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1.  An Enzyme-Mediated Methodology for the Site-Specific Radiolabeling of Antibodies Based on Catalyst-Free Click Chemistry 
Bioconjugate chemistry  2013;24(6):1057-1067.
An enzyme- and click chemistry-mediated methodology for the site-selective radiolabeling of antibodies on the heavy chain glycans has been developed and validated. To this end, a model system based on the prostate specific membrane antigen-targeting antibody J591, the positron-emitting radiometal 89Zr, and the chelator desferrioxamine has been employed. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) the removal of sugars on the heavy chain region of the antibody to expose terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues; (2) the incorporation of azide-modified N-acetylgalactosamine monosaccharides into the glycans of the antibody; (3) the catalyst-free click conjugation of desferrioxamine-modified dibenzocyclooctynes to the azide-bearing sugars; and (4) the radiolabeling of the chelator-modified antibody with 89Zr. The site-selective labeling methodology has proven facile, reproducible, and robust, producing 89Zr-labeled radioimmunoconjguates that display high stability and immunoreactivity in vitro (>95%) in addition to high selective tumor uptake (67.5 ± 5.0 %ID/g) and tumor-to-background contrast in athymic nude mice bearing PSMA-expressing subcutaneous LNCaP xenografts. Ultimately, this strategy could play a critical role in the development of novel well-defined and highly immunoreactive radioimmunoconjugates for both the laboratory and clinic.
PMCID: PMC3714844  PMID: 23688208
Positron emission tomography; click chemistry; strain-promoted click chemistry; glycans; glycoengineering; site-specific labeling; site-selective labeling; 89Zr; J591; prostate specific membrane antigen; prostate cancer; bioconjugation
2.  A novel approach to tag and identify geranylgeranylated proteins 
Electrophoresis  2009;30(20):3598-3606.
A recently developed proteomic strategy, the “GG-azide”-labeling approach, is described for the detection and proteomic analysis of geranylgeranylated proteins. This approach involves metabolic incorporation of a synthetic azido-geranylgeranyl analog and chemoselective derivatization of azido-geranylgeranyl-modified proteins by the “click” chemistry, using a tetramethylrhodamine-alkyne. The resulting conjugated proteins can be separated by 1-D or 2-D and pH fractionation, and detected by fluorescence imaging. This method is compatible with downstream LC-MS/MS analysis. Proteomic analysis of conjugated proteins by this approach identified several known geranylgeranylated proteins as well as Rap2c, a novel member of the Ras family. Furthermore, prenylation of progerin in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells was examined using this approach, demonstrating that this strategy can be used to study prenylation of specific proteins. The “GG-azide”-labeling approach provides a new tool for the detection and proteomic analysis of geranylgeranylated proteins, and it can readily be extended to other post-translational modifications.
PMCID: PMC2855049  PMID: 19784953
2-D; Azide; Click chemistry; Protein geranylgeranylation; Rap2c
3.  Direct In-Gel Fluorescence Detection and Cellular Imaging of O-GlcNAc-Modified Proteins 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2008;130(35):11576-11577.
We report an advanced chemoenzymatic strategy for the direct fluorescence detection, proteomic analysis, and cellular imaging of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. O-GlcNAc residues are selectively labeled with fluorescent or biotin tags using an engineered galactosyltransferase enzyme and [3+2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry. We demonstrate that this approach can be used for direct in-gel detection and mass spectrometric identification of O-GlcNAc proteins, identifying 146 novel glycoproteins from the mammalian brain. Furthermore, we show that the method can be exploited to quantify dynamic changes in cellular O-GlcNAc levels and to image O-GlcNAc-glycosylated proteins within cells. As such, this strategy enables studies of O-GlcNAc glycosylation that were previously inaccessible and provides a new tool for uncovering the physiological functions of O-GlcNAc.
PMCID: PMC2649877  PMID: 18683930
4.  Xenopus Actin Depolymerizing Factor/Cofilin (XAC) Is Responsible for the Turnover of Actin Filaments in Listeria monocytogenes Tails 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1997;136(6):1323-1332.
In contrast to the slow rate of depolymerization of pure actin in vitro, populations of actin filaments in vivo turn over rapidly. Therefore, the rate of actin depolymerization must be accelerated by one or more factors in the cell. Since the actin dynamics in Listeria monocytogenes tails bear many similarities to those in the lamellipodia of moving cells, we have used Listeria as a model system to isolate factors required for regulating the rapid actin filament turnover involved in cell migration. Using a cell-free Xenopus egg extract system to reproduce the Listeria movement seen in a cell, we depleted candidate depolymerizing proteins and analyzed the effect that their removal had on the morphology of Listeria tails. Immunodepletion of Xenopus actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin (XAC) from Xenopus egg extracts resulted in Listeria tails that were approximately five times longer than the tails from undepleted extracts. Depletion of XAC did not affect the tail assembly rate, suggesting that the increased tail length was caused by an inhibition of actin filament depolymerization. Immunodepletion of Xenopus gelsolin had no effect on either tail length or assembly rate. Addition of recombinant wild-type XAC or chick ADF protein to XAC-depleted extracts restored the tail length to that of control extracts, while addition of mutant ADF S3E that mimics the phosphorylated, inactive form of ADF did not reduce the tail length. Addition of excess wild-type XAC to Xenopus egg extracts reduced the length of Listeria tails to a limited extent. These observations show that XAC but not gelsolin is essential for depolymerizing actin filaments that rapidly turn over in Xenopus extracts. We also show that while the depolymerizing activities of XAC and Xenopus extract are effective at depolymerizing normal filaments containing ADP, they are unable to completely depolymerize actin filaments containing AMPPNP, a slowly hydrolyzible ATP analog. This observation suggests that the substrate for XAC is the ADP-bound subunit of actin and that the lifetime of a filament is controlled by its nucleotide content.
PMCID: PMC2132508  PMID: 9087446
5.  Natural and Electroporation-Mediated Transformation of Methanococcus voltae Protoplasts † 
The lack of high-efficiency transformation systems has severely impeded genetic research on methanogenic members of the kingdom Archaeobacteria. By using protoplasts of Methanococcus voltae and an integration vector, Mip1, previously shown to impart puromycin resistance, we obtained natural transformation frequencies that were about 80-fold higher (705 transformants per μg of transforming DNA) than that reported with whole cells. Electroporation-mediated transformation of M. voltae protoplasts with covalently closed circular Mip1 DNA was possible, but at lower frequencies of ca. 177 transformants per μg of vector DNA. However, a 380-fold improvement (3,417 transformants per μg of DNA) over the frequency of natural transformation with whole cells was achieved by electroporation of protoplasts with linearized DNA. This general approach, of using protoplasts, should allow the transformation of other methanogens, especially those that may be gently converted to protoplasts as a result of their tendency to lyse in hypotonic solutions.
PMCID: PMC201408  PMID: 16349218

Results 1-5 (5)