To investigate the microbial isolates from patients with ocular infections and the trend in the emergence of levofloxacin-resistant strains over the past four years from 2006 to 2009 retrospectively.
Patients and methods
The subjects were 242 patients with ocular infections or traumas treated in our hospital including outpatients, inpatients, and emergency room patients. Most of them needed urgent care presenting with eye complaints, traumas, or decreased vision. Clinical samples were obtained from discharges, corneal, conjunctival tissues or vitreous fluid or aqueous humor, and cultured. Items for assessment included the patient’s age, the diagnosis, the prevalence of isolated bacteria, and the results of susceptibility tests for levofloxacin (LVFX) cefamezin (CEZ), gentamicin (GM) and vancomycin. This information was obtained from the patients’ medical records.
There were 156 male patients and 86 female patients who were aged from 2 months old to 94 years old and mean age was 56.8 ± 24.2 years. Of the 242 patients, 78 (32.2%) had positive cultures. The culture-positive rate was significantly higher in male patients than female in total (P = 0.002) and in patients with corneal perforation (P = 0.005). Corneal perforation was the highest culture-positive rate (60.0%), followed by orbital cellulitis (56.5%), blepharitis (50.0%), dacryoadenitis (45.5%), conjunctivitis (38.2%), infectious corneal ulcer (28.5%) and endophthalmitis (24.7%). LVFX-resistant strains accounted for 40 out of a total of 122 strains (32.8%), and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was significantly higher in LVFX and GM compared with the other antibiotics. There were no vancomycin-resistant strains.
Attention should be paid to a possible future increase of strains with resistance to LVFX, as commonly prescribed ocular antibiotics bring emergence of resistant bacteria. Although no vancomycin-resistant strains were isolated this drug should be reserved as the last resort, in order to prevent the emergence of vancomycin resistance.