy (no vs yes, HR: 0.641, 95% CI: 0.469-0.877, P = 0.0055) was significant in addition to underlying liver disease stage (non-cirrhosis/Child-Pugh A vs B/C, HR: 0649, 95% CI: 0.476-0.885, P = 0.0068), HCC stage (T1 vs T2/T3, HR: 0.788, 95% CI: 0.653-0.945, P = 0.0108), and mean postprandial plasma glucose after initial therapy (< 200 mg/dL vs ≥ 200 mg/dL, HR: 0.502, 95% CI: 0.337-0.747, P = 0.0005). In patients without local recurrence, time from initial to subsequent therapy for newly emerging HCC was significantly longer in the “postprandial glucose within 200 mg/dL group” than the “postprandial glucose > 200 mg/dL group” (log-rank test, P < 0.05), whereas there was no difference in the period between the “non-alcohol group” (patients who did not drink regularly or those who could reduce their daily consumption to < 20 g) and the “continuation group” (drinkers who continued to drink > 20 g daily). Of 214 T1-T3 patients who died during the observation period, death caused by other than HCC progression was significantly more frequent in “group AL” (patients in the continuation and postprandial glucose within 200 mg/dL groups) than “group N” (patients in the non-alcohol and postprandial glucose within 200 mg/dL groups) (P = 0.0016).
CONCLUSION: This study found that abstinence from habitual alcohol consumption and intensive care for diabetes mellitus were related to improved prognosis in HCC patients.
PMCID: PMC3542757  PMID: 23326166
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Prognosis; Alcohol consumption; Diabetes mellitus; Postprandial plasma glucose level; Initial therapy; Local recurrence; Survival
3.  Several factors including ITPA polymorphism influence ribavirin-induced anemia in chronic hepatitis C 
AIM: To construct formulae for predicting the likelihood of ribavirin-induced anemia in pegylated interferon α plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C.
METHODS: Five hundred and sixty-one Japanese patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b who had received combination treatment were enrolled and assigned randomly to the derivation and confirmatory groups. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at or nearby ITPA were genotyped by real-time detection polymerase chain reaction. Factors influencing significant anemia (hemoglobin concentration < 10.0 g/dL at week 4 of treatment) and significant hemoglobin decline (declining concentrations > 3.0 g/dL at week 4) were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. Prediction formulae were constructed by significantly independent factors.
RESULTS: Multivariate analysis for the derivation group identified four independent factors associated with significant hemoglobin decline: hemoglobin decline at week 2 [P = 3.29 × 10-17, odds ratio (OR) = 7.54 (g/dL)], estimated glomerular filtration rate [P = 2.16 × 10-4, OR = 0.962 (mL/min/1.73 m2)], rs1127354 (P = 5.75 × 10-4, OR = 10.94) and baseline hemoglobin [P = 7.86 × 10-4, OR = 1.50 (g/dL)]. Using the model constructed by these factors, positive and negative predictive values and predictive accuracy were 79.8%, 88.8% and 86.2%, respectively. For the confirmatory group, they were 83.3%, 91.0% and 88.3%. These factors were closely correlated with significant anemia. However, the model could not be constructed, because no patients with rs1127354 minor genotype CA/AA had significant anemia.
CONCLUSION: Reliable formulae for predicting the likelihood of ribavirin-induced anemia were constructed. Such modeling may be useful in developing individual tailoring and optimization of ribavirin dosage.
PMCID: PMC3491594  PMID: 23139603
Chronic hepatitis C virus infection; Ribavirin; Pegylated interferon α; Prediction model; Hemolytic anemia; Single nucleotide polymorphism

Results 1-3 (3)