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1.  Risk Assessment of Hemorrhagic Transformation of Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke Using Multimodal CT 
Journal of Neuroimaging  2010;22(2):160-166.
PURPOSE
Multimodal CT with CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) are increasingly used in stroke triage. Our aim was to identify parameters most predictive of hemorrhagic transformation (HT), especially symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH).
METHODS
This retrospective study included patients evaluated by baseline multimodal CT ≤ 9hours from ictus with acute nonlacunar middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction. Two readers independently evaluated CTP maps for ischemic severity and CTA source images (CTA-SI) for infarct extent (as measured by ASPECTS). Presence of proximal occlusion (ICA or M1) and degree of collateralization (collateral score) were also assessed on CTA. HT was defined as SICH if associated with deterioration ≥ 4-points on NIHSS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified independent predictors of SICH. ROC curves selected optimal thresholds.
RESULTS
Of 84 patients reviewed, HT occurred in 22 (26.2%) and SICH in 8 (9.5%). Univariate predictors for SICH were proximal occlusion (OR = 8.65, P = .049), collateral score (OR = .34, P = .017), ASPECTS (OR = .46, P = .001), and CBV (OR = .001, P = .005). Multivariate analysis revealed ASPECTS as the only independent predictor with optimal threshold ≤ 5 and sensitivity and specificity of 75.0% and 85.5%, respectively.
CONCLUSION
For acute MCA infarcts ≤ 9 hours, the strongest predictor of SICH on multimodal CT was ASPECTS on CTA-SI.
doi:10.1111/j.1552-6569.2010.00562.x
PMCID: PMC3175503  PMID: 21143549
Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score; CT perfusion; CT angiography; hemorrhagic transformation; acute stroke
2.  Thoraco-lumbar artery aneurysms associated with a metameric paraspinal lesion presenting with retroperitoneal hemorrhage: Endovascular management 
Background:
Retroperitoneal hemorrhage is a life-threatening condition. This is the first reported case of rupture of one of multiple thoraco-lumbar artery aneurysms associated with a metameric paraspinal vascular lesion.
Case Description:
A 77-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with a new onset of left-sided low back pain shooting down the leg associated with weakness, numbness, and inability to walk. On physical examination, there was a notable left paraspinal swelling with a harsh bruit audible in the same area, left flank ecchymosis and a positive straight leg raising test. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large retroperitoneal hematoma. Digital subtraction angiography showed a large left paraspinal high-flow arteriovenous lesion, with large arterial aneurysms of the left T11, T12, and L1 segmental arteries. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular aneurysm embolization using coils and Onyx-34. Six months following the procedure, the patient had fully recovered, and a follow-up angiogram showed no residual or recurrent aneurysms.
Conclusion:
Thoraco-lumbar artery aneurysms have never previously been described in association with a metameric paraspinal vascular malformation. We report a case of retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to rupture of one of several high-flow artery aneurysms of a paraspinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The diagnosis was made on CTA, MRI, and angiography, and the lesion was successfully treated by transarterial embolization.
doi:10.4103/2152-7806.85978
PMCID: PMC3205498  PMID: 22059132
Arteriovenous malformation; endovascular embolization; metameric lesion; Onyx-34

Results 1-2 (2)