In order to overcome poor bioavailability of narrow absorption window drugs, a gastrosphere system comprising two mechanisms of gastric retention, namely buoyancy and gastroadhesion, has been investigated in this study employing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyacrylic acid (PAA), alginate, pectin, and a model drug metformin hydrochloride. Fifteen formulations were obtained using a Box–Behnken statistical design. The gastrosphere yield was above 80% in all cases; however, due to the high water solubility of metformin, drug entrapment efficacy was between 18% and 54%. Mean dissolution time and gastroadhesive strength were used as the formulation responses in order to optimize the formulation. Furthermore, the molecular mechanics force field simulations were performed to corroborate the experimental findings. Drug release profiles revealed three different release kinetics, namely, burst, first-order and zero-order release. Varying gastroadhesive results were obtained, and were highly sensitive to changes in polymer concentrations. FTIR revealed that strong bonds of PAA and PLGA were retained within the gastrosphere. Surface area and porosity analysis provided supporting evidence that the lyophilization process resulted in a significant increase in the porosity. Analysis of the surface morphology by SEM revealed that air pockets were spread over the entire surface of the gastrosphere, providing a visual proof of the high porosity and hence low density of the gastrosphere. The spatial disposition and energetic profile of the sterically constrained and geometrically optimized multi-polymeric complex of alginate, pectin, PAA, and PLGA corroborated the experimental results in terms of in vitro drug release and gastroadhesive strength of the fabricated gastrospheres.
Box–Behnken design; gastroretentive drug delivery; molecular mechanics simulations; narrow absorption window drugs; polymeric gastrosphere synthesis
The purpose of this study was to develop poly(lactic acid)-methacrylic acid copolymeric nanoparticles with the potential to serve as nanocarrier systems for methotrexate (MTX) used in the chemotherapy of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Nanoparticles were prepared by a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique employing a 3-Factor Box-Behnken experimental design strategy. Analysis of particle size, absolute zeta potential, polydispersity (Pdl), morphology, drug-loading capacity (DLC), structural transitions through FTIR spectroscopy, and drug release kinetics was undertaken. Molecular modelling elucidated the mechanisms of the experimental findings. Nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 211.0 to 378.3 nm and a recovery range of 36.8–86.2 mg (Pdl ≤ 0.5) were synthesized. DLC values were initially low (12 ± 0.5%) but were finally optimized to 98 ± 0.3%. FTIR studies elucidated the comixing of MTX within the nanoparticles. An initial burst release (50% of MTX released in 24 hours) was obtained which was followed by a prolonged release phase of MTX over 84 hours. SEM images revealed near-spherical nanoparticles, while TEM micrographs revealed the presence of MTX within the nanoparticles. Stable nanoparticles were formed as corroborated by the chemometric modelling studies undertaken.
Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments.
controlled drug delivery; geometrically altered devices; multilayered tablets; polymeric materials; release modules assemblage
Macroporous polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan scaffolds for neural tissue engineering were fabricated with varied synthetic and viscosity profiles. A novel approach and mechanism was utilized for polyacrylamide grafting onto chitosan using potassium persulfate (KPS) mediated degradation of both polymers under a thermally controlled environment. Commercially available high molecular mass polyacrylamide was used instead of the acrylamide monomer for graft copolymerization. This grafting strategy yielded an enhanced grafting efficiency (GE = 92%), grafting ratio (GR = 263%), intrinsic viscosity (IV = 5.231 dL/g) and viscometric average molecular mass (MW = 1.63 × 106 Da) compared with known acrylamide that has a GE = 83%, GR = 178%, IV = 3.901 dL/g and MW = 1.22 × 106 Da. Image processing analysis of SEM images of the newly grafted neurodurable scaffold was undertaken based on the polymer-pore threshold. Attenuated Total Reflectance-FTIR spectral analyses in conjugation with DSC were used for the characterization and comparison of the newly grafted copolymers. Static Lattice Atomistic Simulations were employed to investigate and elucidate the copolymeric assembly and reaction mechanism by exploring the spatial disposition of chitosan and polyacrylamide with respect to the reactional profile of potassium persulfate. Interestingly, potassium persulfate, a peroxide, was found to play a dual role initially degrading the polymers—“polymer slicing”—thereby initiating the formation of free radicals and subsequently leading to synthesis of the high molecular mass polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan (PAAm-g-CHT)—“polymer complexation”. Furthermore, the applicability of the uniquely grafted scaffold for neural tissue engineering was evaluated via PC12 neuronal cell seeding. The novel PAAm-g-CHT exhibited superior neurocompatibility in terms of cell infiltration owing to the anisotropic porous architecture, high molecular mass mediated robustness, superior hydrophilicity as well as surface charge due to the acrylic chains. Additionally, these results suggested that the porous PAAm-g-CHT scaffold may act as a potential neural cell carrier.
neural tissue engineering; polymer composite; polyacrylamidated chitosan; potassium persulphate; polymer grafting; neurodurable scaffold; molecular modeling and simulation
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the bioadhesivity, in vitro drug release, and permeation of an intravaginal bioadhesive polymeric device (IBPD) loaded with 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine (AZT) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Modified polyamide 6,10, poly(lactic-coglycolic acid), polyacrylic acid, polyvinyl alcohol, and ethylcellulose were blended with model drugs AZT and PSS as well as radio-opaque barium sulfate (BaSO4) and then compressed into caplet devices on a tableting press. One set of devices was coated with 2% w/v pentaerythritol polyacrylic acid (APE-PAA) while another remained uncoated. Thermal analysis was performed on the constituent polymers as well the IBPD. The changes in micro-environmental pH within the simulated human vaginal fluid due to the presence of the IBPD were assessed over a period of 30 days. Textural profile analysis indicated that the bioadhesivity of the APE-PAA-coated devices (3.699 ± 0.464 N; 0.0098 ± 0.0004 J) was higher than that of the uncoated devices (1.198 ± 0.150 N; 0.0019 ± 0.0001 J). In addition, BaSO4-facilitated X-ray imaging revealed that the IBPD adhered to pig vaginal tissue over the experimental period of 30 days. Controlled drug release kinetics was obtained over 72 days. During a 24-h permeation study, an increase in drug flux for both AZT (0.84 mg cm−2 h−1) and PSS (0.72 mg cm−2 h−1) was realized up to 12 h and thereafter a steady-state was achieved. The diffusion and dissolution dynamics were mechanistically deduced based on a chemometric and molecular structure modeling approach. Overall, results suggested that the IBPD may be sufficiently bioadhesive with desirable physicochemical and physicomechanical stability for use as a prolonged intravaginal drug delivery device.
bioadhesivity; controlled release; intravaginal drug delivery; microbicidal polymeric device; physicochemical and physicomechanical characterization
Membrane technology is broadly applied in the medical field. The ability of membranous systems to effectively control the movement of chemical entities is pivotal to their significant potential for use in both drug delivery and surgical/medical applications. An alteration in the physical properties of a polymer in response to a change in environmental conditions is a behavior that can be utilized to prepare ‘smart’ drug delivery systems. Stimuli-responsive or ‘smart’ polymers are polymers that upon exposure to small changes in the environment undergo rapid changes in their microstructure. A stimulus, such as a change in pH or temperature, thus serves as a trigger for the release of drug from membranous drug delivery systems that are formulated from stimuli-responsive polymers. This article has sought to review the use of stimuli-responsive polymers that have found application in membranous drug delivery systems. Polymers responsive to pH and temperature have been extensively addressed in this review since they are considered the most important stimuli that may be exploited for use in drug delivery, and biomedical applications such as in tissue engineering. In addition, dual-responsive and glucose-responsive membranes have been also addressed as membranes responsive to diverse stimuli.
Dual-responsive membranes; Glucose-responsive membranes; Membranous drug delivery systems; “On–off” gating mechanisms; pH; Stimuli-responsive polymers; Temperature
The combination of liposomes with polymeric scaffolds could revolutionize the current state of drug delivery technology. Although liposomes have been extensively studied as a promising drug delivery model for bioactive compounds, there still remain major drawbacks for widespread pharmaceutical application. Two approaches for overcoming the factors related to the suboptimal efficacy of liposomes in drug delivery have been suggested. The first entails modifying the liposome surface with functional moieties, while the second involves integration of pre-encapsulated drug-loaded liposomes within depot polymeric scaffolds. This attempts to provide ingenious solutions to the limitations of conventional liposomes such as short plasma half-lives, toxicity, stability, and poor control of drug release over prolonged periods. This review delineates the key advances in composite technologies that merge the concepts of depot polymeric scaffolds with liposome technology to overcome the limitations of conventional liposomes for pharmaceutical applications.
The aggregation of the amyloid-β-peptide (AβP) into well-ordered fibrils has been considered as the key pathological marker of Alzheimer‘s disease. Molecular attributes related to the specific binding interactions, covalently and non-covalently, of a library of compounds targeting of conformational scaffolds were computed employing static lattice atomistic simulations and array constructions. A combinatorial approach using isobolographic analysis was stochastically modeled employing Artificial Neural Networks and a Design of Experiments approach, namely an orthogonal Face-Centered Central Composite Design for small molecules, such as curcumin and glycosylated nornicotine exhibiting concentration-dependent behavior on modulating AβP aggregation and oligomerization. This work provides a mathematical and in silico approach that constitutes a new frontier in providing neuroscientists with a template for in vitro and in vivo experimentation. In future this could potentially allow neuroscientists to adopt this in silico approach for the development of novel therapeutic interventions in the neuroprotection and neurotherapy of Alzheimer‘s disease. In addition, the neuroprotective entities identified in this study may also be valuable in this regard.
amyloid-β protein; Alzheimer‘s disease; molecular mechanics; artificial neural networks; curcumin; nicotine; isobolographic analysis; docking; central composite design; constraint optimization; ligand-protein complexes; synergism
Nanotechnology remains the field to explore in the quest to enhance therapeutic efficacies of existing drugs. Fabrication of a methacrylate copolymer-lipid nanoparticulate (MCN) system was explored in this study for oral drug delivery of levodopa. The nanoparticles were fabricated employing multicrosslinking technology and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, structural modification, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Chemometric Computational (CC) modeling was conducted to deduce the mechanism of nanoparticle synthesis as well as to corroborate the experimental findings. The CC modeling deduced that the nanoparticles synthesis may have followed the mixed triangular formations or the mixed patterns. They were found to be hollow nanocapsules with a size ranging from 152 nm (methacrylate copolymer) to 321 nm (methacrylate copolymer blend) and a zeta potential range of 15.8–43.3 mV. The nanoparticles were directly compressible and it was found that the desired rate of drug release could be achieved by formulating the nanoparticles as a nanosuspension, and then directly compressing them into tablet matrices or incorporating the nanoparticles directly into polymer tablet matrices. However, sustained release of MCNs was achieved only when it was incorporated into a polymer matrix. The experimental results were well corroborated by the CC modeling. The developed technology may be potentially useful for the fabrication of multi-crosslinked polymer blend nanoparticles for oral drug delivery.
nanotechnology; nanoparticles; nanocapsules; methacrylate copolymer; chitosan; oral drug delivery; bioavailability; crosslinking; molecular mechanics simulations
The term neurodegenerative disorders, encompasses a variety of underlying conditions, sporadic and/or familial and are characterized by the persistent loss of neuronal subtypes. These disorders can disrupt molecular pathways, synapses, neuronal subpopulations and local circuits in specific brain regions, as well as higher-order neural networks. Abnormal network activities may result in a vicious cycle, further impairing the integrity and functions of neurons and synapses, for example, through aberrant excitation or inhibition. The most common neurodegenerative disorders are Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Huntington’s disease. The molecular features of these disorders have been extensively researched and various unique neurotherapeutic interventions have been developed. However, there is an enormous coercion to integrate the existing knowledge in order to intensify the reliability with which neurodegenerative disorders can be diagnosed and treated. The objective of this review article is therefore to assimilate these disorders’ in terms of their neuropathology, neurogenetics, etiology, trends in pharmacological treatment, clinical management, and the use of innovative neurotherapeutic interventions.
Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Huntington’s disease; neuropathology; amyloid-β protein; Tau; Huntingtin; α-Synuclein; neurotherapeutics; drug delivery
The purpose of this study was to develop a drug-loaded nanosystem that has the ability to achieve flexible yet rate-controlled release of model drug isoniazid (INH) employing either an aqueous or emulsion-based salting-out approach. Formulation conditions were aimed at reducing the polymeric size with subsequent rate-modulated INH release patterns from the polymeric nanosystem. The emulsion-based salted-out nanosystems had particle sizes ranging from 77–414 nm and a zeta potential of −24 mV. The dispersant dielectric constant was set at 78.5 and a conductivity of 3.99 mS/cm achieved. The reduced nanosystem size of the aqueous-based approach has demonstrated an intrinsically enhanced exposure of methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate to zinc sulphate which was employed as a crosslinking reagent. This resulted in robustly interconnected polymeric supports in which INH was efficiently embedded and subsequently released. The multi-layer perceptron data obtained showed that the aqueous and emulsion-based salting out approaches had Power (law) (MSE = 0.020) and Linear (MSE = 0.038) relationships, respectively. Drug release from the nanosystems occurred in two phases with an initial burst-release in aqueous-based nanosystems (30–100%) and significantly lower bursts observed in emulsion-based nanosystems (20–65%) within the first 2 h. This was followed by a gradual exponential release phase over the remaining 12 h. The nanosystems developed demonstrated the ability to control the release of INH depending on the formulation approach adopted.
crosslinking; drug release; methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate; nanoparticles; tuberculosis