We explored the potential of poly(oxonorbornene)-based synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs), a promising new class of antimicrobial polymers with cell-selectivity and low resistance development potential, for clinical applications. We evaluated their antimicrobial activity against a panel of seven clinical and regulatory relevant bacteria strains, and tested their toxicity with two different kinds of primary human cells. For the antimicrobial activity, we performed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and determined the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) according to the NCCLS guidelines. The results revealed specific problems that may occur when testing the antimicrobial activity of amphiphilic cationic polymers, and confirmed the working hypothesis that the more hydrophilic SMAMP polymers in our portfolio were ‘doubly selective’, i.e. they are not only selective for bacteria over mammalian cells, but also for Gram-positive over Gram-negative bacteria. The data also showed that we could improve the broad-band activity of one SMAMP, and in combination with the results from the cell toxicity experiments, identified this polymer as a promising candidate for further in-vitro and in-vivo testing. Transmission electron studies revealed that the cellular envelopes of both E. coli and S. aureus were severely damaged due to SMAMP action on the bacterial membrane, which strengthened the argument that SMAMPs closely resemble antimicrobial peptides. To test cell toxicity, we used the traditional hemolysis assay with human red blood cells, and the novel xCelligence assay with primary human fibroblasts. The data reported here is the first example in which a hemolysis assay is benchmarked against the xCelligence assay. It revealed that the same trends were obtained using these complementary methods. This establishes the xCelligence assay with primary human cells as a useful tool for SMAMP characterization.
Isocitrate dehydrogenase isoforms 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) mutations have received considerable attention since the discovery of their relation with human gliomas. The predictive value of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas remains controversial. Here, we present the results of a meta-analysis of the associations between IDH mutations and both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in gliomas. The interrelationship between the IDH mutations and MGMT promoter hypermethylation, EGFR amplification, codeletion of chromosomes 1p/19q and TP53 gene mutation were also revealed.
Methodology and Principal Findings
An electronic literature search of public databases (PubMed, Embase databases) was performed. In total, 10 articles, including 12 studies in English, with 2,190 total cases were included in the meta-analysis. The IDH mutations were frequent in WHO grade II and III glioma (59.5%) and secondary glioblastomas (63.4%) and were less frequent in primary glioblastomas (7.13%). Our study provides evidence that IDH mutations are tightly associated with MGMT promoter hypermethylation (P<0.001), 1p/19q codeletion (P<0.001) and TP53 gene mutation (P<0.001) but are mutually exclusive with EGFR amplification (P<0.001). This meta-analysis showed that the combined hazard ratio (HR) estimate for overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with IDH mutations was 0.33 (95% CI: 0.25–0.42) and 0.38 (95% CI: 0.21–0.68), compared with glioma patients whose tumours harboured the wild-type IDH. Subgroup analyses based on tumour grade also revealed that the presence of IDH mutations was associated with a better outcome.
Our study suggests that IDH mutations, which are closely linked to the genomic profile of gliomas, are potential prognostic biomarkers for gliomas.
The replacement histone variant H2AX senses DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and recruits characteristic sets of proteins at its phosphorylated (γ-H2AX) foci for concurrent DNA repair. We reasoned that the H2AX interaction network, or interactome formed in the tumor-associated DNA DSB environment such as in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, where pre-neoplastic lesions frequently occur, is indicative of HCC pathogenic status. By using an in vivo dual-tagging quantitative proteomic method, we identified 102 H2AX-specific interacting partners in HCC cells that stably expressed FLAG-tagged H2AX at close to the endogenous level. Using bioinformatics tools for data-dependent network analysis, we further found binary relationships among these interactors in defined pathway modules, implicating H2AX in a multi-functional role of coordinating a variety of biological pathways involved in DNA damage recognition and DNA repair, apoptosis, nucleic acid metabolism, Ca2+-binding signaling, cell cycle, etc. Furthermore our observations suggest that these pathways interconnect through key pathway components or H2AX interactors. The physiological accuracy of our quantitative proteomic approach in determining H2AX-specific interactors was evaluated by both co-immunoprecipitation/ immunoblotting and confocal co-localization experiments performed on HCC cells. Due to their involvement in diverse functions, the H2AX interactors involved in different pathway modules, such as Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase1, 14-3-3ζ, coflin1, and peflin1, were examined for their relative H2AX binding affinities in paired hepatocytes and HCC cells. Treatment with the DSB-inducing agent bleomycin enhanced binding of these proteins to H2AX, suggesting an active role of H2AX in coordinating the functional pathways of each protein in DNA damage recognition and repair.
H2AX; DSBs; DNA repair; protein-protein interactions; in vivo dual-tagging quantitative proteomic method; hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis
Genetic variations in DNA double-strand break repair genes can influence the ability of a cell to repair damaged DNA and alter an individual’s susceptibility to cancer. We studied whether polymorphisms in DNA double-strand break repair genes are associated with an increased risk of glioma development.
We genotyped 10 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 DNA double-strand break repair pathway genes (XRCC3, BRCA2, RAG1, XRCC5, LIG4, XRCC4 and ATM) in a case–control study including 384 glioma patients and 384 cancer-free controls in a Chinese Han population. Genotypes were determined using the OpenArray platform.
In the single-locus analysis there was a significant association between gliomas and the LIG4 rs1805388 (Ex2 +54C>T, Thr9Ile) TT genotype (adjusted OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.87-5.71), as well as the TC genotype (adjusted OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.20-2.18). We also found that the homozygous variant genotype (GG) of XRCC4 rs1805377 (IVS7-1A>G, splice-site) was associated with a significantly increased risk of gliomas (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.12-2.80). Interestingly, we detected a significant additive and multiplicative interaction effect between the LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377 polymorphisms with an increasing risk of gliomas. When we stratified our analysis by smoking status, LIG4 rs1805388 was associated with an increased glioma risk among smokers.
These results indicate for the first time that LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377, alone or in combination, are associated with a risk of gliomas.
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); Glioma; Susceptibility
The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a critical determinant of plasma cholesterol levels that internalizes lipoprotein cargo via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Here, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL stimulates a previously unrecognized, clathrin-independent pathway for LDLR internalization. Real-time single-particle tracking and electron microscopy reveal that IDOL is recruited to the plasma membrane by LDLR, promotes LDLR internalization in the absence of clathrin or caveolae, and facilitates LDLR degradation by shuttling it into the multivesicular body (MVB) protein-sorting pathway. The IDOL-dependent degradation pathway is distinct from that mediated by PCSK9 as only IDOL employs ESCRT (endosomal-sorting complex required for transport) complexes to recognize and traffic LDLR to lysosomes. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of ESCRT-0 (HGS) or ESCRT-I (TSG101) components prevents IDOL-mediated LDLR degradation. We further show that USP8 acts downstream of IDOL to deubiquitinate LDLR and that USP8 is required for LDLR entry into the MVB pathway. These results provide key mechanistic insights into an evolutionarily conserved pathway for the control of lipoprotein receptor expression and cellular lipid uptake.
Quantitative estimations of first-in-human (FIH) doses are critical for phase I clinical trials in drug development. Human pharmacokinetic (PK) prediction methods have been developed to project the human clearance (CL) and bioavailability with reasonable accuracy, which facilitates estimation of a safe yet efficacious FIH dose. However, the FIH dose estimation is still very challenging and complex. The aim of this article is to review the common approaches for FIH dose estimation with an emphasis on PK-guided estimation. We discuss 5 methods for FIH dose estimation, 17 approaches for the prediction of human CL, 6 methods for the prediction of bioavailability, and 3 tools for the prediction of PK profiles. This review may serve as a practical protocol for PK- or pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-guided estimation of the FIH dose.
allometric scaling; FIH dose; in vitro–in vivo correlations; pharmacokinetics; prediction
A strategy for antiviral drug discovery is the elucidation and imitation of viral interference mechanisms. HIV-1 patients benefit from a coinfection with GB Virus C (GBV-C), since HIV-positive individuals with long-term GBV-C viraemia show better survival rates than HIV-1 patients without persisting GBV-C. A direct influence of GBV-C on HIV-1 replication has been shown in coinfection experiments. GBV-C is a human non-pathogenic member of the flaviviridae family that can replicate in T and B cells. Therefore, GBV-C shares partly the same ecological niche with HIV-1. In earlier work we have demonstrated that recombinant glycoprotein E2 of GBV-C and peptides derived from the E2 N-terminus interfere with HIV entry. In this study we investigated the underlying mechanism. Performing a virus-cell fusion assay and temperature-arrested HIV-infection kinetics, we provide evidence that the HIV-inhibitory E2 peptides interfere with late HIV-1 entry steps after the engagement of gp120 with CD4 receptor and coreceptor. Binding and competition experiments revealed that the N-terminal E2 peptides bind to the disulfide loop region of HIV-1 transmembrane protein gp41. In conjunction with computational analyses, we identified sequence similarities between the N-termini of GBV-C E2 and the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120. This similarity appears to enable the GBV-C E2 N-terminus to interact with the HIV-1 gp41 disulfide loop, a crucial domain involved in the gp120-gp41 interface. Furthermore, the results of the present study provide initial proof of concept that peptides targeted to the gp41 disulfide loop are able to inhibit HIV fusion and should inspire the development of this new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors.
The oxidative stress mechanism is of particular interest in the pathogenesis of glioma, given the high rate of oxygen metabolism in the brain. Potential links between polymorphisms of antioxidant genes and glioma risk are currently unknown. We therefore investigated the association between polymorphisms in antioxidant genes and glioma risk.
We examined 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 9 antioxidant genes (GPX1, CAT, PON1, NQO1, SOD2/MnSOD, SOD3, and NOS1*2*3) in 384 glioma and 384 control cases in a Chinese hospital-based case–control study. Genotypes were determined using the OpenArray platform, which employs the chip-based Taq-Man genotyping technology. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression.
Using single-locus analysis, we identified four SNPs (SOD2 V16A, SOD3 T58A, GPX1 -46 C/T, and NOS1 3’-UTR) that were significantly associated with the risk of glioma development. To assess the cumulative effects, we performed a combined unfavourable genotype analysis. Compared with the reference group that exhibited no unfavourable genotypes, the medium- and high-risk groups exhibited a 1.86-fold (95% CI, 1.30-2.67) and a 4.86-fold (95% CI, 1.33-17.71) increased risk of glioma, respectively (P-value for the trend < 0.001).
These data suggest that genetic variations in oxidative stress genes might contribute to the aetiology of glioma.
Oxidative stress; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Glioma; SOD2; SOD3; GPX1; NOS1
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzyme in folate metabolism and is involved in DNA methylation, DNA synthesis, and DNA repair. In addition, it is a possible risk factor in neural tube defects (NTDs). The association of the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene and NTD susceptibility has been widely demonstrated, but the results remain inconclusive. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis with 2429 cases and 3570 controls to investigate the effect of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on NTDs.
An electronic search of PubMed and Embase database for papers on the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NTD risk was performed. All data were analysed with STATA (version 11). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association. Sensitivity analysis, test of heterogeneity, cumulative meta-analysis, and assessment of bias were performed in our meta-analysis.
A significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NTD susceptibility was revealed in our meta-analysis ( TT versus CC: OR = 2.022, 95% CI: 1.508, 2.712; CT+TT versus CC: OR = 1.303, 95% CI: 1.089, 1.558; TT versus CC+CT: OR = 1.716, 95% CI: 1.448, 2.033; 2TT+CT versus 2CC+CT: OR = 1.330, 95% CI: 1.160, 1.525). Moreover, an increased NTD risk was found after stratification of the MTHFR C677T variant data by ethnicity and source of controls.
The results suggested the maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for NTDs. Further functional studies to investigate folate-related gene polymorphisms, periconceptional multivitamin supplements, complex interactions, and the development of NTDs are warranted.
ABCG2, also known as BCRP, is a half ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that localizes to plasma membranes. Recently, a number of studies have investigated the relationship between the C421A polymorphism in ABCG2 and cancer risk in multiple populations and various types of cancers; however, this relationship remains unclear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to further explore this association.
The meta-analysis incorporated 10 studies involving a total of 3593 cases and 5875 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated based on the date extracted from the studies to evaluate the strength of association. We also analyzed the heterogeneity and sensitivity of each report and the publication bias of the studies.
Overall, our results showed that there appeared to be a significant association between the ABCG2 C421A polymorphism and decreased cancer susceptibility (heterozygote-AC versus CC: OR = 0.759, 95%CI = 0.620-0.930; dominant effects model-AA/AC versus CC: OR = 0.771, 95%CI = 0.634-0.938; additive effects model-A allele versus C allele: OR = 0.809, 95%CI = 0.687-0.952). Similarly, decreased cancer risk was also found after stratification of the SNP data by cancer type, ethnicity and source of controls in heterozygote model, dominant effects model and additive effects model.
We found that the ABCG2 C421A polymorphism is a protective factor for developing cancer. The same relationship was found when the studies were stratified by cancer type, ethnicity and source of controls.
To prove that the peptidic HIV-1 fusion inhibitors containing the pocket-binding domain (PBD) mainly target the hydrophobic pocket in the gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR), we constructed pseudoviruses by replacement of Q64 in the gp41 pocket region with Ala (Q64A) or Leu (Q64L). These viruses were highly resistant to C34 and CP32M containing the PBD, while they were susceptible to T20 (enfuvirtide) lacking the PBD but containing the GIV-motif-binding domain (GBD) and lipid-binding domain (LBD). They were also sensitive to C52L, which contains the PBD, GBD, and LBD. Those mutations may disrupt the hydrophilic interaction between Q64 in the NHR and N113 in the peptides containing the PBD. This report provides insights into the mechanisms of drug resistance, with implications for the design of novel HIV fusion and entry inhibitors.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are gene regulators involved in numerous diseases including cancer, heart disease, neurological disorders, vascular abnormalities and autoimmune conditions. Although hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism was shown to contribute to the susceptibility of multiple genes to cancer, the data have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to provide a comprehensive assessment of potential association between hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and cancer risk. In this meta-analysis, a total of 9 articles regarding 10 eligible case-control studies in English (including 6134 cases and 7141 controls) were analyzed. No significant association between hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and overall cancer risk was demonstrated. However, an increased risk was observed in the subgroup of breast cancer patients (G allele vs A allele: OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.00-1.20; Pheterogeneity = 0.114; I2 = 53.9%) and population-based studies (G allele vs A allele: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.25; Pheterogeneity = 0.062; I2 = 64.0%). The findings suggested an association between hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and increased risk to breast cancer.
cancer; meta-analysis; hsa-mir-499 rs3746444; polymorphism; susceptibility; miRNAs; pre-miRNA
Ginger extracts have been studied in various clinical trials for different indications. However, the pharmacokinetics of the ginger active constituents in human biological matrices is not well investigated. This study aims to develop a LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous measurement of 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol and study their pharmacokinetics in human plasma and colon tissues. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method was established and validated with a low limit of quantification of 2–5 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day accuracy ranged from −7.3% to 10.4% and from −9.4% to 9.8%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 0.9% to 10.9% and from 2.0% to 12.4%, respectively. The glucuronide and sulfate metabolites of 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in plasma and colon tissues were quantified after hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase. After oral dosing of 2.0 g ginger extracts in human, free 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol were detected in plasma with peak concentrations (9.5 ± 2.2 and 13.6 ± 6.9 ng/mL, respectively) at 1 h after oral administration, but no free 6-gingerol and 8-gingerol were detected in plasma from 0.25 to 24 h. The peak concentrations of glucuronide metabolites of 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol were 0.47 ± 0.31, 0.17 ± 0.14, 0.37 ± 0.19, and 0.73 ± 0.54 μg/mL at 1 h, respectively. The peak concentrations of the sulfate metabolites of 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol were 0.28 ± 0.15, 0.027 ± 0.018, 0.018 ± 0.006, and 0.047 ± 0.035 μg/mL at 1 h, respectively. Very low concentrations (2–3 ng/mL) of 10-gingerol glucuronide and sulfate were found in colon tissues. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that half-lives of these four analytes and their metabolites were 1–3 h in human plasma. No accumulation was observed for 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol and their metabolites in both plasma and colon tissues after multiple daily dosing.
6-Gingerol; 8-Gingerol; 10-Gingerol and 6-shogaol; LC-MS/MS; glucuronide; sulfate; pharmacokinetics
In the title curcumin–ionone derivative, C20H23NO3, the dihedral angle between the cyclohexene and benzene rings is 21.03 (8)°, with both double bonds in the interlinking olefinic chain adopting E conformations. Two of the methylene groups of the β-ionone ring are disordered over two sets of sites with occupancy ratios of 0.50:0.50 and 0.60:0.40. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into zigzag chains extending along the b axis.
In the title curcumin–ionone derivative, C18H22OS, the dihedral angle between the thiazole ring and the mean plane through the cyclohexene ring is 5.16 (10)°. The molecule has an E conformation for each of the olefinic bonds.
Methods to probe receptor oligomerization are useful to understand the molecular mechanisms of receptor signaling. Here we report a fluorescence imaging method to determine receptor oligomerization state in living cells during endocytic internalization. The wild-type receptor is co-expressed with an internalization-defective mutant, and the internalization kinetics of each is independently monitored. If the receptor internalizes as an oligomer, then the wild-type and mutant isoforms will mutually influence each others' trafficking properties, causing co-internalization of the mutant, or co-retention of the wild-type at the cell surface. Using this approach, we found that the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor internalizes as an oligomer into cells, both in the presence and absence of LDL ligand. The internalization kinetics of the wild-type receptor is not changed by LDL binding. We also found that the oligomerization domain of the LDL receptor is located in its cytoplasmic tail.
Background and Objectives
It has become increasingly clear that ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated) safeguards genome stability, which is a cornerstone of cellular homeostasis, and ATM IVS 22-77 T>C affects the normal activity of ATM proteins. However, the association between the ATM IVS 22-77 T>C genetic variant and cancer risk is controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to estimate the overall cancer risk associated with the polymorphism and to quantify any potential between-study heterogeneity.
A total of nine studies including 4,470 cases and 4,862 controls were analyzed for ATM IVS 22-77 T>C association with cancer risk in this meta-analysis. Heterogeneity among articles and their publication bias were also tested.
Our results showed that no association reached the level of statistical significance in the overall risk. Interestingly, in the stratified analyses, we observed an inverse relationship in lung and breast cancer.
Further functional research on the ATM mechanism should be performed to explain the inconsistent results in different cancer types.
The association between the TERT rs2736100 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and cancer risk has been studied by many researchers, but the results remain inconclusive. To further explore this association, we performed a meta-analysis.
A computerized search of PubMed and Embase database for publications on the TERT rs2736100 polymorphism and cancer risk was performed and the genotype data were analyzed in a meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association. Sensitivity analysis, test of heterogeneity, cumulative meta-analysis and assessment of bias were performed in our meta-analysis.
A significant association between the TERT rs2736100 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility was revealed by the results of the meta-analysis of the 25 case-control studies (GG versus TT: OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.58, 1.88; GT versus TT: OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.47; dominant model-TG + GG versus TT: OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.37, 1.58; recessive model-GG versus TT + TG: OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.31, 1.43; additive model-2GG + TG versus 2TT + TG: OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.36). Moreover, increased cancer risk in all genetic models was found after stratification of the SNP data by cancer type, ethnicity and source of controls.
In all genetic models, the association between the TERT rs2736100 polymorphism and cancer risk was significant. This meta-analysis suggests that the TERT rs2736100 polymorphism may be a risk factor for cancer. Further functional studies between this polymorphism and cancer risk are warranted.
To develop antibody- and fluorescence-labeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO) “nanotheranostics” for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging of cancer cells and pH-dependent intracellular drug release.
SPIO nanoparticles (10 nm) were coated with amphiphilic polymers and PEGylated. The antibody HuCC49ΔCH2 and fluorescent dye 5-FAM were conjugated to the PEG of IONPs. Anticancer drugs doxorubicin (Dox), and azido-doxorubicin (Adox), MI-219, 17-DMAG containing primary amine, azide, secondary amine, and tertiary amine, respectively, were encapsulated into IONPs. The encapsulation efficiency and drug release at various pHs were determined using an LC-MS/MS. The cancer targeting and imaging were monitored using MRI and fluorescent microscopy in colon cancer cell line (LS174T). The pH-dependent drug release, intracellular distribution, and cytotoxicity were evaluated using microscopy and MTS assay.
The pegylation of SPIO and conjugation with antibody and 5-FAM increased SPIO size from 18 nm to 44 nm. Fluorescent imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Prussian blue staining demonstrated that HuCC49ΔCH2-SPIO increased cancer cell targeting. HuCC49ΔCH2-SPIO “nanotheranostics” decreased the T2 values in MRI of LS174T cells from 117.3±1.8 ms to 55.5±2.6 ms. The loading capacities of Dox, Adox, MI-219, and 17-DMAG were 3.16 ± 0.77%, 6.04± 0.61%, 2.22± 0.42%, and 0.09±0.07%, respectively. Dox, MI-219 and 17-DMAG showed pH-dependent release while Adox didn’t. Fluorescent imaging demonstrated the accumulation of HuCC49ΔCH2-SPIO “nanotheranostics” in endosomes/lysosomes. The encapsulated Dox was released in acidic lysosomes and diffused into cytosol and nuclei. In contrary, the encapsulated Adox only showed limited release in endosomes/lysosomes. HuCC49ΔCH2-SPIO “nanotheranostics” targetedly delivered more Dox to LS174T cells than nonspecific IgG-SPIO and resulted in a lower IC50 (1.44 μM v.s. 0.44 μM).
The developed HuCC49ΔCH2-SPIO “nanotheranostics” provides an integrated platform for cancer cell imaging, targeted anticancer drug delivery and pH-dependently drug release.
iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO); MRI; fluorescent imaging; targeted drug delivery; nanotheranostics; doxorubicin; intracellular drug release
A biophysical, computational model of cell pharmacokinetics (1CellPK) is being developed to enable prediction of the intracellular accumulation and transcellular transport properties of small molecules using their calculated physicochemical properties as input. To test if 1CellPK can generate accurate, quantitative hypotheses and guide experimental analysis of the transcellular transport kinetics of small molecules, epithelial cells were grown on impermeable polyester membranes with cylindrical pores and chloroquine (CQ) was used as a transport probe. The effect of the number of pores and their diameter on transcellular transport of CQ was measured in apical-to-basolateral or basolateral-to-apical directions, at pH 7.4 and 6.5 in the donor compartment. Experimental and simulation results were consistent with a phospholipid bilayer-limited, passive diffusion transport mechanism. In experiments and 1CellPK simulations, intracellular CQ mass and the net rate of mass transport varied <2-fold although total pore area per cell varied >10-fold, so by normalizing the net rate of mass transport by the pore area available for transport, cell permeability on 3µm pore diameter membranes was more than an order of magnitude less than on 0.4µm pore diameter membranes. The results of simulations of transcellular transport were accurate for the first four hours of drug exposure, but those of CQ mass accumulation were accurate only for the first five minutes. Upon prolonged incubation, changes in cellular parameters such as lysosome pH rise, lysosome volume expansion, and nuclear shrinkage were associated with excess CQ accumulation. Based on the simulations, lysosome volume expansion alone can partly account for the measured, total intracellular CQ mass increase, while adding the intracellular binding of the protonated, ionized forms of CQ (as reflected in the measured partition coefficient of CQ in detergent-permeabilized cells at physiological pH) can further improve the intracellular CQ mass accumulation prediction.
Systems Biology; Epithelial Cells; Membrane Transport; Mathematical Models; Pharmacokinetics; Cell Permeability
The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and the mechanism of Hsp90 inhibition of Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone occurring in Withania somnifera, in pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo. Withaferin A exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against pancreatic cancer cells in vitro (with IC50s of 1.24, 2.93 and 2.78 μM) in pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1, MiaPaca2 and BxPc3, respectively. Annexin V staining showed that WA induced significant apoptosis in Panc-1 cells in a dose dependent manner. Western blotting demonstrated that WA inhibited Hsp90 chaperone activity to induce degradation of Hsp90 client proteins (Akt, Cdk4 and glucocorticoid receptor), which was reversed by the proteasomal inhibitor, MG132. WA-Biotin pull-down assay of Hsp90 using Panc-1 cancer cell lysates and purified Hsp90 showed that WA-biotin binds to C-terminus of Hsp90, which was competitively blocked by unlabeled WA. Co-immunoprecipitation exhibited that WA (10 μM) disrupted Hsp90-Cdc37 complexes from 1–24 hour post treatment, while it neither blocked ATP binding to Hsp90, nor changed Hsp90-P23 association. WA (3, 6 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth in pancreatic Panc-1 xenografts by 30% and 58%, respectively. These data demonstrate that Withaferin A binds Hsp90, inhibits Hsp90 chaperone activity through an ATP independent mechanism, results in Hsp90 client protein degradation, and exhibits in vivo anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer.
Withaferin A; Pancreatic cancer; Hsp90; Reactive cysteine; Client protein; Cdc37
18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) is widely used in diagnostic cancer imaging. However, the use of 18F-FDG in PET-based imaging is limited by its specificity and sensitivity. In contrast, anti-TAG (tumor associated glycoprotein)-72 monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for binding to a variety of adenocarcinomas, including colorectal cancer. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate a complimentary determining region (CDR)-grafted humanized CH2-domain-deleted anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibody (HuCC49deltaCH2), radiolabeled with iodine-124 (124I), as an antigen-directed and cancer-specific targeting agent for PET-based imaging.
HuCC49deltaCH2 was radiolabeled with 124I. Subcutaneous tumor implants of LS174T colon adenocarcinoma cells, which express TAG-72 antigen, were grown on athymic Nu/Nu nude mice as the xenograft model. Intravascular (i.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 124I-HuCC49deltaCH2 was then evaluated in this xenograft mouse model at various time points from approximately 1 hour to 24 hours after injection using microPET imaging. This was compared to i.v. injection of 18F-FDG in the same xenograft mouse model using microPET imaging at 50 minutes after injection.
At approximately 1 hour after i.v. injection, 124I-HuCC49deltaCH2 was distributed within the systemic circulation, while at approximately 1 hour after i.p. injection, 124I-HuCC49deltaCH2 was distributed within the peritoneal cavity. At time points from 18 hours to 24 hours after i.v. and i.p. injection, 124I-HuCC49deltaCH2 demonstrated a significantly increased level of specific localization to LS174T tumor implants (p = 0.001) when compared to the 1 hour images. In contrast, approximately 50 minutes after i.v. injection, 18F-FDG failed to demonstrate any increased level of specific localization to a LS174T tumor implant, but showed the propensity toward more nonspecific uptake within the heart, Harderian glands of the bony orbits of the eyes, brown fat of the posterior neck, kidneys, and bladder.
On microPET imaging, 124I-HuCC49deltaCH2 demonstrates an increased level of specific localization to tumor implants of LS174T colon adenocarcinoma cells in the xenograft mouse model on delayed imaging, while 18F-FDG failed to demonstrate this. The antigen-directed and cancer-specific 124I-radiolabled anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibody conjugate, 124I-HuCC49deltaCH2, holds future potential for use in human clinical trials for preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative PET-based imaging strategies, including fused-modality PET-based imaging platforms.
Anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibodies target the tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG)-72 in various solid tumors. This study evaluated the use of anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibodies, both murine CC49 and humanized CC49 (HuCC49ΔCH2), for near-infrared fluorescent (NIR) tumor imaging in colorectal cancer xenograft models. The murine CC49 and HuCC49ΔCH2 were conjugated with Cy7 monofunctional N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (Cy7-NHS). Both in vitro and in vivo anti-TAG-72 antibody binding studies were performed. The in vitro study utilized the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line LS174T that was incubated with Cy7, antibody-Cy7 conjugates, or excessive murine CC49 followed by the antibody-Cy7 conjugates and was imaged by fluorescence microscopy. The in vivo study utilized xenograft mice, bearing LS174T subcutaneous tumor implants, that received tail vein injections of Cy7, murine CC49-Cy7, HuCC49ΔCH2-Cy7, or non-specific IgG-Cy7 and were imaged by the Xenogen IVIS 100 system from 15 minutes to 288 hours. The biodistribution of the fluorescence labeled antibodies was determined by imaging the dissected tissues. The in vitro study revealed that the antibody-Cy7 conjugates bound to LS174T cells and were blocked by excessive murine CC49. The in vivo study demonstrated that murine CC49 achieved a tumor/blood ratio of 15 at 96 hours post-injection. In comparison, HuCC49ΔCH2-Cy7 cleared much faster than murine CC49-Cy7 from the xenograft mice, and HuCC49ΔCH2-Cy7 achieved a tumor/blood ratio of 12 at 18 hours post-injection. In contrast, Cy7 and Cy7 labeled non-specific IgG resulted in no demonstrable tumor accumulation. When mice were injected with excessive unlabeled murine CC49 at 6 hours before the injection of murine CC49-Cy7 or HuCC49ΔCH2-Cy7, both the intensity and retention time of the fluorescence from the tumor was reduced. In summary, the Cy7 labeled murine CC49 and HuCC49ΔCH2 demonstrate tumor-targeting capabilities in living colorectal cancer xenograft mice and provide an alternative modality for tumor imaging.
CC49; tumor imaging; Cy7; fluorescence; TAG-72
The keratin intermediate filament network is abundant in epithelial cells, but its function in the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity is unclear. Here, we show that Albatross complexes with Par3 to regulate formation of the apical junctional complex (AJC) and maintain lateral membrane identity. In nonpolarized epithelial cells, Albatross localizes with keratin filaments, whereas in polarized epithelial cells, Albatross is primarily localized in the vicinity of the AJC. Knockdown of Albatross in polarized cells causes a disappearance of key components of the AJC at cell–cell borders and keratin filament reorganization. Lateral proteins E-cadherin and desmoglein 2 were mislocalized even on the apical side. Although Albatross promotes localization of Par3 to the AJC, Par3 and ezrin are still retained at the apical surface in Albatross knockdown cells, which retain intact microvilli. Analysis of keratin-deficient epithelial cells revealed that keratins are required to stabilize the Albatross protein, thus promoting the formation of AJC. We propose that keratins and the keratin-binding protein Albatross are important for epithelial cell polarization.
The main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) plays an essential role in the extensive proteolytic processing of the viral polyproteins (pp1a and pp1ab), and it is an important target for anti-SARS drug development. It was found that SARS-CoV Mpro exists in solution as an equilibrium of both monomeric and dimeric forms, and the dimeric form is the enzymatically active form. However, the mechanism of SARS-CoV Mpro dimerization, especially the roles of its N-terminal seven residues (N-finger) and its unique C-terminal domain in the dimerization, remain unclear. Here we report that the SARS-CoV Mpro C-terminal domain alone (residues 187 to 306; Mpro-C) is produced in Escherichia coli in both monomeric and dimeric forms, and no exchange could be observed between them at room temperature. The Mpro-C dimer has a novel dimerization interface. Meanwhile, the N-finger deletion mutant of SARS-CoV Mpro also exists as both a stable monomer and a stable dimer, and the dimer is formed through the same C-terminal-domain interaction as that in the Mpro-C dimer. However, no C-terminal domain-mediated dimerization form can be detected for wild-type SARS-CoV Mpro. Our study results help to clarify previously published controversial claims about the role of the N-finger in SARS-CoV Mpro dimerization. Apparently, without the N-finger, SARS-CoV Mpro can no longer retain the active dimer structure; instead, it can form a new type of dimer which is inactive. Therefore, the N-finger of SARS-CoV Mpro is not only critical for its dimerization but also essential for the enzyme to form the enzymatically active dimer.