The trans-Golgi network (TGN) contains multiple sorting domains and acts as the compartment for cargo sorting. Recent evidence indicates that the TGN also functions as an early endosome, the first compartment in the endocytic pathway in plants. The SYP4 group, plant Qa-SNAREs localized on the TGN, regulates both secretory and vacuolar transport pathways. Consistent with a secretory role, SYP4 proteins are required for extracellular resistance to fungal pathogens. However, the physiological role of SYP4 in abiotic stress remains unknown. Here, we report the phenotypes of a syp4-mutant in regard to salinity and osmotic response, and describe the physiological roles of the SYP4 group in the abiotic stress response.
SNARE; SYP4; TGN; salinity stress
Particular cis-Golgi proteins accumulate in novel punctate structures close to ERES by BFA treatment in tobacco BY-2 cells. These structures reassemble first to form cis-Golgi after BFA removal, and the Golgi stacks regenerate in the cis-to-trans order. This indicates that the punctate structures act as the scaffold for Golgi regeneration.
The Golgi apparatus forms stacks of cisternae in many eukaryotic cells. However, little is known about how such a stacked structure is formed and maintained. To address this question, plant cells provide a system suitable for live-imaging approaches because individual Golgi stacks are well separated in the cytoplasm. We established tobacco BY-2 cell lines expressing multiple Golgi markers tagged by different fluorescent proteins and observed their responses to brefeldin A (BFA) treatment and BFA removal. BFA treatment disrupted cis, medial, and trans cisternae but caused distinct relocalization patterns depending on the proteins examined. Medial- and trans-Golgi proteins, as well as one cis-Golgi protein, were absorbed into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but two other cis-Golgi proteins formed small punctate structures. After BFA removal, these puncta coalesced first, and then the Golgi stacks regenerated from them in the cis-to-trans order. We suggest that these structures have a property similar to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and function as the scaffold of Golgi regeneration.
Slp2-a is required for targeting of the signaling molecule podocalyxin to the apical membrane in MDCK II cells in a Rab27A-dependent manner. Apical membrane localization of podocalyxin is required for expression of the tight junction protein claudin-2 through modulation of intracellular signals, including MAPK signals.
Most cells in tissues are polarized and usually have two distinct plasma membrane domains—an apical membrane and a basolateral membrane, which are the result of polarized trafficking of proteins and lipids. However, the mechanism underlying the cell polarization is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the involvement of synaptotagmin-like protein 2-a (Slp2-a), an effector molecule for the small GTPase Rab27, in polarized trafficking by using Madin–Darby canine kidney II cells as a model of polarized cells. The results show that the level of Slp2-a expression in MDCK II cells increases greatly as the cells become polarized and that its expression is specifically localized at the apical membrane. The results also reveal that Slp2-a is required for targeting of the signaling molecule podocalyxin to the apical membrane in a Rab27A-dependent manner. In addition, ezrin, a downstream target of podocalyxin, and ERK1/2 are activated in Slp2-a–knockdown cells, and their activation results in a dramatic reduction in the amount of the tight junction protein claudin-2. Because both Slp2-a and claudin-2 are highly expressed in mouse renal proximal tubules, Slp2-a is likely to regulate claudin-2 expression through trafficking of podocalyxin to the apical surface in mouse renal tubule epithelial cells.
Sec16 is an essential factor in “ER exit site” formation, as well as in COPII-mediated traffic in vivo. The results indicate that purified Sec16 alone can self-assemble into homo-oligomeric complexes on a planar lipid membrane and plays an important role in regulating Sar1 GTPase activity at the late steps of COPII vesicle formation.
COPII-coated buds are formed at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites (ERES) to mediate ER-to-Golgi transport. Sec16 is an essential factor in ERES formation, as well as in COPII-mediated traffic in vivo. Sec16 interacts with multiple COPII proteins, although the functional significance of these interactions remains unknown. Here we present evidence that full-length Sec16 plays an important role in regulating Sar1 GTPase activity at the late steps of COPII vesicle formation. We show that Sec16 interacts with Sec23 and Sar1 through its C-terminal conserved region and hinders the ability of Sec31 to stimulate Sec23 GAP activity toward Sar1. We also find that purified Sec16 alone can self-assemble into homo-oligomeric complexes on a planar lipid membrane. These features ensure prolonged COPII coat association within a preformed Sec16 cluster, which may lead to the formation of ERES. Our results indicate a mechanistic relationship between COPII coat assembly and ERES formation.
The transition of plant growth from vegetative to reproductive phases is one of the most important and dramatic events during the plant life cycle. In Arabidopsis thaliana, flowering promotion involves at least four genetically defined regulatory pathways, including the photoperiod-dependent, vernalization-dependent, gibberellin-dependent, and autonomous promotion pathways. Among these regulatory pathways, the vernalization-dependent and autonomous pathways are integrated by the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a negative regulator of flowering; however, the upstream regulation of this locus has not been fully understood. The SYP22 gene encodes a vacuolar SNARE protein that acts in vacuolar and endocytic trafficking pathways. Loss of SYP22 function was reported to lead to late flowering in A. thaliana plants, but the mechanism has remained completely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the late flowering phenotype of syp22 was due to elevated expression of FLC caused by impairment of the autonomous pathway. In addition, we investigated the DOC1/BIG pathway, which is also suggested to regulate vacuolar/endosomal trafficking. We found that elevated levels of FLC transcripts accumulated in the doc1-1 mutant, and that syp22 phenotypes were exaggerated with a double syp22 doc1-1 mutation. We further demonstrated that the elevated expression of FLC was suppressed by ara6-1, a mutation in the gene encoding plant-unique Rab GTPase involved in endosomal trafficking. Our results indicated that vacuolar and/or endocytic trafficking is involved in the FLC regulation of flowering time in A. thaliana.
“Bulb” is a mobile and complex structure appearing in vacuolar membrane of plant cell. We recently reported new fluorescent marker lines for bulbs and bulb-less mutants. We tried multicolor visualization of vacuolar membrane to show distinct segregation of bulb-positive protein (γTIP or AtVAM3) and bulb-negative protein (AtRab75). Unexpectedly, GFP-AtRab75 resulted to localize in bulb under the condition of co-expression with TagRFP-AtVAM3. The signal intensities of GFP-AtRab75 and TagRFP-AtVAM3 were quantified and compared. The result indicates that TagRFP-AtVAM3 is concentrated in bulb than GFP-AtRab75.
AtRab75; AtVam3; plant growth; Rab-GTPase; SNARE; vacuolar membranes; “bulb”
The size and copy number of an organelle depend on an equilibrium of membrane fusion and fission. In vitro reconstitution of yeast vacuole fission and fusion shows that TORC1 selectively stimulates fission but does not change fusion activity. This explains the morphological transitions of yeast vacuoles in response to nutrient availability.
Size and copy number of organelles are influenced by an equilibrium of membrane fusion and fission. We studied this equilibrium on vacuoles—the lysosomes of yeast. Vacuole fusion can readily be reconstituted and quantified in vitro, but it had not been possible to study fission of the organelle in a similar way. Here we present a cell-free system that reconstitutes fragmentation of purified yeast vacuoles (lysosomes) into smaller vesicles. Fragmentation in vitro reproduces physiological aspects. It requires the dynamin-like GTPase Vps1p, V-ATPase pump activity, cytosolic proteins, and ATP and GTP hydrolysis. We used the in vitro system to show that the vacuole-associated TOR complex 1 (TORC1) stimulates vacuole fragmentation but not the opposing reaction of vacuole fusion. Under nutrient restriction, TORC1 is inactivated, and the continuing fusion activity then dominates the fusion/fission equilibrium, decreasing the copy number and increasing the volume of the vacuolar compartment. This result can explain why nutrient restriction not only induces autophagy and a massive buildup of vacuolar/lysosomal hydrolases, but also leads to a concomitant increase in volume of the vacuolar compartment by coalescence of the organelles into a single large compartment.
Apolipoprotein B-100 after lipidation is dislocated from the ER lumen to the cytoplasmic surface of lipid droplets for proteasomal degradation. UBXD8 in lipid droplets and Derlin-1 in the ER membrane interact with each other and with ApoB and are engaged in the pre- and postdislocation steps, respectively.
Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB) is the principal component of very low density lipoprotein. Poorly lipidated nascent ApoB is extracted from the Sec61 translocon and degraded by proteasomes. ApoB lipidated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen is also subjected to proteasomal degradation, but where and how it dislocates to the cytoplasm remain unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that ApoB after lipidation is dislocated to the cytoplasmic surface of lipid droplets (LDs) and accumulates as ubiquitinated ApoB in Huh7 cells. Depletion of UBXD8, which is almost confined to LDs in this cell type, decreases recruitment of p97 to LDs and causes an increase of both ubiquitinated ApoB on the LD surface and lipidated ApoB in the ER lumen. In contrast, abrogation of Derlin-1 function induces an accumulation of lipidated ApoB in the ER lumen but does not increase ubiquitinated ApoB on the LD surface. UBXD8 and Derlin-1 bind with each other and with lipidated ApoB and show colocalization around LDs. These results indicate that ApoB after lipidation is dislocated from the ER lumen to the LD surface for proteasomal degradation and that Derlin-1 and UBXD8 are engaged in the predislocation and postdislocation steps, respectively.
Lineage-specific expansion, followed by functional diversification of key components that act in membrane trafficking, is thought to contribute to lineage-specific diversification of organelles and membrane trafficking pathways. Indeed, recent comparative genomic studies have indicated that specific expansion of RAB and SNARE molecules occurred independently in various eukaryotic lineages over evolutionary history. However, experimental verification of this notion is difficult, because detailed functional analyses of RAB and SNARE proteins uniquely acquired by specific lineages are essential to understanding how new membrane trafficking pathways may have evolved. Recently, we found that a plant-specific RAB GTPase, ARA6, and a plant-unique R-SNARE, VAMP727, mediate a trafficking pathway from endosomes to the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although a similar endosomal trafficking pathway was also reported in animals, the molecular machineries acting in these trafficking systems differ between animals and plants. Thus, trafficking pathways from endosomes to the plasma membrane appear to have been acquired independently in animal and plant systems. We further demonstrated that the ARA6-mediated trafficking pathway is required for the proper salt-stress response of A. thaliana. These results indicate that acquisition of a new membrane trafficking pathway may be associated with maximization of the fitness of each organism in a lineage-specific manner.
ARA6; Arabidopsis thaliana; Rab5; SNARE; endosome; stress response
In eukaryotic cells, organelle movement, positioning, and communications are critical for maintaining cellular functions and are highly regulated by intracellular trafficking. Directional movement of motor proteins along the cytoskeleton is one of the key regulators of such trafficking. Most plants have developed a unique actin–myosin system for intracellular trafficking. Although the composition of myosin motors in angiosperms is limited to plant-specific myosin classes VIII and XI, there are large families of myosins, especially in class XI, suggesting functional diversification among class XI members. However, the molecular properties and regulation of each myosin XI member remains unclear. To achieve a better understanding of the plant-specific actin–myosin system, the characterization of myosin XI members at the molecular level is essential. In the first half of this review, we summarize the molecular properties of tobacco 175-kDa myosin XI, and in the later half, we focus on myosin XI members in Arabidopsis thaliana. Through detailed comparison of the functional domains of these myosins with the functional domain of myosin V, we look for possible diversification in enzymatic and mechanical properties among myosin XI members concomitant with their regulation.
myosin XI; cytoplasmic streaming; intracellular transport; plants
The TRAPPII-specific subunit Trs65p directly binds to the C-terminus of the Arf1p exchange factor Gea2p. In addition, Gea2p and TRAPPII bind to the yeast orthologue of the γ subunit of the COPI coat complex, a known Arf1p effector. Thus TRAPPII is part of an Arf1p GEF-effector loop that appears to play a role in recruiting or stabilizing TRAPPII to membranes.
The TRAPP complexes are multimeric guanine exchange factors (GEFs) for the Rab GTPase Ypt1p. The three complexes (TRAPPI, TRAPPII, and TRAPPIII) share a core of common subunits required for GEF activity, as well as unique subunits (Trs130p, Trs120p, Trs85p, and Trs65p) that redirect the GEF from the endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi pathway to different cellular locations where TRAPP mediates distinct membrane trafficking events. Roles for three of the four unique TRAPP subunits have been described before; however, the role of the TRAPPII-specific subunit Trs65p has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that Trs65p directly binds to the C-terminus of the Arf1p exchange factor Gea2p and provide in vivo evidence that this interaction is physiologically relevant. Gea2p and TRAPPII also bind to the yeast orthologue of the γ subunit of the COPI coat complex (Sec21p), a known Arf1p effector. These and previous findings reveal that TRAPPII is part of an Arf1p GEF-effector loop that appears to play a role in recruiting or stabilizing TRAPPII to membranes. In support of this proposal, we show that TRAPPII is more soluble in an arf1Δ mutant.
Caenorhabditis elegans SNAP-29 is required for the proper morphology and functions of the Golgi and endosomes and general exocytosis.
It is generally accepted that soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptors mediate the docking and fusion of transport intermediates with target membranes. Our research identifies Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of synaptosomal-associated protein 29 (SNAP-29) as an essential regulator of membrane trafficking in polarized intestinal cells of living animals. We show that a depletion of SNAP-29 blocks yolk secretion and targeting of apical and basolateral plasma membrane proteins in the intestinal cells and results in a strong accumulation of small cargo-containing vesicles. The loss of SNAP-29 also blocks the transport of yolk receptor RME-2 to the plasma membrane in nonpolarized oocytes, indicating that its function is required in various cell types. SNAP-29 is essential for embryogenesis, animal growth, and viability. Functional fluorescent protein–tagged SNAP-29 mainly localizes to the plasma membrane and the late Golgi, although it also partially colocalizes with endosomal proteins. The loss of SNAP-29 leads to the vesiculation/fragmentation of the Golgi and endosomes, suggesting that SNAP-29 is involved in multiple transport pathways between the exocytic and endocytic organelles. These observations also suggest that organelles comprising the endomembrane system are highly dynamic structures based on the balance between membrane budding and fusion and that SNAP-29–mediated fusion is required to maintain proper organellar morphology and functions.
When Salmonella invade mammalian epithelial cells, some populations are surrounded by the autophagy protein LC3. We found that LC3 was recruited in proximity to Salmonella independently of both Atg9L1 and FIP200, which are required for formation of autophagosomes. The dynamics of the ULK1 complex and Atg9L1 were dependent on one another.
Salmonella develops into resident bacteria in epithelial cells, and the autophagic machinery (Atg) is thought to play an important role in this process. In this paper, we show that an autophagosome-like double-membrane structure surrounds the Salmonella still residing within the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). This double membrane is defective in Atg9L1- and FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa (FIP200)-deficient cells. Atg9L1 and FIP200 are important for autophagy-specific recruitment of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) complex. However, in the absence of Atg9L1, FIP200, and the PI3K complex, LC3 and its E3-like enzyme, the Atg16L complex, are still recruited to Salmonella. We propose that the LC3 system is recruited through a mechanism that is independent of isolation membrane generation.
The role of specific membrane lipids in ER-Golgi transport is unclear. Using cell-free assays that measure stages in ER-Golgi transport, a variety of enzyme inhibitors, lipid-modifying enzymes, and lipid ligands were screened. The results indicate that PI(4)P is required for SNARE-dependent fusion of COPII vesicles with the Golgi complex.
The role of specific membrane lipids in transport between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi compartments is poorly understood. Using cell-free assays that measure stages in ER-to-Golgi transport, we screened a variety of enzyme inhibitors, lipid-modifying enzymes, and lipid ligands to investigate requirements in yeast. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of human Fapp1, which binds phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI(4)P) specifically, was a strong and specific inhibitor of anterograde transport. Analysis of wild type and mutant PH domain proteins in addition to recombinant versions of the Sac1p phosphoinositide-phosphatase indicated that PI(4)P was required on Golgi membranes for fusion with coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicles. PI(4)P inhibition did not prevent vesicle tethering but significantly reduced formation of soluble n-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE) complexes between vesicle and Golgi SNARE proteins. Moreover, semi-intact cell membranes containing elevated levels of the ER-Golgi SNARE proteins and Sly1p were less sensitive to PI(4)P inhibitors. Finally, in vivo analyses of a pik1 mutant strain showed that inhibition of PI(4)P synthesis blocked anterograde transport from the ER to early Golgi compartments. Together, the data presented here indicate that PI(4)P is required for the SNARE-dependent fusion stage of COPII vesicles with the Golgi complex.
Nuclear-vacuolar (NV) junctions are organelle contact sites in yeast. They exclude nuclear pores from the organelle interface. On the vacuolar side, a lipid-dependent process excludes specific membrane proteins, such as V-ATPase, from the contact site. This suggests that NV junctions establish selective diffusion barriers.
Nuclei bind yeast vacuoles via nucleus-vacuole (NV) junctions. Under nutrient restriction, NV junctions invaginate and release vesicles filled with nuclear material into vacuoles, resulting in piecemeal microautophagy of the nucleus (PMN). We show that the electrochemical gradient across the vacuolar membrane promotes invagination of NV junctions. Existing invaginations persist independently of the gradient, but final release of PMN vesicles requires again V-ATPase activity. We find that NV junctions form a diffusion barrier on the vacuolar membrane that excludes V-ATPase but is enriched in the VTC complex and accessible to other membrane-integral proteins. V-ATPase exclusion depends on the NV junction proteins Nvj1p,Vac8p, and the electrochemical gradient. It also depends on factors of lipid metabolism, such as the oxysterol binding protein Osh1p and the enoyl-CoA reductase Tsc13p, which are enriched in NV junctions, and on Lag1p and Fen1p. Our observations suggest that NV junctions form in two separable steps: Nvj1p and Vac8p suffice to establish contact between the two membranes. The electrochemical potential and lipid-modifying enzymes are needed to establish the vacuolar diffusion barrier, invaginate NV junctions, and form PMN vesicles.
Rab14 binds in a GTP-dependent manner to RUFY1/Rabip4, which had been originally identified as a Rab4 effector. We suggest that Rab14 and Rab4 act sequentially; Rab14 is required for recruitment of RUFY1 onto endosomes and subsequent RUFY1 interaction with Rab4 may allow endosomal tethering and fusion.
The small GTPase Rab14 localizes to early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network, but its cellular functions on endosomes and its functional relationship with other endosomal Rab proteins are poorly understood. Here, we report that Rab14 binds in a GTP-dependent manner to RUFY1/Rabip4, which had been originally identified as a Rab4 effector. Rab14 colocalizes well with Rab4 on peripheral endosomes. Depletion of Rab14, but not Rab4, causes dissociation of RUFY1 from endosomal membranes. Coexpression of RUFY1 with either Rab14 or Rab4 induces clustering and enlargement of endosomes, whereas a RUFY1 mutant lacking the Rab4-binding region does not induce a significant morphological change in the endosomal structures even when coexpressed with Rab14 or Rab4. These findings suggest that Rab14 and Rab4 act sequentially, together with RUFY1; Rab14 is required for recruitment of RUFY1 onto endosomal membranes, and subsequent RUFY1 interaction with Rab4 may allow endosomal tethering and fusion. Depletion of Rab14 or RUFY1, as well as Rab4, inhibits efficient recycling of endocytosed transferrin, suggesting that Rab14 and Rab4 regulate endosomal functions through cooperative interactions with their dual effector, RUFY1.
Newly synthesized secretory cargo molecules pass through the Golgi apparatus while resident Golgi proteins remain in the organelle. However, the pathways of membrane traffic within the Golgi are still uncertain. Most of the available data can be accommodated by the cisternal maturation model, which postulates that Golgi cisternae form de novo, carry the secretory cargoes forward, and ultimately disappear. The entry face of the Golgi receives material that has been exported from transitional ER sites, and the exit face of the Golgi is intimately connected with endocytic compartments. These conserved features are enhanced by cell type-specific elaborations such as tubular connections between mammalian Golgi cisternae. Key questions remain about how Golgi cisternae form and then mature, how resident Golgi proteins recycle, how Golgi compartments achieve their identities, how the unique architecture of the Golgi is established, and how different structural elements contribute to Golgi function.
cisternal maturation; COPI; transitional ER; recycling endosomes; Golgi matrix; Golgi tubules
The Golgi apparatus is essential for protein sorting and transport. Many researchers have long been fascinated with the form and function of this organelle. Yet, despite decades of scrutiny, the mechanisms by which proteins are transported across the Golgi remain controversial. At a recent meeting, many prominent Golgi researchers assembled to critically evaluate the core issues in the field. This report presents the outcome of their discussions and highlights the key open questions that will help guide the field into a new era.
Using a newly developed protein-based fluorescent timer, mK-GO, which changes color with a predictable time course, we show that Rab27A effectors, rabphilin and Slp4-a, regulate age-dependent exocytosis of secretory vesicles in PC12 cells, and suggest that coordinate functions of the effectors are required for regulated secretory pathway.
Although it is evident that only a few secretory vesicles accumulating in neuroendocrine cells are qualified to fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents to the extracellular space, the molecular mechanisms that regulate their exocytosis are poorly understood. For example, it has been controversial whether secretory vesicles are exocytosed randomly or preferentially according to their age. Using a newly developed protein-based fluorescent timer, monomeric Kusabira Green Orange (mK-GO), which changes color with a predictable time course, here we show that small GTPase Rab27A effectors regulate age-dependent exocytosis of secretory vesicles in PC12 cells. When the vesicles were labeled with mK-GO–tagged neuropeptide Y or tissue-type plasminogen activator, punctate structures with green or red fluorescence were observed. Application of high [K+] stimulation induced exocytosis of new (green) fluorescent secretory vesicles but not of old (red) vesicles. Overexpression or depletion of rabphilin and synaptotagmin-like protein4-a (Slp4-a), which regulate exocytosis positively and negatively, respectively, disturbed the age-dependent exocytosis of the secretory vesicles in different manners. Our results suggest that coordinate functions of the two effectors of Rab27A, rabphilin and Slp4-a, are required for regulated secretory pathway.
Because the functional borders of the intermediate compartment (IC) are not well defined, the spatial map of the transport machineries operating between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus remains incomplete. Our previous studies showed that the IC consists of interconnected vacuolar and tubular parts with specific roles in pre-Golgi trafficking. Here, using live cell imaging, we demonstrate that the tubules containing the GTPase Rab1A create a long-lived membrane compartment around the centrosome. Separation of this pericentrosomal domain of the IC from the Golgi ribbon, due to centrosome motility, revealed that it contains a distinct pool of COPI coats and acts as a temperature-sensitive way station in post-ER trafficking. However, unlike the Golgi, the pericentrosomal IC resists the disassembly of COPI coats by brefeldin A, maintaining its juxtaposition with the endocytic recycling compartment, and operation as the focal point of a dynamic tubular network that extends to the cell periphery. These results provide novel insight into the compartmental organization of the secretory pathway and Golgi biogenesis. Moreover, they reveal a direct functional connection between the IC and the endosomal system, which evidently contributes to unconventional transport of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator to the cell surface.
Dynamically polarized membrane proteins define different cell boundaries and have an important role in intercellular communication—a vital feature of multicellular development. Efflux carriers for the signalling molecule auxin from the PIN family1 are landmarks of cell polarity in plants and have a crucial involvement in auxin distribution-dependent development including embryo patterning, organogenesis and tropisms2–7. Polar PIN localization determines the direction of intercellular auxin flow8, yet the mechanisms generating PIN polarity remain unclear. Here we identify an endocytosis-dependent mechanism of PIN polarity generation and analyse its developmental implications. Real-time PIN tracking showed that after synthesis, PINs are initially delivered to the plasma membrane in a non-polar manner and their polarity is established by subsequent endocytic recycling. Interference with PIN endocytosis either by auxin or by manipulation of the Arabidopsis Rab5 GTPase pathway prevents PIN polarization. Failure of PIN polarization transiently alters asymmetric auxin distribution during embryogenesis and increases the local auxin response in apical embryo regions. This results in ectopic expression of auxin pathway-associated root-forming master regulators in embryonic leaves and promotes homeotic transformation of leaves to roots. Our results indicate a two-step mechanism for the generation of PIN polar localization and the essential role of endocytosis in this process. It also highlights the link between endocytosis-dependent polarity of individual cells and auxin distribution-dependent cell fate establishment for multicellular patterning.
The GTPase Rab1 regulates endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi and early Golgi traffic. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) or factors that activate Rab1 at these stages of the secretory pathway are currently unknown. Trs130p is a subunit of the yeast TRAPPII (transport protein particle II) complex, a multisubunit tethering complex that is a GEF for the Rab1 homologue Ypt1p. Here, we show that mammalian Trs130 (mTrs130) is a component of an analogous TRAPP complex in mammalian cells, and we describe for the first time the role that this complex plays in membrane traffic. mTRAPPII is enriched on COPI (Coat Protein I)-coated vesicles and buds, but not Golgi cisternae, and it specifically activates Rab1. In addition, we find that mTRAPPII binds to γ1COP, a COPI coat adaptor subunit. The depletion of mTrs130 by short hairpin RNA leads to an increase of vesicles in the vicinity of the Golgi and the accumulation of cargo in an early Golgi compartment. We propose that mTRAPPII is a Rab1 GEF that tethers COPI-coated vesicles to early Golgi membranes.
The oxysterol binding protein homologue Kes1p has been implicated in nonvesicular sterol transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kes1p also represses formation of protein transport vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that potential phospholipid translocases in the Drs2/Dnf family (type IV P-type ATPases [P4-ATPases]) are downstream targets of Kes1p repression. Disruption of KES1 suppresses the cold-sensitive (cs) growth defect of drs2Δ, which correlates with an enhanced ability of Dnf P4-ATPases to functionally substitute for Drs2p. Loss of Kes1p also suppresses a drs2-ts allele in a strain deficient for Dnf P4-ATPases, suggesting that Kes1p antagonizes Drs2p activity in vivo. Indeed, Drs2-dependent phosphatidylserine translocase (flippase) activity is hyperactive in TGN membranes from kes1Δ cells and is potently attenuated by addition of recombinant Kes1p. Surprisingly, Drs2p also antagonizes Kes1p activity in vivo. Drs2p deficiency causes a markedly increased rate of cholesterol transport from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and redistribution of endogenous ergosterol to intracellular membranes, phenotypes that are Kes1p dependent. These data suggest a homeostatic feedback mechanism in which appropriately regulated flippase activity in the Golgi complex helps establish a plasma membrane phospholipid organization that resists sterol extraction by a sterol binding protein.
Actin plays fundamental roles in a wide array of plant functions, including cell division, cytoplasmic streaming, cell morphogenesis and organelle motility. Imaging the actin cytoskeleton in living cells is a powerful methodology for studying these important phenomena. Several useful probes for live imaging of filamentous actin (F-actin) have been developed, but new versatile probes are still needed. Here, we report the application of a new probe called Lifeact for visualizing F-actin in plant cells. Lifeact is a short peptide comprising 17 amino acids that was derived from yeast Abp140p. We used a Lifeact–Venus fusion protein for staining F-actin in Arabidopsis thaliana and were able to observe dynamic rearrangements of the actin meshwork in root hair cells. We also used Lifeact–Venus to visualize the actin cytoskeleton in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha; this revealed unique and dynamic F-actin motility in liverwort cells. Our results suggest that Lifeact could be a useful tool for studying the actin cytoskeleton in a wide range of plant lineages.
Actin; Arabidopsis thaliana; Lifeact; Liverwort; Marchantia polymorpha
From yeast to mammals, two types of GTPase-activating proteins, ArfGAP1 and ArfGAP2/3, control guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis on the small G protein ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) 1 at the Golgi apparatus. Although functionally interchangeable, they display little similarity outside the catalytic GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain, suggesting differential regulation. ArfGAP1 is controlled by membrane curvature through its amphipathic lipid packing sensor motifs, whereas Golgi targeting of ArfGAP2 depends on coatomer, the building block of the COPI coat. Using a reporter fusion approach and in vitro assays, we identified several functional elements in ArfGAP2/3. We show that the Golgi localization of ArfGAP3 depends on both a central basic stretch and a carboxy-amphipathic motif. The basic stretch interacts directly with coatomer, which we found essential for the catalytic activity of ArfGAP3 on Arf1-GTP, whereas the carboxy-amphipathic motif interacts directly with lipid membranes but has minor role in the regulation of ArfGAP3 activity. Our findings indicate that the two types of ArfGAP proteins that reside at the Golgi use a different combination of protein–protein and protein–lipid interactions to promote GTP hydrolysis in Arf1-GTP.