PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (102)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
more »
1.  The Major Genetic Determinants of HIV-1 Control Affect HLA Class I Peptide Presentation 
Pereyra, Florencia | Jia, Xiaoming | McLaren, Paul J. | Telenti, Amalio | de Bakker, Paul I.W. | Walker, Bruce D. | Jia, Xiaoming | McLaren, Paul J. | Ripke, Stephan | Brumme, Chanson J. | Pulit, Sara L. | Telenti, Amalio | Carrington, Mary | Kadie, Carl M. | Carlson, Jonathan M. | Heckerman, David | de Bakker, Paul I.W. | Pereyra, Florencia | de Bakker, Paul I.W. | Graham, Robert R. | Plenge, Robert M. | Deeks, Steven G. | Walker, Bruce D. | Gianniny, Lauren | Crawford, Gabriel | Sullivan, Jordan | Gonzalez, Elena | Davies, Leela | Camargo, Amy | Moore, Jamie M. | Beattie, Nicole | Gupta, Supriya | Crenshaw, Andrew | Burtt, Noël P. | Guiducci, Candace | Gupta, Namrata | Carrington, Mary | Gao, Xiaojiang | Qi, Ying | Yuki, Yuko | Pereyra, Florencia | Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja | Cutrell, Emily | Rosenberg, Rachel | Moss, Kristin L. | Lemay, Paul | O’Leary, Jessica | Schaefer, Todd | Verma, Pranshu | Toth, Ildiko | Block, Brian | Baker, Brett | Rothchild, Alissa | Lian, Jeffrey | Proudfoot, Jacqueline | Alvino, Donna Marie L. | Vine, Seanna | Addo, Marylyn M. | Allen, Todd M. | Altfeld, Marcus | Henn, Matthew R. | Le Gall, Sylvie | Streeck, Hendrik | Walker, Bruce D. | Haas, David W. | Kuritzkes, Daniel R. | Robbins, Gregory K. | Shafer, Robert W. | Gulick, Roy M. | Shikuma, Cecilia M. | Haubrich, Richard | Riddler, Sharon | Sax, Paul E. | Daar, Eric S. | Ribaudo, Heather J. | Agan, Brian | Agarwal, Shanu | Ahern, Richard L. | Allen, Brady L. | Altidor, Sherly | Altschuler, Eric L. | Ambardar, Sujata | Anastos, Kathryn | Anderson, Ben | Anderson, Val | Andrady, Ushan | Antoniskis, Diana | Bangsberg, David | Barbaro, Daniel | Barrie, William | Bartczak, J. | Barton, Simon | Basden, Patricia | Basgoz, Nesli | Bazner, Suzane | Bellos, Nicholaos C. | Benson, Anne M. | Berger, Judith | Bernard, Nicole F. | Bernard, Annette M. | Birch, Christopher | Bodner, Stanley J. | Bolan, Robert K. | Boudreaux, Emilie T. | Bradley, Meg | Braun, James F. | Brndjar, Jon E. | Brown, Stephen J. | Brown, Katherine | Brown, Sheldon T. | Burack, Jedidiah | Bush, Larry M. | Cafaro, Virginia | Campbell, Omobolaji | Campbell, John | Carlson, Robert H. | Carmichael, J. Kevin | Casey, Kathleen K. | Cavacuiti, Chris | Celestin, Gregory | Chambers, Steven T. | Chez, Nancy | Chirch, Lisa M. | Cimoch, Paul J. | Cohen, Daniel | Cohn, Lillian E. | Conway, Brian | Cooper, David A. | Cornelson, Brian | Cox, David T. | Cristofano, Michael V. | Cuchural, George | Czartoski, Julie L. | Dahman, Joseph M. | Daly, Jennifer S. | Davis, Benjamin T. | Davis, Kristine | Davod, Sheila M. | Deeks, Steven G. | DeJesus, Edwin | Dietz, Craig A. | Dunham, Eleanor | Dunn, Michael E. | Ellerin, Todd B. | Eron, Joseph J. | Fangman, John J.W. | Farel, Claire E. | Ferlazzo, Helen | Fidler, Sarah | Fleenor-Ford, Anita | Frankel, Renee | Freedberg, Kenneth A. | French, Neel K. | Fuchs, Jonathan D. | Fuller, Jon D. | Gaberman, Jonna | Gallant, Joel E. | Gandhi, Rajesh T. | Garcia, Efrain | Garmon, Donald | Gathe, Joseph C. | Gaultier, Cyril R. | Gebre, Wondwoosen | Gilman, Frank D. | Gilson, Ian | Goepfert, Paul A. | Gottlieb, Michael S. | Goulston, Claudia | Groger, Richard K. | Gurley, T. Douglas | Haber, Stuart | Hardwicke, Robin | Hardy, W. David | Harrigan, P. Richard | Hawkins, Trevor N. | Heath, Sonya | Hecht, Frederick M. | Henry, W. Keith | Hladek, Melissa | Hoffman, Robert P. | Horton, James M. | Hsu, Ricky K. | Huhn, Gregory D. | Hunt, Peter | Hupert, Mark J. | Illeman, Mark L. | Jaeger, Hans | Jellinger, Robert M. | John, Mina | Johnson, Jennifer A. | Johnson, Kristin L. | Johnson, Heather | Johnson, Kay | Joly, Jennifer | Jordan, Wilbert C. | Kauffman, Carol A. | Khanlou, Homayoon | Killian, Robert K. | Kim, Arthur Y. | Kim, David D. | Kinder, Clifford A. | Kirchner, Jeffrey T. | Kogelman, Laura | Kojic, Erna Milunka | Korthuis, P. Todd | Kurisu, Wayne | Kwon, Douglas S. | LaMar, Melissa | Lampiris, Harry | Lanzafame, Massimiliano | Lederman, Michael M. | Lee, David M. | Lee, Jean M.L. | Lee, Marah J. | Lee, Edward T.Y. | Lemoine, Janice | Levy, Jay A. | Llibre, Josep M. | Liguori, Michael A. | Little, Susan J. | Liu, Anne Y. | Lopez, Alvaro J. | Loutfy, Mono R. | Loy, Dawn | Mohammed, Debbie Y. | Man, Alan | Mansour, Michael K. | Marconi, Vincent C. | Markowitz, Martin | Marques, Rui | Martin, Jeffrey N. | Martin, Harold L. | Mayer, Kenneth Hugh | McElrath, M. Juliana | McGhee, Theresa A. | McGovern, Barbara H. | McGowan, Katherine | McIntyre, Dawn | Mcleod, Gavin X. | Menezes, Prema | Mesa, Greg | Metroka, Craig E. | Meyer-Olson, Dirk | Miller, Andy O. | Montgomery, Kate | Mounzer, Karam C. | Nagami, Ellen H. | Nagin, Iris | Nahass, Ronald G. | Nelson, Margret O. | Nielsen, Craig | Norene, David L. | O’Connor, David H. | Ojikutu, Bisola O. | Okulicz, Jason | Oladehin, Olakunle O. | Oldfield, Edward C. | Olender, Susan A. | Ostrowski, Mario | Owen, William F. | Pae, Eunice | Parsonnet, Jeffrey | Pavlatos, Andrew M. | Perlmutter, Aaron M. | Pierce, Michael N. | Pincus, Jonathan M. | Pisani, Leandro | Price, Lawrence Jay | Proia, Laurie | Prokesch, Richard C. | Pujet, Heather Calderon | Ramgopal, Moti | Rathod, Almas | Rausch, Michael | Ravishankar, J. | Rhame, Frank S. | Richards, Constance Shamuyarira | Richman, Douglas D. | Robbins, Gregory K. | Rodes, Berta | Rodriguez, Milagros | Rose, Richard C. | Rosenberg, Eric S. | Rosenthal, Daniel | Ross, Polly E. | Rubin, David S. | Rumbaugh, Elease | Saenz, Luis | Salvaggio, Michelle R. | Sanchez, William C. | Sanjana, Veeraf M. | Santiago, Steven | Schmidt, Wolfgang | Schuitemaker, Hanneke | Sestak, Philip M. | Shalit, Peter | Shay, William | Shirvani, Vivian N. | Silebi, Vanessa I. | Sizemore, James M. | Skolnik, Paul R. | Sokol-Anderson, Marcia | Sosman, James M. | Stabile, Paul | Stapleton, Jack T. | Starrett, Sheree | Stein, Francine | Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen | Sterman, F. Lisa | Stone, Valerie E. | Stone, David R. | Tambussi, Giuseppe | Taplitz, Randy A. | Tedaldi, Ellen M. | Telenti, Amalio | Theisen, William | Torres, Richard | Tosiello, Lorraine | Tremblay, Cecile | Tribble, Marc A. | Trinh, Phuong D. | Tsao, Alice | Ueda, Peggy | Vaccaro, Anthony | Valadas, Emilia | Vanig, Thanes J. | Vecino, Isabel | Vega, Vilma M. | Veikley, Wenoah | Wade, Barbara H. | Walworth, Charles | Wanidworanun, Chingchai | Ward, Douglas J. | Warner, Daniel A. | Weber, Robert D. | Webster, Duncan | Weis, Steve | Wheeler, David A. | White, David J. | Wilkins, Ed | Winston, Alan | Wlodaver, Clifford G. | Wout, Angelique van’t | Wright, David P. | Yang, Otto O. | Yurdin, David L. | Zabukovic, Brandon W. | Zachary, Kimon C. | Zeeman, Beth | Zhao, Meng
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2010;330(6010):1551-1557.
Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA–viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection.
doi:10.1126/science.1195271
PMCID: PMC3235490  PMID: 21051598
2.  Improved imputation quality of low-frequency and rare variants in European samples using the ‘Genome of The Netherlands' 
European Journal of Human Genetics  2014;22(11):1321-1326.
Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many common variants associated with complex traits, low-frequency and rare variants have not been interrogated in a comprehensive manner. Imputation from dense reference panels, such as the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G), enables testing of ungenotyped variants for association. Here we present the results of imputation using a large, new population-specific panel: the Genome of The Netherlands (GoNL). We benchmarked the performance of the 1000G and GoNL reference sets by comparing imputation genotypes with ‘true' genotypes typed on ImmunoChip in three European populations (Dutch, British, and Italian). GoNL showed significant improvement in the imputation quality for rare variants (MAF 0.05–0.5%) compared with 1000G. In Dutch samples, the mean observed Pearson correlation, r2, increased from 0.61 to 0.71. We also saw improved imputation accuracy for other European populations (in the British samples, r2 improved from 0.58 to 0.65, and in the Italians from 0.43 to 0.47). A combined reference set comprising 1000G and GoNL improved the imputation of rare variants even further. The Italian samples benefitted the most from this combined reference (the mean r2 increased from 0.47 to 0.50). We conclude that the creation of a large population-specific reference is advantageous for imputing rare variants and that a combined reference panel across multiple populations yields the best imputation results.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.19
PMCID: PMC4200431  PMID: 24896149
genotype imputation; GWAS; GoNL; rare variants; reference sets; reference panel
3.  Meta-analysis of rare and common exome chip variants identifies S1PR4 and other loci influencing blood cell traits 
Pankratz, Nathan | Schick, Ursula M | Zhou, Yi | Zhou, Wei | Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh | Allende, Maria Laura | Auer, Paul L | Bork-Jensen, Jette | Brody, Jennifer A | Chen, Ming-Huei | Clavo, Vinna | Eicher, John D | Grarup, Niels | Hagedorn, Elliott J | Hu, Bella | Hunker, Kristina | Johnson, Andrew D | Leusink, Maarten | Lu, Yingchang | Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka | Manichaikul, Ani | Marioni, Riccardo E | Nalls, Mike A | Pazoki, Raha | Smith, Albert Vernon | van Rooij, Frank J A | Yang, Min-Lee | Zhang, Xiaoling | Zhang, Yan | Asselbergs, Folkert W | Boerwinkle, Eric | Borecki, Ingrid B | Bottinger, Erwin P | Cushman, Mary | de Bakker, Paul I W | Deary, Ian J | Dong, Liguang | Feitosa, Mary F | Floyd, James S | Franceschini, Nora | Franco, Oscar H | Garcia, Melissa E | Grove, Megan L | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Hansen, Torben | Harris, Tamara B | Hofman, Albert | Jackson, Rebecca D | Jia, Jia | Kähönen, Mika | Launer, Lenore J | Lehtimäki, Terho | Liewald, David C | Linneberg, Allan | Liu, Yongmei | Loos, Ruth J F | Nguyen, Vy M | Numans, Mattijs E | Pedersen, Oluf | Psaty, Bruce M | Raitakari, Olli T | Rich, Stephen S | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Di Sant, Amanda M Rosa | Rotter, Jerome I | Starr, John M | Taylor, Kent D | Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk | Tracy, Russell P | Uitterlinden, Andre G | Wang, Jiansong | Wang, Judy | Dehghan, Abbas | Huo, Yong | Cupples, L Adrienne | Wilson, James G | Proia, Richard L | Zon, Leonard I | O’Donnell, Christopher J | Reiner, Alex P | Ganesh, Santhi K
Nature genetics  2016;48(8):867-876.
Hematologic measures such as hematocrit and white blood cell (WBC) count are heritable and clinically relevant. Erythrocyte and WBC phenotypes were analyzed with Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotypes in 52,531 individuals (37,775 of European ancestry; 11,589 African Americans; 3,167 Hispanic Americans) from 16 population-based cohorts. We then performed replication analyses of novel discoveries in 18,018 European American women and 5,261 Han Chinese. We identified and replicated four novel erythrocyte trait-locus associations (CEP89, SHROOM3, FADS2, and APOE) and six novel WBC loci for neutrophil count (S1PR4), monocyte count (BTBD8, NLRP12, and IL17RA), eosinophil count (IRF1), and total WBC (MYB). The novel association of a rare missense variant in S1PR4 supports the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling in leukocyte trafficking and circulating neutrophil counts. Loss-of-function experiments of S1pr4 in mouse and zebrafish demonstrated phenotypes consistent with the association observed in humans and altered kinetics of neutrophil recruitment and resolution in response to tissue injury.
doi:10.1038/ng.3607
PMCID: PMC5145000  PMID: 27399967
4.  Extensive Association of Common Disease Variants with Regulatory Sequence 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(11):e0165893.
Overlap between non-coding DNA regulatory sequences and common variant associations can help to identify specific cell and tissue types that are relevant for particular diseases. In a systematic manner, we analyzed variants from 94 genome-wide association studies (reporting at least 12 loci at p<5x10-8) by projecting them onto 466 epigenetic datasets (characterizing DNase I hypersensitive sites; DHSs) derived from various adult and fetal tissue samples and cell lines including many biological replicates. We were able to confirm many expected associations, such as the involvement of specific immune cell types in immune-related diseases and tissue types in diseases that affect specific organs, for example, inflammatory bowel disease and coronary artery disease. Other notable associations include adrenal glands in coronary artery disease, the immune system in Alzheimer’s disease, and the kidney for bone marrow density. The association signals for some GWAS (for example, myopia or age at menarche) did not show a clear pattern with any of the cell or tissue types studied. In general, the identified variants from GWAS tend to be located outside coding regions. Altogether, we have performed an extensive characterization of GWAS signals in relation to cell and tissue-specific DHSs, demonstrating a key role for regulatory mechanisms in common diseases and complex traits.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0165893
PMCID: PMC5119736  PMID: 27875544
5.  Variation at HLA-DRB1 is associated with resistance to enteric fever 
Nature genetics  2014;46(12):1333-1336.
Enteric fever affects more than 25 million people annually and results from systemic infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or Paratyphi pathovars A, B or C1. We conducted a genome-wide association study of 432 individuals with blood culture–confirmed enteric fever and 2,011 controls from Vietnam. We observed strong association at rs7765379 (odds ratio (OR) for the minor allele = 0.18, P = 4.5 × 10−10), a marker mapping to the HLA class II region, in proximity to HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1. We replicated this association in 595 enteric fever cases and 386 controls from Nepal and also in a second independent collection of 151 cases and 668 controls from Vietnam. Imputation-based fine-mapping across the extended MHC region showed that the classical HLA-DRB1* 04:05 allele (OR = 0.14, P = 2.60 × 10−11) could entirely explain the association at rs7765379, thus implicating HLA-DRB1 as a major contributor to resistance against enteric fever, presumably through antigen presentation.
doi:10.1038/ng.3143
PMCID: PMC5099079  PMID: 25383971
6.  A high-quality human reference panel reveals the complexity and distribution of genomic structural variants 
Nature Communications  2016;7:12989.
Structural variation (SV) represents a major source of differences between individual human genomes and has been linked to disease phenotypes. However, the majority of studies provide neither a global view of the full spectrum of these variants nor integrate them into reference panels of genetic variation. Here, we analyse whole genome sequencing data of 769 individuals from 250 Dutch families, and provide a haplotype-resolved map of 1.9 million genome variants across 9 different variant classes, including novel forms of complex indels, and retrotransposition-mediated insertions of mobile elements and processed RNAs. A large proportion are previously under reported variants sized between 21 and 100 bp. We detect 4 megabases of novel sequence, encoding 11 new transcripts. Finally, we show 191 known, trait-associated SNPs to be in strong linkage disequilibrium with SVs and demonstrate that our panel facilitates accurate imputation of SVs in unrelated individuals.
Structural variants (SVs) are prevalent in genomes of the general population. Here, Guryev and The Genome of the Netherlands Consortium describe the reference panel of haplotype-resolved SVs from 769 individuals from 250 Dutch families and show its utility for studying heritable traits.
doi:10.1038/ncomms12989
PMCID: PMC5059695  PMID: 27708267
7.  Additive and interaction effects at three amino acid positions in HLA-DQ and HLA-DR molecules drive type 1 diabetes risk 
Nature genetics  2015;47(8):898-905.
Variation in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes accounts for one-half of the genetic risk in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Amino acid changes in the HLA-DR and HLA-DQ molecules mediate most of the risk, but extensive linkage disequilibrium complicates the localization of independent effects. Using 18,832 case-control samples, we localized the signal to 3 amino acid positions in HLA-DQ and HLA-DR. HLA-DQβ1 position 57 (previously known; P = 1 × 10−1,355) by itself explained 15.2% of the total phenotypic variance. Independent effects at HLA-DRβ1 positions 13 (P = 1 × 10−721) and 71 (P = 1 × 10−95) increased the proportion of variance explained to 26.9%. The three positions together explained 90% of the phenotypic variance in the HLA-DRB1–HLA-DQA1–HLA-DQB1 locus. Additionally, we observed significant interactions for 11 of 21 pairs of common HLA-DRB1–HLA-DQA1–HLA-DQB1 haplotypes (P = 1.6 × 10−64). HLA-DRβ1 positions 13 and 71 implicate the P4 pocket in the antigen-binding groove, thus pointing to another critical protein structure for T1D risk, in addition to the HLA-DQ P9 pocket.
doi:10.1038/ng.3353
PMCID: PMC4930791  PMID: 26168013
8.  Shared Genetic Risk Factors of Intracranial, Abdominal, and Thoracic Aneurysms 
van ’t Hof, Femke N. G. | Ruigrok, Ynte M. | Lee, Cue Hyunkyu | Ripke, Stephan | Anderson, Graig | de Andrade, Mariza | Baas, Annette F. | Blankensteijn, Jan D. | Böttinger, Erwin P. | Bown, Matthew J. | Broderick, Joseph | Bijlenga, Philippe | Carrell, David S. | Crawford, Dana C. | Crosslin, David R. | Ebeling, Christian | Eriksson, Johan G. | Fornage, Myriam | Foroud, Tatiana | von und zu Fraunberg, Mikael | Friedrich, Christoph M. | Gaál, Emília I. | Gottesman, Omri | Guo, Dong‐Chuan | Harrison, Seamus C. | Hernesniemi, Juha | Hofman, Albert | Inoue, Ituro | Jääskeläinen, Juha E. | Jones, Gregory T. | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M. | Kivisaari, Riku | Ko, Nerissa | Koskinen, Seppo | Kubo, Michiaki | Kullo, Iftikhar J. | Kuivaniemi, Helena | Kurki, Mitja I. | Laakso, Aki | Lai, Dongbing | Leal, Suzanne M. | Lehto, Hanna | LeMaire, Scott A. | Low, Siew‐Kee | Malinowski, Jennifer | McCarty, Catherine A. | Milewicz, Dianna M. | Mosley, Thomas H. | Nakamura, Yusuke | Nakaoka, Hirofumi | Niemelä, Mika | Pacheco, Jennifer | Peissig, Peggy L. | Pera, Joanna | Rasmussen‐Torvik, Laura | Ritchie, Marylyn D. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | van Rij, Andre M. | Santos‐Cortez, Regie Lyn P. | Saratzis, Athanasios | Slowik, Agnieszka | Takahashi, Atsushi | Tromp, Gerard | Uitterlinden, André G. | Verma, Shefali S. | Vermeulen, Sita H. | Wang, Gao T. | Han, Buhm | Rinkel, Gabriël J. E. | de Bakker, Paul I. W. | Bown, Matthew J. | Harrison, Seamus C. | Saratzis, Athanasios | Verissimo, Ana | Wright, Benjamin J. | Bumpstead, Suzannah | Baas, Annette F. | Gretarsdottir, Solveig | Badger, Stephen A. | Child, Anne H. | Clough, Rachel E. | Cockerill, Gillian | Hafez, Hany | Scott, D. Julian A. | Futers, Simon | Sohrabi, Soroush | Smith, Alberto | Thompson, Matthew M. | van Bockxmeer, Frank M. | Matthiasson, Stefan E. | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Blankensteijn, Jan D. | Teijink, Joep A. W. | Wijmenga, Cisca | de Graaf, Jacqueline | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Palmen, Jutta | Smith, Andrew J. | Lindholt, Jes S. | Bradley, Declan T. | Waltham, Matthew | Edkins, Sarah | Gwilliam, Rhian | Hunt, Sarah E. | Potter, Simon | Golledge, Jonathan | Eriksson, Per | Norman, Paul E. | Powell, Janet T. | Stefansson, Kari | Thompson, John R. | Humphries, Steve E. | Sayers, Robert D. | Deloukas, Panos | Samani, Nilesh J. | Jones, Gregory T. | Phillip, L. Victoria | van Rij, Andre M. | Hill, Geraldine B. | Williams, Michael J. A. | Thomson, Ian A. | Krysa, Jo | Wilkins, Gerard T. | Merriman, Tony R. | Vasudevan, Thodor M. | Lewis, David R. | Blair, Ross D. | Hill, Andrew A.
Background
Intracranial aneurysms (IAs), abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) all have a familial predisposition. Given that aneurysm types are known to co‐occur, we hypothesized that there may be shared genetic risk factors for IAs, AAAs, and TAAs.
Methods and Results
We performed a mega‐analysis of 1000 Genomes Project‐imputed genome‐wide association study (GWAS) data of 4 previously published aneurysm cohorts: 2 IA cohorts (in total 1516 cases, 4305 controls), 1 AAA cohort (818 cases, 3004 controls), and 1 TAA cohort (760 cases, 2212 controls), and observed associations of 4 known IA, AAA, and/or TAA risk loci (9p21, 18q11, 15q21, and 2q33) with consistent effect directions in all 4 cohorts. We calculated polygenic scores based on IA‐, AAA‐, and TAA‐associated SNPs and tested these scores for association to case‐control status in the other aneurysm cohorts; this revealed no shared polygenic effects. Similarly, linkage disequilibrium–score regression analyses did not show significant correlations between any pair of aneurysm subtypes. Last, we evaluated the evidence for 14 previously published aneurysm risk single‐nucleotide polymorphisms through collaboration in extended aneurysm cohorts, with a total of 6548 cases and 16 843 controls (IA) and 4391 cases and 37 904 controls (AAA), and found nominally significant associations for IA risk locus 18q11 near RBBP8 to AAA (odds ratio [OR]=1.11; P=4.1×10−5) and for TAA risk locus 15q21 near FBN1 to AAA (OR=1.07; P=1.1×10−3).
Conclusions
Although there was no evidence for polygenic overlap between IAs, AAAs, and TAAs, we found nominally significant effects of two established risk loci for IAs and TAAs in AAAs. These two loci will require further replication.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.115.002603
PMCID: PMC5015357  PMID: 27418160
abdominal aortic aneurysm; genome wide association study; intracranial aneurysm; thoracic aortic aneurysm; Inflammation; Vascular Biology; Ischemic Stroke
9.  Correction: The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study 
Winkler, Thomas W. | Justice, Anne E. | Graff, Mariaelisa | Barata, Llilda | Feitosa, Mary F. | Chu, Su | Czajkowski, Jacek | Esko, Tõnu | Fall, Tove | Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O. | Lu, Yingchang | Mägi, Reedik | Mihailov, Evelin | Pers, Tune H. | Rüeger, Sina | Teumer, Alexander | Ehret, Georg B. | Ferreira, Teresa | Heard-Costa, Nancy L. | Karjalainen, Juha | Lagou, Vasiliki | Mahajan, Anubha | Neinast, Michael D. | Prokopenko, Inga | Simino, Jeannette | Teslovich, Tanya M. | Jansen, Rick | Westra, Harm-Jan | White, Charles C. | Absher, Devin | Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S. | Ahmad, Shafqat | Albrecht, Eva | Alves, Alexessander Couto | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L. | de Craen, Anton J. M. | Bis, Joshua C. | Bonnefond, Amélie | Boucher, Gabrielle | Cadby, Gemma | Cheng, Yu-Ching | Chiang, Charleston W. K. | Delgado, Graciela | Demirkan, Ayse | Dueker, Nicole | Eklund, Niina | Eiriksdottir, Gudny | Eriksson, Joel | Feenstra, Bjarke | Fischer, Krista | Frau, Francesca | Galesloot, Tessel E. | Geller, Frank | Goel, Anuj | Gorski, Mathias | Grammer, Tanja B. | Gustafsson, Stefan | Haitjema, Saskia | Hottenga, Jouke-Jan | Huffman, Jennifer E. | Jackson, Anne U. | Jacobs, Kevin B. | Johansson, Åsa | Kaakinen, Marika | Kleber, Marcus E. | Lahti, Jari | Mateo Leach, Irene | Lehne, Benjamin | Liu, Youfang | Lo, Ken Sin | Lorentzon, Mattias | Luan, Jian'an | Madden, Pamela A. F. | Mangino, Massimo | McKnight, Barbara | Medina-Gomez, Carolina | Monda, Keri L. | Montasser, May E. | Müller, Gabriele | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Nolte, Ilja M. | Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope | Pascoe, Laura | Paternoster, Lavinia | Rayner, Nigel W. | Renström, Frida | Rizzi, Federica | Rose, Lynda M. | Ryan, Kathy A. | Salo, Perttu | Sanna, Serena | Scharnagl, Hubert | Shi, Jianxin | Smith, Albert Vernon | Southam, Lorraine | Stančáková, Alena | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Strawbridge, Rona J. | Sung, Yun Ju | Tachmazidou, Ioanna | Tanaka, Toshiko | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Trompet, Stella | Pervjakova, Natalia | Tyrer, Jonathan P. | Vandenput, Liesbeth | van der Laan, Sander W | van der Velde, Nathalie | van Setten, Jessica | van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V. | Verweij, Niek | Vlachopoulou, Efthymia | Waite, Lindsay L. | Wang, Sophie R. | Wang, Zhaoming | Wild, Sarah H. | Willenborg, Christina | Wilson, James F. | Wong, Andrew | Yang, Jian | Yengo, Loïc | Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M. | Yu, Lei | Zhang, Weihua | Zhao, Jing Hua | Andersson, Ehm A. | Bakker, Stephan J. L. | Baldassarre, Damiano | Banasik, Karina | Barcella, Matteo | Barlassina, Cristina | Bellis, Claire | Benaglio, Paola | Blangero, John | Blüher, Matthias | Bonnet, Fabrice | Bonnycastle, Lori L. | Boyd, Heather A. | Bruinenberg, Marcel | Buchman, Aron S | Campbell, Harry | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Chines, Peter S. | Claudi-Boehm, Simone | Cole, John | Collins, Francis S. | de Geus, Eco J. C. | de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M. | Dimitriou, Maria | Duan, Jubao | Enroth, Stefan | Eury, Elodie | Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni | Forouhi, Nita G. | Friedrich, Nele | Gejman, Pablo V. | Gigante, Bruna | Glorioso, Nicola | Go, Alan S. | Gottesman, Omri | Gräßler, Jürgen | Grallert, Harald | Grarup, Niels | Gu, Yu-Mei | Broer, Linda | Ham, Annelies C. | Hansen, Torben | Harris, Tamara B. | Hartman, Catharina A. | Hassinen, Maija | Hastie, Nicholas | Hattersley, Andrew T. | Heath, Andrew C. | Henders, Anjali K. | Hernandez, Dena | Hillege, Hans | Holmen, Oddgeir | Hovingh, Kees G | Hui, Jennie | Husemoen, Lise L. | Hutri-Kähönen, Nina | Hysi, Pirro G. | Illig, Thomas | De Jager, Philip L. | Jalilzadeh, Shapour | Jørgensen, Torben | Jukema, J. Wouter | Juonala, Markus | Kanoni, Stavroula | Karaleftheri, Maria | Khaw, Kay Tee | Kinnunen, Leena | Kittner, Steven J. | Koenig, Wolfgang | Kolcic, Ivana | Kovacs, Peter | Krarup, Nikolaj T. | Kratzer, Wolfgang | Krüger, Janine | Kuh, Diana | Kumari, Meena | Kyriakou, Theodosios | Langenberg, Claudia | Lannfelt, Lars | Lanzani, Chiara | Lotay, Vaneet | Launer, Lenore J. | Leander, Karin | Lindström, Jaana | Linneberg, Allan | Liu, Yan-Ping | Lobbens, Stéphane | Luben, Robert | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Männistö, Satu | Magnusson, Patrik K. | McArdle, Wendy L. | Menni, Cristina | Merger, Sigrun | Milani, Lili | Montgomery, Grant W. | Morris, Andrew P. | Narisu, Narisu | Nelis, Mari | Ong, Ken K. | Palotie, Aarno | Pérusse, Louis | Pichler, Irene | Pilia, Maria G. | Pouta, Anneli | Rheinberger, Myriam | Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus | Richards, Marcus | Rice, Kenneth M. | Rice, Treva K. | Rivolta, Carlo | Salomaa, Veikko | Sanders, Alan R. | Sarzynski, Mark A. | Scholtens, Salome | Scott, Robert A. | Scott, William R. | Sebert, Sylvain | Sengupta, Sebanti | Sennblad, Bengt | Seufferlein, Thomas | Silveira, Angela | Slagboom, P. Eline | Smit, Jan H. | Sparsø, Thomas H. | Stirrups, Kathleen | Stolk, Ronald P. | Stringham, Heather M. | Swertz, Morris A | Swift, Amy J. | Syvänen, Ann-Christine | Tan, Sian-Tsung | Thorand, Barbara | Tönjes, Anke | Tremblay, Angelo | Tsafantakis, Emmanouil | van der Most, Peter J. | Völker, Uwe | Vohl, Marie-Claude | Vonk, Judith M. | Waldenberger, Melanie | Walker, Ryan W. | Wennauer, Roman | Widén, Elisabeth | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wilsgaard, Tom | Wright, Alan F. | Zillikens, M. Carola | van Dijk, Suzanne C. | van Schoor, Natasja M. | Asselbergs, Folkert W. | de Bakker, Paul I. W. | Beckmann, Jacques S. | Beilby, John | Bennett, David A. | Bergman, Richard N. | Bergmann, Sven | Böger, Carsten A. | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Bottinger, Erwin P. | Bouchard, Claude | Chambers, John C. | Chanock, Stephen J. | Chasman, Daniel I. | Cucca, Francesco | Cusi, Daniele | Dedoussis, George | Erdmann, Jeanette | Eriksson, Johan G. | Evans, Denis A. | de Faire, Ulf | Farrall, Martin | Ferrucci, Luigi | Ford, Ian | Franke, Lude | Franks, Paul W. | Froguel, Philippe | Gansevoort, Ron T. | Gieger, Christian | Grönberg, Henrik | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hall, Per | Hamsten, Anders | van der Harst, Pim | Hayward, Caroline | Heliövaara, Markku | Hengstenberg, Christian | Hicks, Andrew A | Hingorani, Aroon | Hofman, Albert | Hu, Frank | Huikuri, Heikki V. | Hveem, Kristian | James, Alan L. | Jordan, Joanne M. | Jula, Antti | Kähönen, Mika | Kajantie, Eero | Kathiresan, Sekar | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M. | Kivimaki, Mika | Knekt, Paul B. | Koistinen, Heikki A. | Kooner, Jaspal S. | Koskinen, Seppo | Kuusisto, Johanna | Maerz, Winfried | Martin, Nicholas G | Laakso, Markku | Lakka, Timo A. | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lettre, Guillaume | Levinson, Douglas F. | Lind, Lars | Lokki, Marja-Liisa | Mäntyselkä, Pekka | Melbye, Mads | Metspalu, Andres | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Moll, Frans L. | Murray, Jeffrey C. | Musk, Arthur W. | Nieminen, Markku S. | Njølstad, Inger | Ohlsson, Claes | Oldehinkel, Albertine J. | Oostra, Ben A. | Palmer, Lyle J | Pankow, James S. | Pasterkamp, Gerard | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Pedersen, Oluf | Penninx, Brenda W. | Perola, Markus | Peters, Annette | Polašek, Ozren | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Qi, Lu | Quertermous, Thomas | Raitakari, Olli T. | Rankinen, Tuomo | Rauramaa, Rainer | Ridker, Paul M. | Rioux, John D. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Rotter, Jerome I. | Rudan, Igor | den Ruijter, Hester M. | Saltevo, Juha | Sattar, Naveed | Schunkert, Heribert | Schwarz, Peter E. H. | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Sinisalo, Juha | Snieder, Harold | Sørensen, Thorkild I. A. | Spector, Tim D. | Staessen, Jan A. | Stefania, Bandinelli | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Stumvoll, Michael | Tardif, Jean-Claude | Tremoli, Elena | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uitterlinden, André G. | Uusitupa, Matti | Verbeek, André L. M. | Vermeulen, Sita H. | Viikari, Jorma S. | Vitart, Veronique | Völzke, Henry | Vollenweider, Peter | Waeber, Gérard | Walker, Mark | Wallaschofski, Henri | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Watkins, Hugh | Zeggini, Eleftheria | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Clegg, Deborah J. | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Gordon-Larsen, Penny | Jaquish, Cashell E. | Rao, D. C. | Abecasis, Goncalo R. | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Barroso, Inês | Berndt, Sonja I. | Boehnke, Michael | Deloukas, Panos | Fox, Caroline S. | Groop, Leif C. | Hunter, David J. | Ingelsson, Erik | Kaplan, Robert C. | McCarthy, Mark I. | Mohlke, Karen L. | O'Connell, Jeffrey R. | Schlessinger, David | Strachan, David P. | Stefansson, Kari | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Heid, Iris M. | North, Kari E. | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Kutalik, Zoltán | Loos, Ruth J. F.
PLoS Genetics  2016;12(6):e1006166.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006166
PMCID: PMC4927064  PMID: 27355579
10.  Shared genetic contribution to ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease 
Traylor, Matthew | Adib‐Samii, Poneh | Harold, Denise | Dichgans, Martin | Williams, Julie | Lewis, Cathryn M. | Markus, Hugh S. | Fornage, Myriam | Holliday, Elizabeth G | Sharma, Pankaj | Bis, Joshua C | Psaty, Bruce M | Seshadri, Sudha | Nalls, Mike A | Devan, William J | Boncoraglio, Giorgio | Malik, Rainer | Mitchell, Braxton D | Kittner, Steven J | Ikram, M Arfan | Clarke, Robert | Rosand, Jonathan | Meschia, James F | Sudlow, Cathie | Rothwell, Peter M | Levi, Christopher | Bevan, Steve | Kilarski, Laura L | Walters, Matthew | Thijs, Vincent | Slowik, Agnieszka | Lindgren, Arne | de Bakker, Paul I W | Lambert, Jean‐Charles | Ibrahim‐Verbaas, Carla A | Harold, Denise | Naj, Adam C | Sims, Rebecca | Bellenguez, Céline | Jun, Gyungah | DeStefano, Anita L | Bis, Joshua C | Beecham, Gary W | Grenier‐Boley, Benjamin | Russo, Giancarlo | Thornton‐Wells, Tricia A | Jones, Nicola | Smith, Albert V | Chouraki, Vincent | Thomas, Charlene | Ikram, M Arfan | Zelenika, Diana | Vardarajan, Badri N | Kamatani, Yoichiro | Lin, Chiao‐Feng | Gerrish, Amy | Schmidt, Helena | Kunkle, Brian | Dunstan, Melanie L | Ruiz, Agustin | Bihoreau, Marie‐Thçrèse | Choi, Seung‐Hoan | Reitz, Christiane | Pasquier, Florence | Hollingworth, Paul | Ramirez, Alfredo | Hanon, Olivier | Fitzpatrick, Annette L | Buxbaum, Joseph D | Campion, Dominique | Crane, Paul K | Baldwin, Clinton | Becker, Tim | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Cruchaga, Carlos | Craig, David | Amin, Najaf | Berr, Claudine | Lopez, Oscar L | De Jager, Philip L | Deramecourt, Vincent | Johnston, Janet A | Evans, Denis | Lovestone, Simon | Letenneur, Luc | Morón, Francisco J | Rubinsztein, David C | Eiriksdottir, Gudny | Sleegers, Kristel | Goate, Alison M | Fiçvet, Nathalie | Huentelman, Matthew J | Gill, Michael | Brown, Kristelle | Kamboh, M Ilyas | Keller, Lina | Barberger‐Gateau, Pascale | McGuinness, Bernadette | Larson, Eric B | Green, Robert | Myers, Amanda J | Dufouil, Carole | Todd, Stephen | Wallon, David | Love, Seth | Rogaeva, Ekaterina | Gallacher, John | St George‐Hyslop, Peter | Clarimon, Jordi | Lleo, Alberto | Bayer, Anthony | Tsuang, Debby W | Yu, Lei | Tsolaki, Magda | Bossù, Paola | Spalletta, Gianfranco | Proitsi, Petroula | Collinge, John | Sorbi, Sandro | Sanchez‐Garcia, Florentino | Fox, Nick C | Hardy, John | Deniz Naranjo, Maria Candida | Bosco, Paolo | Clarke, Robert | Brayne, Carol | Galimberti, Daniela | Mancuso, Michelangelo | Matthews, Fiona | Moebus, Susanne | Mecocci, Patrizia | Del Zompo, Maria | Maier, Wolfgang | Hampel, Harald | Pilotto, Alberto | Bullido, Maria | Panza, Francesco | Caffarra, Paolo | Nacmias, Benedetta | Gilbert, John R | Mayhaus, Manuel | Lannfelt, Lars | Hakonarson, Hakon | Pichler, Sabrina | Carrasquillo, Minerva M | Ingelsson, Martin | Beekly, Duane | Alvarez, Victoria | Zou, Fanggeng | Valladares, Otto | Younkin, Steven G | Coto, Eliecer | Hamilton‐Nelson, Kara L | Gu, Wei | Razquin, Cristina | Pastor, Pau | Mateo, Ignacio | Owen, Michael J | Faber, Kelley M | Jonsson, Palmi V | Combarros, Onofre | O'Donovan, Michael C | Cantwell, Laura B | Soininen, Hilkka | Blacker, Deborah | Mead, Simon | Mosley, Thomas H | Bennett, David A | Harris, Tamara B | Fratiglioni, Laura | Holmes, Clive | de Bruijn, Renee F A G | Passmore, Peter | Montine, Thomas J | Bettens, Karolien | Rotter, Jerome I | Brice, Alexis | Morgan, Kevin | Foroud, Tatiana M | Kukull, Walter A | Hannequin, Didier | Powell, John F | Nalls, Michael A | Ritchie, Karen | Lunetta, Kathryn L | Kauwe, John S K | Boerwinkle, Eric | Riemenschneider, Matthias | Boada, Mercè | Hiltunen, Mikko | Martin, Eden R | Schmidt, Reinhold | Rujescu, Dan | Wang, Li‐San | Dartigues, Jean‐François | Mayeux, Richard | Tzourio, Christophe | Hofman, Albert | Nöthen, Markus M | Graff, Caroline | Psaty, Bruce M | Jones, Lesley | Haines, Jonathan L | Holmans, Peter A | Lathrop, Mark | Pericak‐Vance, Margaret A | Launer, Lenore J | Farrer, Lindsay A | van Duijn, Cornelia M | Van Broeckhoven, Christine | Moskvina, Valentina | Seshadri, Sudha | Williams, Julie | Schellenberg, Gerard D | Amouyel, Philippe
Annals of Neurology  2016;79(5):739-747.
Objective
Increasing evidence suggests epidemiological and pathological links between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ischemic stroke (IS). We investigated the evidence that shared genetic factors underpin the two diseases.
Methods
Using genome‐wide association study (GWAS) data from METASTROKE + (15,916 IS cases and 68,826 controls) and the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP; 17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls), we evaluated known associations with AD and IS. On the subset of data for which we could obtain compatible genotype‐level data (4,610 IS cases, 1,281 AD cases, and 14,320 controls), we estimated the genome‐wide genetic correlation (rG) between AD and IS, and the three subtypes (cardioembolic, small vessel, and large vessel), using genome‐wide single‐nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We then performed a meta‐analysis and pathway analysis in the combined AD and small vessel stroke data sets to identify the SNPs and molecular pathways through which disease risk may be conferred.
Results
We found evidence of a shared genetic contribution between AD and small vessel stroke (rG [standard error] = 0.37 [0.17]; p = 0.011). Conversely, there was no evidence to support shared genetic factors in AD and IS overall or with the other stroke subtypes. Of the known GWAS associations with IS or AD, none reached significance for association with the other trait (or stroke subtypes). A meta‐analysis of AD IGAP and METASTROKE + small vessel stroke GWAS data highlighted a region (ATP5H/KCTD2/ICT1) associated with both diseases (p = 1.8 × 10−8). A pathway analysis identified four associated pathways involving cholesterol transport and immune response.
Interpretation
Our findings indicate shared genetic susceptibility to AD and small vessel stroke and highlight potential causal pathways and loci. Ann Neurol 2016;79:739–747
doi:10.1002/ana.24621
PMCID: PMC4864940  PMID: 26913989
11.  Twenty-eight genetic loci associated with ST-T-wave amplitudes of the electrocardiogram 
Human Molecular Genetics  2016;25(10):2093-2103.
The ST-segment and adjacent T-wave (ST-T wave) amplitudes of the electrocardiogram are quantitative characteristics of cardiac repolarization. Repolarization abnormalities have been linked to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We performed the first genome-wide association meta-analysis of ST-T-wave amplitudes in up to 37 977 individuals identifying 71 robust genotype–phenotype associations clustered within 28 independent loci. Fifty-four genes were prioritized as candidates underlying the phenotypes, including genes with established roles in the cardiac repolarization phase (SCN5A/SCN10A, KCND3, KCNB1, NOS1AP and HEY2) and others with as yet undefined cardiac function. These associations may provide insights in the spatiotemporal contribution of genetic variation influencing cardiac repolarization and provide novel leads for future functional follow-up.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddw058
PMCID: PMC5062578  PMID: 26962151
12.  Harnessing publicly available genetic data to prioritize lipid modifying therapeutic targets for prevention of coronary heart disease based on dysglycemic risk 
Human Genetics  2016;135:453-467.
Therapeutic interventions that lower LDL-cholesterol effectively reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, statins, the most widely prescribed LDL-cholesterol lowering drugs, increase diabetes risk. We used genome-wide association study (GWAS) data in the public domain to investigate the relationship of LDL-C and diabetes and identify loci encoding potential drug targets for LDL-cholesterol modification without causing dysglycemia. We obtained summary-level GWAS data for LDL-C from GLGC, glycemic traits from MAGIC, diabetes from DIAGRAM and CAD from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortia. Mendelian randomization analyses identified a one standard deviation (SD) increase in LDL-C caused an increased risk of CAD (odds ratio [OR] 1.63 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.55, 1.71), which was not influenced by removing SNPs associated with diabetes. LDL-C/CAD-associated SNPs showed consistent effect directions (binomial P = 6.85 × 10−5). Conversely, a 1-SD increase in LDL-C was causally protective of diabetes (OR 0.86; 95 % CI 0.81, 0.91), however LDL-cholesterol/diabetes-associated SNPs did not show consistent effect directions (binomial P = 0.15). HMGCR, our positive control, associated with LDL-C, CAD and a glycemic composite (derived from GWAS meta-analysis of four glycemic traits and diabetes). In contrast, PCSK9, APOB, LPA, CETP, PLG, NPC1L1 and ALDH2 were identified as “druggable” loci that alter LDL-C and risk of CAD without displaying associations with dysglycemia. In conclusion, LDL-C increases the risk of CAD and the relationship is independent of any association of LDL-C with diabetes. Loci that encode targets of emerging LDL-C lowering drugs do not associate with dysglycemia, and this provides provisional evidence that new LDL-C lowering drugs (such as PCSK9 inhibitors) may not influence risk of diabetes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00439-016-1647-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00439-016-1647-9
PMCID: PMC4835528  PMID: 26946290
13.  Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases 
Nature genetics  2015;47(9):1085-1090.
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer strong risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen binding repertoires between a heterozygote’s two expressed HLA variants may result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Ncases=5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D, Ncases=5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (Ncases=3,089), idiopathic achalasia (Ncases=727), and celiac disease (Ncases=11,115). In four out of five diseases, we observed highly significant non-additive dominance effects (RA: P=2.5×1012; T1D: P=2.4×10−10; psoriasis: P=5.9×10−6; celiac disease: P=1.2×10−87). In three of these diseases, the dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (RA: P=1.8×10−3; T1D: P=8.6×1027; celiac disease: P=6.0×10−100). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (RA: 1.4%, T1D: 4.0%, and celiac disease: 4.1%, beyond a simple additive model).
doi:10.1038/ng.3379
PMCID: PMC4552599  PMID: 26258845
Autoimmunity; complex diseases; MHC; HLA; genetic architecture; non-additive effects; interactions
14.  Genome-wide patterns and properties of de novo mutations in humans 
Nature genetics  2015;47(7):822-826.
Mutations create variation in the population, fuel evolution, and cause genetic diseases. Current knowledge about de novo mutations is incomplete and mostly indirect 1–10. Here, we analyze 11,020 de novo mutations from whole-genomes of 250 families. We show that de novo mutations in offspring of older fathers are not only more numerous 11–13 but also occur more frequently in early-replicating, genic regions. Functional regions exhibit higher mutation rates due to CpG dinucleotides and reveal signatures of transcription-coupled repair, while mutation clusters with a unique signature point to a novel mutational mechanism. Mutation and recombination rates independently associate with nucleotide diversity, and regional variation in human-chimpanzee divergence is only partly explained by mutation rate heterogeneity. Finally, we provide a genome-wide mutation rate map for medical and population genetics applications. Our results reveal novel insights and refine long-standing hypotheses about human mutagenesis.
doi:10.1038/ng.3292
PMCID: PMC4485564  PMID: 25985141
15.  Risk for ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis is driven by shared HLA amino acid polymorphisms in Asian and European populations 
Human Molecular Genetics  2014;23(25):6916-6926.
Previous studies have emphasized ethnically heterogeneous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) classical allele associations to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk. We fine-mapped RA risk alleles within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in 2782 seropositive RA cases and 4315 controls of Asian descent. We applied imputation to determine genotypes for eight class I and II HLA genes to Asian populations for the first time using a newly constructed pan-Asian reference panel. First, we empirically measured high imputation accuracy in Asian samples. Then we observed the most significant association in HLA-DRβ1 at amino acid position 13, located outside the classical shared epitope (Pomnibus = 6.9 × 10−135). The individual residues at position 13 have relative effects that are consistent with published effects in European populations (His > Phe > Arg > Tyr ≅ Gly > Ser)—but the observed effects in Asians are generally smaller. Applying stepwise conditional analysis, we identified additional independent associations at positions 57 (conditional Pomnibus = 2.2 × 10−33) and 74 (conditional Pomnibus = 1.1 × 10−8). Outside of HLA-DRβ1, we observed independent effects for amino acid polymorphisms within HLA-B (Asp9, conditional P = 3.8 × 10−6) and HLA-DPβ1 (Phe9, conditional P = 3.0 × 10−5) concordant with European populations. Our trans-ethnic HLA fine-mapping study reveals that (i) a common set of amino acid residues confer shared effects in European and Asian populations and (ii) these same effects can explain ethnically heterogeneous classical allelic associations (e.g. HLA-DRB1*09:01) due to allele frequency differences between populations. Our study illustrates the value of high-resolution imputation for fine-mapping causal variants in the MHC.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddu387
PMCID: PMC4245039  PMID: 25070946
16.  Fine-mapping in the MHC region accounts for 18% additional genetic risk for celiac disease 
Nature genetics  2015;47(6):577-578.
Although dietary gluten is the trigger, celiac disease risk is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We fine-mapped the MHC association signal to identify additional risk factors independent of the HLA-DQ alleles and observed five novel associations that account for 18% of the genetic risk. Together with the 57 known non-MHC loci, genetic variation can now explain up to 48% of celiac disease heritability.
doi:10.1038/ng.3268
PMCID: PMC4449296  PMID: 25894500
17.  A genome-wide association study identifies a functional ERAP2 haplotype associated with birdshot chorioretinopathy 
Human Molecular Genetics  2014;23(22):6081-6087.
Birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR) is a rare form of autoimmune uveitis that can lead to severe visual impairment. Intriguingly, >95% of cases carry the HLA-A29 allele, which defines the strongest documented HLA association for a human disease. We have conducted a genome-wide association study in 96 Dutch and 27 Spanish cases, and 398 unrelated Dutch and 380 Spanish controls. Fine-mapping the primary MHC association through high-resolution imputation at classical HLA loci, identified HLA-A*29:02 as the principal MHC association (odds ratio (OR) = 157.5, 95% CI 91.6–272.6, P = 6.6 × 10−74). We also identified two novel susceptibility loci at 5q15 near ERAP2 (rs7705093; OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.7–3.1, for the T allele, P = 8.6 × 10−8) and at 14q32.31 in the TECPR2 gene (rs150571175; OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.2–11.7, for the A allele, P = 3.2 × 10−8). The association near ERAP2 was confirmed in an independent British case–control samples (combined meta-analysis P = 1.7 × 10−9). Functional analyses revealed that the risk allele of the polymorphism near ERAP2 is strongly associated with high mRNA and protein expression of ERAP2 in B cells. This study further defined an extremely strong MHC risk component in BSCR, and detected evidence for a novel disease mechanism that affects peptide processing in the endoplasmic reticulum.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddu307
PMCID: PMC4204766  PMID: 24957906
18.  Somatic Variation of T-Cell Receptor Genes Strongly Associate with HLA Class Restriction 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(10):e0140815.
Every person carries a vast repertoire of CD4+ T-helper cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells for a healthy immune system. Somatic VDJ recombination at genomic loci that encode the T-cell receptor (TCR) is a key step during T-cell development, but how a single T cell commits to become either CD4+ or CD8+ is poorly understood. To evaluate the influence of TCR sequence variation on CD4+/CD8+ lineage commitment, we sequenced rearranged TCRs for both α and β chains in naïve T cells isolated from healthy donors and investigated gene segment usage and recombination patterns in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets. Our data demonstrate that most V and J gene segments are strongly biased in the naïve CD4+ and CD8+ subsets with some segments increasing the odds of being CD4+ (or CD8+) up to five-fold. These V and J gene associations are highly reproducible across individuals and independent of classical HLA genotype, explaining ~11% of the observed variance in the CD4+ vs. CD8+ propensity. In addition, we identified a strong independent association of the electrostatic charge of the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) in both α and β chains, where a positively charged CDR3 is associated with CD4+ lineage and a negatively charged CDR3 with CD8+ lineage. Our findings suggest that somatic variation in different parts of the TCR influences T-cell lineage commitment in a predominantly additive fashion. This notion can help delineate how certain structural features of the TCR-peptide-HLA complex influence thymic selection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140815
PMCID: PMC4627806  PMID: 26517366
19.  Concept and design of a genome-wide association genotyping array tailored for transplantation-specific studies 
Genome Medicine  2015;7:90.
Background
In addition to HLA genetic incompatibility, non-HLA difference between donor and recipients of transplantation leading to allograft rejection are now becoming evident. We aimed to create a unique genome-wide platform to facilitate genomic research studies in transplant-related studies. We designed a genome-wide genotyping tool based on the most recent human genomic reference datasets, and included customization for known and potentially relevant metabolic and pharmacological loci relevant to transplantation.
Methods
We describe here the design and implementation of a customized genome-wide genotyping array, the ‘TxArray’, comprising approximately 782,000 markers with tailored content for deeper capture of variants across HLA, KIR, pharmacogenomic, and metabolic loci important in transplantation. To test concordance and genotyping quality, we genotyped 85 HapMap samples on the array, including eight trios.
Results
We show low Mendelian error rates and high concordance rates for HapMap samples (average parent-parent-child heritability of 0.997, and concordance of 0.996). We performed genotype imputation across autosomal regions, masking directly genotyped SNPs to assess imputation accuracy and report an accuracy of >0.962 for directly genotyped SNPs. We demonstrate much higher capture of the natural killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) region versus comparable platforms. Overall, we show that the genotyping quality and coverage of the TxArray is very high when compared to reference samples and to other genome-wide genotyping platforms.
Conclusions
We have designed a comprehensive genome-wide genotyping tool which enables accurate association testing and imputation of ungenotyped SNPs, facilitating powerful and cost-effective large-scale genotyping of transplant-related studies.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13073-015-0211-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13073-015-0211-x
PMCID: PMC4589899  PMID: 26423053
20.  The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study 
Winkler, Thomas W. | Justice, Anne E. | Graff, Mariaelisa | Barata, Llilda | Feitosa, Mary F. | Chu, Su | Czajkowski, Jacek | Esko, Tõnu | Fall, Tove | Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O. | Lu, Yingchang | Mägi, Reedik | Mihailov, Evelin | Pers, Tune H. | Rüeger, Sina | Teumer, Alexander | Ehret, Georg B. | Ferreira, Teresa | Heard-Costa, Nancy L. | Karjalainen, Juha | Lagou, Vasiliki | Mahajan, Anubha | Neinast, Michael D. | Prokopenko, Inga | Simino, Jeannette | Teslovich, Tanya M. | Jansen, Rick | Westra, Harm-Jan | White, Charles C. | Absher, Devin | Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S. | Ahmad, Shafqat | Albrecht, Eva | Alves, Alexessander Couto | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L. | de Craen, Anton J. M. | Bis, Joshua C. | Bonnefond, Amélie | Boucher, Gabrielle | Cadby, Gemma | Cheng, Yu-Ching | Chiang, Charleston W. K. | Delgado, Graciela | Demirkan, Ayse | Dueker, Nicole | Eklund, Niina | Eiriksdottir, Gudny | Eriksson, Joel | Feenstra, Bjarke | Fischer, Krista | Frau, Francesca | Galesloot, Tessel E. | Geller, Frank | Goel, Anuj | Gorski, Mathias | Grammer, Tanja B. | Gustafsson, Stefan | Haitjema, Saskia | Hottenga, Jouke-Jan | Huffman, Jennifer E. | Jackson, Anne U. | Jacobs, Kevin B. | Johansson, Åsa | Kaakinen, Marika | Kleber, Marcus E. | Lahti, Jari | Leach, Irene Mateo | Lehne, Benjamin | Liu, Youfang | Lo, Ken Sin | Lorentzon, Mattias | Luan, Jian'an | Madden, Pamela A. F. | Mangino, Massimo | McKnight, Barbara | Medina-Gomez, Carolina | Monda, Keri L. | Montasser, May E. | Müller, Gabriele | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Nolte, Ilja M. | Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope | Pascoe, Laura | Paternoster, Lavinia | Rayner, Nigel W. | Renström, Frida | Rizzi, Federica | Rose, Lynda M. | Ryan, Kathy A. | Salo, Perttu | Sanna, Serena | Scharnagl, Hubert | Shi, Jianxin | Smith, Albert Vernon | Southam, Lorraine | Stančáková, Alena | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Strawbridge, Rona J. | Sung, Yun Ju | Tachmazidou, Ioanna | Tanaka, Toshiko | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Trompet, Stella | Pervjakova, Natalia | Tyrer, Jonathan P. | Vandenput, Liesbeth | van der Laan, Sander W | van der Velde, Nathalie | van Setten, Jessica | van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V. | Verweij, Niek | Vlachopoulou, Efthymia | Waite, Lindsay L. | Wang, Sophie R. | Wang, Zhaoming | Wild, Sarah H. | Willenborg, Christina | Wilson, James F. | Wong, Andrew | Yang, Jian | Yengo, Loïc | Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M. | Yu, Lei | Zhang, Weihua | Zhao, Jing Hua | Andersson, Ehm A. | Bakker, Stephan J. L. | Baldassarre, Damiano | Banasik, Karina | Barcella, Matteo | Barlassina, Cristina | Bellis, Claire | Benaglio, Paola | Blangero, John | Blüher, Matthias | Bonnet, Fabrice | Bonnycastle, Lori L. | Boyd, Heather A. | Bruinenberg, Marcel | Buchman, Aron S | Campbell, Harry | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Chines, Peter S. | Claudi-Boehm, Simone | Cole, John | Collins, Francis S. | de Geus, Eco J. C. | de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M. | Dimitriou, Maria | Duan, Jubao | Enroth, Stefan | Eury, Elodie | Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni | Forouhi, Nita G. | Friedrich, Nele | Gejman, Pablo V. | Gigante, Bruna | Glorioso, Nicola | Go, Alan S. | Gottesman, Omri | Gräßler, Jürgen | Grallert, Harald | Grarup, Niels | Gu, Yu-Mei | Broer, Linda | Ham, Annelies C. | Hansen, Torben | Harris, Tamara B. | Hartman, Catharina A. | Hassinen, Maija | Hastie, Nicholas | Hattersley, Andrew T. | Heath, Andrew C. | Henders, Anjali K. | Hernandez, Dena | Hillege, Hans | Holmen, Oddgeir | Hovingh, Kees G | Hui, Jennie | Husemoen, Lise L. | Hutri-Kähönen, Nina | Hysi, Pirro G. | Illig, Thomas | De Jager, Philip L. | Jalilzadeh, Shapour | Jørgensen, Torben | Jukema, J. Wouter | Juonala, Markus | Kanoni, Stavroula | Karaleftheri, Maria | Khaw, Kay Tee | Kinnunen, Leena | Kittner, Steven J. | Koenig, Wolfgang | Kolcic, Ivana | Kovacs, Peter | Krarup, Nikolaj T. | Kratzer, Wolfgang | Krüger, Janine | Kuh, Diana | Kumari, Meena | Kyriakou, Theodosios | Langenberg, Claudia | Lannfelt, Lars | Lanzani, Chiara | Lotay, Vaneet | Launer, Lenore J. | Leander, Karin | Lindström, Jaana | Linneberg, Allan | Liu, Yan-Ping | Lobbens, Stéphane | Luben, Robert | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Männistö, Satu | Magnusson, Patrik K. | McArdle, Wendy L. | Menni, Cristina | Merger, Sigrun | Milani, Lili | Montgomery, Grant W. | Morris, Andrew P. | Narisu, Narisu | Nelis, Mari | Ong, Ken K. | Palotie, Aarno | Pérusse, Louis | Pichler, Irene | Pilia, Maria G. | Pouta, Anneli | Rheinberger, Myriam | Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus | Richards, Marcus | Rice, Kenneth M. | Rice, Treva K. | Rivolta, Carlo | Salomaa, Veikko | Sanders, Alan R. | Sarzynski, Mark A. | Scholtens, Salome | Scott, Robert A. | Scott, William R. | Sebert, Sylvain | Sengupta, Sebanti | Sennblad, Bengt | Seufferlein, Thomas | Silveira, Angela | Slagboom, P. Eline | Smit, Jan H. | Sparsø, Thomas H. | Stirrups, Kathleen | Stolk, Ronald P. | Stringham, Heather M. | Swertz, Morris A | Swift, Amy J. | Syvänen, Ann-Christine | Tan, Sian-Tsung | Thorand, Barbara | Tönjes, Anke | Tremblay, Angelo | Tsafantakis, Emmanouil | van der Most, Peter J. | Völker, Uwe | Vohl, Marie-Claude | Vonk, Judith M. | Waldenberger, Melanie | Walker, Ryan W. | Wennauer, Roman | Widén, Elisabeth | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wilsgaard, Tom | Wright, Alan F. | Zillikens, M. Carola | van Dijk, Suzanne C. | van Schoor, Natasja M. | Asselbergs, Folkert W. | de Bakker, Paul I. W. | Beckmann, Jacques S. | Beilby, John | Bennett, David A. | Bergman, Richard N. | Bergmann, Sven | Böger, Carsten A. | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Bottinger, Erwin P. | Bouchard, Claude | Chambers, John C. | Chanock, Stephen J. | Chasman, Daniel I. | Cucca, Francesco | Cusi, Daniele | Dedoussis, George | Erdmann, Jeanette | Eriksson, Johan G. | Evans, Denis A. | de Faire, Ulf | Farrall, Martin | Ferrucci, Luigi | Ford, Ian | Franke, Lude | Franks, Paul W. | Froguel, Philippe | Gansevoort, Ron T. | Gieger, Christian | Grönberg, Henrik | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hall, Per | Hamsten, Anders | van der Harst, Pim | Hayward, Caroline | Heliövaara, Markku | Hengstenberg, Christian | Hicks, Andrew A | Hingorani, Aroon | Hofman, Albert | Hu, Frank | Huikuri, Heikki V. | Hveem, Kristian | James, Alan L. | Jordan, Joanne M. | Jula, Antti | Kähönen, Mika | Kajantie, Eero | Kathiresan, Sekar | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M. | Kivimaki, Mika | Knekt, Paul B. | Koistinen, Heikki A. | Kooner, Jaspal S. | Koskinen, Seppo | Kuusisto, Johanna | Maerz, Winfried | Martin, Nicholas G | Laakso, Markku | Lakka, Timo A. | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lettre, Guillaume | Levinson, Douglas F. | Lind, Lars | Lokki, Marja-Liisa | Mäntyselkä, Pekka | Melbye, Mads | Metspalu, Andres | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Moll, Frans L. | Murray, Jeffrey C. | Musk, Arthur W. | Nieminen, Markku S. | Njølstad, Inger | Ohlsson, Claes | Oldehinkel, Albertine J. | Oostra, Ben A. | Palmer, Lyle J | Pankow, James S. | Pasterkamp, Gerard | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Pedersen, Oluf | Penninx, Brenda W. | Perola, Markus | Peters, Annette | Polašek, Ozren | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Qi, Lu | Quertermous, Thomas | Raitakari, Olli T. | Rankinen, Tuomo | Rauramaa, Rainer | Ridker, Paul M. | Rioux, John D. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Rotter, Jerome I. | Rudan, Igor | den Ruijter, Hester M. | Saltevo, Juha | Sattar, Naveed | Schunkert, Heribert | Schwarz, Peter E. H. | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Sinisalo, Juha | Snieder, Harold | Sørensen, Thorkild I. A. | Spector, Tim D. | Staessen, Jan A. | Stefania, Bandinelli | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Stumvoll, Michael | Tardif, Jean-Claude | Tremoli, Elena | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uitterlinden, André G. | Uusitupa, Matti | Verbeek, André L. M. | Vermeulen, Sita H. | Viikari, Jorma S. | Vitart, Veronique | Völzke, Henry | Vollenweider, Peter | Waeber, Gérard | Walker, Mark | Wallaschofski, Henri | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Watkins, Hugh | Zeggini, Eleftheria | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Clegg, Deborah J. | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Gordon-Larsen, Penny | Jaquish, Cashell E. | Rao, D. C. | Abecasis, Goncalo R. | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Barroso, Inês | Berndt, Sonja I. | Boehnke, Michael | Deloukas, Panos | Fox, Caroline S. | Groop, Leif C. | Hunter, David J. | Ingelsson, Erik | Kaplan, Robert C. | McCarthy, Mark I. | Mohlke, Karen L. | O'Connell, Jeffrey R. | Schlessinger, David | Strachan, David P. | Stefansson, Kari | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Heid, Iris M. | North, Kari E. | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Kutalik, Zoltán | Loos, Ruth J. F.
PLoS Genetics  2015;11(10):e1005378.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.
Author Summary
Adult body size and body shape differ substantially between men and women and change over time. More than 100 genetic variants that influence body mass index (measure of body size) or waist-to-hip ratio (measure of body shape) have been identified. While there is evidence that some genetic loci affect body shape differently in men than in women, little is known about whether genetic effects differ in older compared to younger adults, and whether such changes differ between men and women. Therefore, we conducted a systematic genome-wide search, including 114 studies (>320,000 individuals), to specifically identify genetic loci with age- and or sex-dependent effects on body size and shape. We identified 15 loci of which the effect on BMI was different in older compared to younger adults, whereas we found no evidence for loci with different effects in men compared to women. The opposite was seen for body shape as we identified 44 loci of which the effect on waist-to-hip ratio differed between men and women, but no difference between younger and older adults were observed. Our observations may provide new insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexual dimorphism of body shape.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005378
PMCID: PMC4591371  PMID: 26426971
21.  Genome-wide meta-analysis in alopecia areata resolves HLA associations and reveals two new susceptibility loci 
Nature communications  2015;6:5966.
Alopecia areata (AA) is a prevalent autoimmune disease with ten known susceptibility loci. Here we perform the first meta-analysis in AA by combining data from two genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and replication with supplemented ImmunoChip data for a total of 3,253 cases and 7,543 controls. The strongest region of association is the MHC, where we fine-map 4 independent effects, all implicating HLA-DR as a key etiologic driver. Outside the MHC, we identify two novel loci that exceed statistical significance, containing ACOXL/BCL2L11(BIM) (2q13); GARP (LRRC32) (11q13.5), as well as a third nominally significant region SH2B3(LNK)/ATXN2 (12q24.12). Candidate susceptibility gene expression analysis in these regions demonstrates expression in relevant immune cells and the hair follicle. We integrate our results with data from seven other autoimmune diseases and provide insight into the alignment of AA within these disorders. Our findings uncover new molecular pathways disrupted in AA, including autophagy/apoptosis, TGFß/Tregs and JAK kinase signaling, and support the causal role of aberrant immune processes in AA.
doi:10.1038/ncomms6966
PMCID: PMC4451186  PMID: 25608926
22.  A genome-wide association study of marginal zone lymphoma shows association to the HLA region 
Vijai, Joseph | Wang, Zhaoming | Berndt, Sonja I | Skibola, Christine F | Slager, Susan L | de Sanjose, Silvia | Melbye, Mads | Glimelius, Bengt | Bracci, Paige M | Conde, Lucia | Birmann, Brenda M | Wang, Sophia S | Brooks-Wilson, Angela R | Lan, Qing | de Bakker, Paul I W | Vermeulen, Roel C H | Portlock, Carol | Ansell, Stephen M | Link, Brian K | Riby, Jacques | North, Kari E | Gu, Jian | Hjalgrim, Henrik | Cozen, Wendy | Becker, Nikolaus | Teras, Lauren R | Spinelli, John J | Turner, Jenny | Zhang, Yawei | Purdue, Mark P | Giles, Graham G | Kelly, Rachel S | Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne | Ennas, Maria Grazia | Monnereau, Alain | Bertrand, Kimberly A | Albanes, Demetrius | Lightfoot, Tracy | Yeager, Meredith | Chung, Charles C | Burdett, Laurie | Hutchinson, Amy | Lawrence, Charles | Montalvan, Rebecca | Liang, Liming | Huang, Jinyan | Ma, Baoshan | Villano, Danylo J | Maria, Ann | Corines, Marina | Thomas, Tinu | Novak, Anne J | Dogan, Ahmet | Liebow, Mark | Thompson, Carrie A | Witzig, Thomas E | Habermann, Thomas M | Weiner, George J | Smith, Martyn T | Holly, Elizabeth A | Jackson, Rebecca D | Tinker, Lesley F | Ye, Yuanqing | Adami, Hans-Olov | Smedby, Karin E | De Roos, Anneclaire J | Hartge, Patricia | Morton, Lindsay M | Severson, Richard K | Benavente, Yolanda | Boffetta, Paolo | Brennan, Paul | Foretova, Lenka | Maynadie, Marc | McKay, James | Staines, Anthony | Diver, W Ryan | Vajdic, Claire M | Armstrong, Bruce K | Kricker, Anne | Zheng, Tongzhang | Holford, Theodore R | Severi, Gianluca | Vineis, Paolo | Ferri, Giovanni M | Ricco, Rosalia | Miligi, Lucia | Clavel, Jacqueline | Giovannucci, Edward | Kraft, Peter | Virtamo, Jarmo | Smith, Alex | Kane, Eleanor | Roman, Eve | Chiu, Brian C H | Fraumeni, Joseph F | Wu, Xifeng | Cerhan, James R | Offit, Kenneth | Chanock, Stephen J | Rothman, Nathaniel | Nieters, Alexandra
Nature communications  2015;6:5751.
Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is the third most common subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Here we perform a two-stage GWAS of 1,281 MZL cases and 7,127 controls of European ancestry and identify two independent loci near BTNL2 (rs9461741, P=3.95×10−15) and HLA-B (rs2922994, P=2.43×10−9) in the HLA region significantly associated with MZL risk. This is the first evidence that genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex influences MZL susceptibility.
doi:10.1038/ncomms6751
PMCID: PMC4287989  PMID: 25569183
23.  C9orf72 and UNC13A are shared risk loci for ALS and FTD: a genome-wide meta-analysis 
Annals of neurology  2014;76(1):120-133.
Objective
Substantial clinical, pathological and genetic overlap exists between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). TDP-43 inclusions have been found in both ALS and FTD cases (FTD-TDP). Recently, a repeat expansion in C9orf72 was identified as the causal variant in a proportion of ALS and FTD cases. We sought to identify additional evidence for a common genetic basis for the spectrum of ALS-FTD.
Methods
We used published GWAS data of 4,377 ALS patients and 13,017 controls and 435 pathology-proven FTD-TDP cases and 1,414 controls for genotype imputation. Data were analyzed in a joint meta-analysis, by replicating topmost associated hits of one disease in the other, and by using a conservative rank products analysis, allocating equal weight to ALS and FTD-TDP sample sizes.
Results
Meta-analysis identified 19 genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at C9orf72 on chromosome 9p21.2 (lowest p=2.6×10−12) and one SNP in UNC13A on chromosome 19p13.11 (p=1.0×10−11) as shared susceptibility loci for ALS and FTD-TDP. Conditioning on the 9p21.2 genotype increased statistical significance at UNC13A. A third signal, on chromosome 8q24.13 at the SPG8 locus coding for strumpellin, (p=3.91×10−7) was replicated in an independent cohort of 4,056 ALS patients and 3,958 controls (p=0.026; combined analysis p=1.01×10−7).
Interpretation
We identified common genetic variants at C9orf72, but in addition in UNC13A that are shared between ALS and FTD. UNC13A provides a novel link between ALS and FTD-TDP, and identifies changes in neurotransmitter release and synaptic function as a converging mechanism in the pathogenesis of ALS and FTD-TDP.
doi:10.1002/ana.24198
PMCID: PMC4137231  PMID: 24931836
24.  Association of Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener’s) With HLA–DPB1*04 and SEMA6A Gene Variants Evidence From Genome-Wide Analysis 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2013;65(9):2457-2468.
Objective
To identify genetic determinants of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s) (GPA).
Methods
We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 492 GPA cases and 1,506 healthy controls (white subjects of European descent), followed by replication analysis of the most strongly associated signals in an independent cohort of 528 GPA cases and 1,228 controls.
Results
Genome-wide significant associations were identified in 32 single-nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers across the HLA region, the majority of which were located in the HLA–DPB1 and HLA–DPA1 genes encoding the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) DPβ chain 1 and DPα chain 1 proteins, respectively. Peak association signals in these 2 genes, emanating from SNPs rs9277554 (for DPβ chain 1) and rs9277341 (DPα chain 1) were strongly replicated in an independent cohort (in the combined analysis of the initial cohort and the replication cohort, P = 1.92 × 10−50 and 2.18 × 10−39, respectively). Imputation of classic HLA alleles and conditional analyses revealed that the SNP association signal was fully accounted for by the classic HLA–DPB1*04 allele. An independent single SNP, rs26595, near SEMA6A (the gene for semaphorin 6A) on chromosome 5, was also associated with GPA, reaching genome-wide significance in a combined analysis of the GWAS and replication cohorts (P = 2.09 × 10−8).
Conclusion
We identified the SEMA6A and HLA–DP loci as significant contributors to risk for GPA, with the HLA–DPB1*04 allele almost completely accounting for the MHC association. These two associations confirm the critical role of immunogenetic factors in the development of GPA.
doi:10.1002/art.38036
PMCID: PMC4471994  PMID: 23740775
25.  Major Histocompatibility Complex Associations of Ankylosing Spondylitis are Complex and Involve Further Epistasis with ERAP1 
Nature communications  2015;6:7146.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common, highly heritable, inflammatory arthritis for which HLA-B*27 is the major genetic risk factor, although its role in the aetiology of AS remains elusive. To better understand the genetic basis of the MHC susceptibility loci, we genotyped 7,264 MHC SNPs in 22,647 AS cases and controls of European descent. We impute SNPs, classical HLA alleles and amino acid residues within HLA proteins, and tested these for association to AS status. Here we show that in addition to effects due to HLA-B*27 alleles, several other HLA-B alleles also affect susceptibility. After controlling for the associated haplotypes in HLA-B we observe independent associations with variants in the HLA-A, HLA-DPB1 and HLA-DRB1 loci. We also demonstrate that the ERAP1 SNP rs30187 association is not restricted only to carriers of HLA-B*27 but also found in HLA-B*40:01 carriers independently of HLA-B*27 genotype.
doi:10.1038/ncomms8146
PMCID: PMC4443427  PMID: 25994336

Results 1-25 (102)