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1.  Genetic characterization of rabies field isolates from Venezuela. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1996;34(6):1553-1558.
Twenty samples from cases of rabies in humans and domestic animals diagnosed in Venezuela between 1990 and 1994 and one sample from a vampire bat collected in 1976 were characterized by reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein and by patterns of nucleotide substitution in the nucleoprotein gene. Three antigenic variants were found: 1, 3, and 5. Antigenic variant 1 included all samples from dogs and humans infected by contact with rabid dogs. Unique substitutions permitted identification of two separate outbreaks of dog rabies in the Maracaibo Depression and Los Llanos region and in the Andean region of Venezuela. Samples from the vampire bat and two head of cattle were characterized as antigenic variant 3 and showed a nucleotide sequence homology of 96 to 98% to each other and to samples of vampire bat-associated rabies throughout Latin America. Ten of the remaining 12 samples were characterized as antigenic variant 5. Genetic studies indicated that 11 of these samples formed a highly homologous and distinctive group but were closely related to samples of vampire bat-associated rabies. The 12th sample of variant 5 (from a cat) showed only 78 to 80% genetic homology to samples of rabies associated with vampire bats. The application of antigenic and genetic typing to rabies surveillance in Latin America is essential to improve control programs. Recognition of the source of outbreaks of dog rabies and identification of wildlife species maintaining sylvatic cycles of rabies transmission permit better utilization of public health resources.
PMCID: PMC229062  PMID: 8735118
2.  Rabies in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), Ceará, Brazil. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2001;7(6):1062-1065.
A new Rabies virus variant, with no close antigenic or genetic relationship to any known rabies variants found in bats or terrestrial mammals in the Americas, was identified in association with human rabies cases reported from the state of Ceará, Brazil, from 1991 to 1998. The marmoset, Callithrix jacchus acchus, was determined to be the source of exposure.
PMCID: PMC2631923  PMID: 11747745
3.  Phylogenetic comparison of the S3 gene of United States prototype strains of bluetongue virus with that of field isolates from California. 
Journal of Virology  1996;70(8):5735-5739.
To better define the molecular epidemiology of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection, the genetic characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of the S3 genes of the five U.S. prototype strains of BTV, the commercially available serotype 10 modified live virus vaccine, and 18 field isolates of BTV serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 obtained in California during 1980, 1981, 1989, and 1990 were determined. With the exception of the S3 gene of the U.S. prototype strain of BTV serotype 2 (BTV 2), these viruses had an overall sequence homology of between 95 and 100%. Phylogenetic analyses segregated the prototype U.S. BTV 2 strain to a unique branch (100% bootstrap value), whereas the rest of the viruses clustered in two main monophyletic groups that were not correlated with their serotype, year of isolation, or geographical origin. The lack of consistent association between S3 gene sequence and virus serotype likely is a consequence of reassortment of BTV gene segments during natural mixed infections of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. The prototype strain of BTV 13, which is considered an introduction to the U.S. like BTV 2, presents an S3 gene which is highly homologous to those of some isolates of BTV 10 and especially to that of the vaccine strain. This finding strongly suggests that the U.S. prototype strain of BTV 13 is a natural reassortant. The different topologies of the phylogenetic trees of the L2 and S3 genes of the various viruses indicate that these two genome segments evolve independently. We conclude that the S3 gene segment of populations of BTV in California is formed by different consensus sequences which cocirculate and which cannot be grouped by serotype.
PMCID: PMC190544  PMID: 8764098
4.  Association of bluetongue virus gene segment 5 with neuroinvasiveness. 
Journal of Virology  1994;68(2):1255-1257.
Two strains (UC-2 and UC-8) of bluetongue virus were used to determine genetic factors influencing neuroinvasiveness. Reassortants were produced in vitro, and the parental origins of their genes were determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles and restriction endonuclease digestion. Gene segment 5 of UC-8 correlated with neuroinvasiveness of reassortants when inoculated subcutaneously into newborn mice.
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PMCID: PMC236572  PMID: 8289361
5.  Risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazil 
Epidemiology and Infection  2013;142(1):142-148.
SUMMARY
The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25·5% of the patients were seronegative and 74·5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27·3% had OT and 72·7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2·22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·24–3·98, P = 0·009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1·77, 95% CI 1·05–2·98, P = 0·03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48·2 ± 21·2 years vs. OOD: 69·5 ± 14·7 years, P < 0·0001) and the low level of schooling/literacy (OT vs. OOD: OR 0·414, 95% CI 0·2231–0·7692, P = 0·007) were associated with OT. The presence of dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT.
doi:10.1017/S0950268813000526
PMCID: PMC3857107  PMID: 23507508
Eye infection; ocular toxoplasmosis; risk factors; Toxoplasma gondii; toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis; toxoplasmosis
6.  Pathological fractures in children 
Bone & Joint Research  2012;1(10):272-280.
Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated.
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.110.2000120
PMCID: PMC3626256  PMID: 23610658
Pathological fracture; Benign; Bone tumour; Malignancy; Sarcoma; Children
7.  Immunohistochemical techniques in the early screening of monoclonal antibodies to human colonic epithelium 
British Journal of Cancer  1982;46(1):9-17.
Selected monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) isolated after immunization of rats with a human colonic carcinoma membrane preparation, have been screened on frozen and paraffin sections of colonic tissue, using immunohistochemical techniques, in order to provide additional information with regard to specificity and crossreactivity with normal tissues.
Of 10 McAbs previously shown to bind to a colonic carcinoma membrane preparation in a radioimmunoassay, 7 show specific staining when tested by indirect immunofluorescence on crysotat sections of colonic tissue. Three of these 7 show activity on both normal and malignant colonic epithelium, and the remaining 4 stain normal epithelium, with little or no activity on malignant tissue. In the indirect immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase techniques on paraffin sections of the same material, only 2 McAbs retain activity; one detects an antigen in colonic mucus, and the other recognises an antigen which is sparse on normal colonic epithelium and abundant on colonic tumours.
We conclude that screening of McAbs on frozen tissue sections, using indirect immunofluorescence, is a useful adjunct to conventional screening methods, e.g. binding to membrane preparations and/or cell lines in a radioimmunoassay. These techniques distinguish McAbs with similar binding values in conventional assays, identify their activity on a wide range of normal and malignant tissues, demonstrate antigens that are lost or gained in malignant transformation and finally assist in the selection of McAbs for further extensive study before possible clinical use.
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PMCID: PMC2011068  PMID: 7049214

Results 1-7 (7)