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1.  Influence of pharmacogenetic variability on the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of the aurora kinase inhibitor danusertib 
Investigational New Drugs  2010;29(5):953-962.
Summary
Objectives Danusertib is a serine/threonine kinase inhibitor of multiple kinases, including aurora-A, B, and C. This explorative study aims to identify possible relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for drug metabolizing enzymes and transporter proteins and clearance of danusertib, to clarify the interpatient variability in exposure. In addition, this study explores the relationship between target receptor polymorphisms and toxicity of danusertib. Methods For associations with clearance, 48 cancer patients treated in a phase I study were analyzed for ABCB1, ABCG2 and FMO3 polymorphisms. Association analyses between neutropenia and drug target receptors, including KDR, RET, FLT3, FLT4, AURKB and AURKA, were performed in 30 patients treated at recommended phase II dose-levels in three danusertib phase I or phase II trials. Results No relationships between danusertib clearance and drug metabolizing enzymes and transporter protein polymorphisms were found. Only, for the one patient with FMO3 18281AA polymorphism, a significantly higher clearance was noticed, compared to patients carrying at least 1 wild type allele. No effect of target receptor genotypes or haplotypes on neutropenia was observed. Conclusions As we did not find any major correlations between pharmacogenetic variability in the studied enzymes and transporters and pharmacokinetics nor toxicity, it is unlikely that danusertib is highly susceptible for pharmacogenetic variation. Therefore, no dosing alterations of danusertib are expected in the future, based on the polymorphisms studied. However, the relationship between FMO3 polymorphisms and clearance of danusertib warrants further research, as we could study only a small group of patients.
doi:10.1007/s10637-010-9405-7
PMCID: PMC3160560  PMID: 20182906
Pharmacogenetics; Pharmacogenomics; PHA-739358; Danusertib; Cancer: aurora kinase inhibitor
2.  Salmonella Gene rma (ramA) and Multiple-Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium 
MarA and its homologue, RamA, have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). RamA overexpression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli conferred MDR independently of marA. Inactivation of ramA did not affect the antibiotic susceptibilities of wild-type S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or 15 unrelated clinical MDR isolates. Thus, ramA overexpression is not a common MDR mechanism in Salmonella.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.6.2292-2294.2004
PMCID: PMC415616  PMID: 15155237
3.  Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium RamA, Intracellular Oxidative Stress Response, and Bacterial Virulence  
Infection and Immunity  2004;72(2):996-1003.
Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium have evolved genetic systems, such as the soxR/S and marA regulons, to detoxify reactive oxygen species, like superoxide, which are formed as by-products of metabolism. Superoxide also serves as a microbicidal effector mechanism of the host's phagocytes. Here, we investigate whether regulatory genes other than soxR/S and marA are active in response to oxidative stress in Salmonella and may function as virulence determinants. We identified a bacterial gene, which was designated ramA (342 bp) and mapped at 13.1 min on the Salmonella chromosome, that, when overexpressed on a plasmid in E. coli or Salmonella, confers a pleiotropic phenotype characterized by increased resistance to the redox-cycling agent menadione and to multiple unrelated antibiotics. The ramA gene is present in Salmonella serovars but is absent in E. coli. The gene product displays 37 to 52% homology to the transcriptional activators soxR/S and marA and 80 to 100% identity to a multidrug resistance gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A. Although a ramA soxR/S double null mutant is highly susceptible to intracellular superoxide generated by menadione and displays decreased Mn-superoxide dismutase activity, intracellular survival of this mutant within macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells and in vivo replication in the spleens in Ityr mice are not affected. We concluded that despite its role in the protective response of the bacteria to oxidative stress in vitro, the newly identified ramA gene, together with soxR/S, does not play a role in initial replication of Salmonella in the organs of mice.
doi:10.1128/IAI.72.2.996-1003.2004
PMCID: PMC321585  PMID: 14742546
4.  A Superoxide-Hypersusceptible Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Mutant Is Attenuated but Regains Virulence in p47phox−/− Mice  
Infection and Immunity  2002;70(5):2614-2621.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that predominantly invades mononuclear phagocytes and is able to establish persistent infections. One of the innate defense mechanisms of phagocytic cells is the production of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium has evolved mechanisms to resist such radicals, and these mechanisms could be decisive in its ability to survive and replicate within macrophages. Recently, we described a superoxide-hypersusceptible S. enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant strain, DLG294, that carries a transposon in sspJ, resulting in the lack of expression of SspJ, which is necessary for resistance against superoxide and replication within macrophages. Here we show that DLG294, which is a 14028s derivative, hardly induced any granulomatous lesions in the livers upon subcutaneous infection of C3H/HeN (Ityr) mice with 3 × 104 bacteria and that its bacterial counts were reduced by 3 log units compared to those of wild-type S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 14028s on day 5 after infection. In contrast, DLG294 replicated like wild-type S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 14028s and induced a phenotypically similar liver pathology in p47phox−/− mice, which are deficient in the p47phox subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex and which do not produce superoxide. Consistent with these results, DLG294 reached bacterial counts identical to those of wild-type S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 14028s in bone marrow-derived macrophages from p47phox−/− mice and in X-CGD PLB-985 cells at 24 h after challenge. These results indicate that SspJ plays a role in the bacterium's resistance to oxidative stress and in the survival and replication of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium both in vitro and in vivo.
doi:10.1128/IAI.70.5.2614-2621.2002
PMCID: PMC127934  PMID: 11953403
5.  Novel Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Protein That Is Indispensable for Virulence and Intracellular Replication 
Infection and Immunity  2001;69(12):7413-7418.
Upon contact with host cells, the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium promotes its uptake, targeting, and survival in intracellular niches. In this process, the bacterium evades the microbicidal effector mechanisms of the macrophage, including oxygen intermediates. This study reports the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of an S. enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant that is hypersusceptible to superoxide. The susceptible phenotype is due to a MudJ insertion-inactivation of a previously undescribed Salmonella gene designated sspJ that is located between 54.4 and 64 min of the Salmonella chromosome and encodes a 392-amino-acid protein. In vivo, upon intraperitoneal injection of 104 to 107 bacteria in C3H/HeN and 101 to 104 bacteria in BALB/c mice, the mutant strain was less virulent than the wild type. Consistent with this finding, during the first hour after ingestion by macrophage-like J774 and RAW264.7 cells in vitro, the intracellular killing of the strain carrying sspJ::MudJ is enhanced fivefold over that of wild-type microorganisms. Wild-type salmonellae displayed significant intracellular replication during the first 24 h after uptake, but sspJ::MudJ mutants failed to do so. This phenotype could be restored to that of the wild type by sspJ complementation. The SspJ protein is found in the cytoplasmic membrane and periplasmic space. Amino acid sequence homology analysis did reveal a leader sequence and putative pyrroloquinoline quinone-binding domains, but no putative protein function. We excluded the possibility that SspJ is a scavenger of superoxide or has superoxide dismutase activity.
doi:10.1128/IAI.69.12.7413-7418.2001
PMCID: PMC98829  PMID: 11705915
6.  ERCC1 and ERCC2 Haplotype Modulates Induced BPDE-DNA Adducts in Primary Cultured Lymphocytes 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60006.
Background
Benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P), and its ultimate metabolite Benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide (BPDE), are classic DNA damaging carcinogens. DNA damage caused by BPDE is normally repaired by Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER), of which ERCC1 and ERCC2/XPD exert an indispensable role. Genetic variations in ERCC1 and ERCC2 have been related to DNA repair efficiency. In this study we used lymphocytes from healthy individuals to show that polymorphisms in ERCC1 and ERCC2 are directly associated with decreased DNA repair efficiency.
Methods
ERCC1 (rs3212986 and rs11615) and ERCC2 (rs13181, rs1799793 and rs238406) were genotyped in 818 healthy Han individuals from the northeast of China. BPDE induced DNA adducts in lymphocytes were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 282 randomly selected participants. The effect of ERCC1 rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs238406 on DNA damage caused by B[a]P was assessed with a modified comet assay.
Results
We found that the variant genotypes of ERCC1 rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs238406 were associated with the high levels of BPDE-DNA adducts. Especially ERCC1 rs3212986 A-allele variant was significantly associated with the high BPDE-DNA adducts. Haplotype analysis showed that the ERCC1 haplotype AC (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.84–2.97), ERCC2 haplotype AGA (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.06–2.15) and haplotype block AGAAC (OR = 5.28, 95% CI = 2.95–9.43), AGCAC (OR = 1.35 95% CI = 1.13–1.60) were linked with high BPDE-DNA adducts. In addition, we found that the combined minor alleles of ERCC1 rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs238406 were associated with a reduced DNA repair capacity.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that the variant genotypes of ERCC1 rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs238406 are associated with decreased repair efficiency of BPDE induced DNA damage, and may be predictive for an individual’s DNA repair capacity in response to environmental carcinogens.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060006
PMCID: PMC3617188  PMID: 23593158

Results 1-6 (6)