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1.  Propofol exerts anti-hepatocellular carcinoma by microvesicle-mediated transfer of miR-142-3p from macrophage to cancer cells 
We previously confirmed that propofol directly inhibited the viability, proliferation, and invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the anti-HCC effects of propofol.
In vivo antitumor activity was investigated in tumor-bearing mice following an intraperitoneal injection of propofol, with or without clodrolip. The co-culture system was used to verify that miR-142-3p was transported from macrophages to HCC cells. A miR-142-3p inhibitor was used to down-regulate the expression of miR-142-3p.
Propofol drastically inhibited tumor growth in tomor-bearing mice through macrophage activation, and stimulated tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to secrete microvesicles (MVs), which delivered miR-142-3p to HCC cells, resulting in the inhibition of HCC cell invasion. In addition, MVs collected from the plasma of the tumor-bearing mice injected with propofol suppressed tumor growth. More importantly, down-regulation of the expression miR-142-3p reversed the effect of propofol on HCC cell migration.
This study reveals a novel role for propofol in the inhibition of HCC through MV-mediated transfer of miR-142-3p from macrophages to cancer cells in vivo.
PMCID: PMC4198740  PMID: 25292173
Propofol; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Microvesicles; RAC1; miR-142-3p
2.  Goal-directed fluid optimization based on stroke volume variation and cardiac index during one-lung ventilation in patients undergoing thoracoscopy lobectomy operations: a pilot study 
Clinics  2013;68(7):1065-1070.
This pilot study was designed to utilize stroke volume variation and cardiac index to ensure fluid optimization during one-lung ventilation in patients undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomies.
Eighty patients undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomy were randomized into either a goal-directed therapy group or a control group. In the goal-directed therapy group, the stroke volume variation was controlled at 10%±1%, and the cardiac index was controlled at a minimum of 2.5 L.min-1.m-2. In the control group, the MAP was maintained at between 65 mm Hg and 90 mm Hg, heart rate was maintained at between 60 BPM and 100 BPM, and urinary output was greater than 0.5 mL/kg-1/h-1. The hemodynamic variables, arterial blood gas analyses, total administered fluid volume and side effects were recorded.
The PaO2/FiO2-ratio before the end of one-lung ventilation in the goal-directed therapy group was significantly higher than that of the control group, but there were no differences between the goal-directed therapy group and the control group for the PaO2/FiO2-ratio or other arterial blood gas analysis indices prior to anesthesia. The extubation time was significantly earlier in the goal-directed therapy group, but there was no difference in the length of hospital stay. Patients in the control group had greater urine volumes, and they were given greater colloid and overall fluid volumes. Nausea and vomiting were significantly reduced in the goal-directed therapy group.
The results of this study demonstrated that an optimization protocol, based on stroke volume variation and cardiac index obtained with a FloTrac/Vigileo device, increased the PaO2/FiO2-ratio and reduced the overall fluid volume, intubation time and postoperative complications (nausea and vomiting) in thoracic surgery patients requiring one-lung ventilation.
PMCID: PMC3715019  PMID: 23917675
Stroke Volume; Cardiac Output; Fluid Therapy; One-Lung Ventilation
3.  Intrarenal resistance index for the assessment of acute renal injury in a rat liver transplantation model 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:55.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after liver transplantation (LT) and associated with a high mortality. The renal resistive index (RI) is used to assess early renal function impairment in critical care patients. However, limited data are available concerning changes of renal RI and the development of AKI early after reperfusion. We approached to investigate the changes of renal RI and AKI after reperfusion in a rat liver transplantation model.
Rats were randomly divided into sham group or LT group. Ten rats in each group were used for the hemodynamic study and twenty for Doppler measurements during the procedure. Ten rats were sacrificed 30 min or 2 h after the reperfusion. We harvested kidneys, serum and urine for further analysis of the renal function.
The intrarenal RI increased significantly in the anhepatic stage and decreased significantly after the reperfusion in the LT group compared with sham group (P < 0.05). AKI was seen after the reperfusion in the LT group. No correlation was noted between the RI and renal function parameters 30 min after reperfusion.
The intrarenal RI increased significantly during the anhepatic stage, and decreased significantly early after the reperfusion. Intrarenal RI was unable to assess renal function in a rat liver transplantation model.
PMCID: PMC3599562  PMID: 23453043
Liver transplantation; Doppler sonography; Renal function; Resistive index; Cys; NGAL
4.  Influence of systemic immune and cytokine responses during the acute phase of zoster on the development of postherpetic neuralgia*  
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a severe sequela of herpes zoster (HZ). Until now, only age and pain severity were considered predisposing factors for the development of PHN. We evaluated 49 patients with acute phase HZ, 10 of whom developed PHN (Group A) and 39 of whom did not develop PHN (Group B). Twenty-five healthy volunteers similar in age and gender distribution to the study group were recruited as controls (Group C). Numbers of serum CD3+ (pan-T lymphocytes), CD4+ (helper/inducer), and CD8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) lymphocytes were decreased significantly in Groups A and B relative to the control group, but there were no statistical differences between Groups A and B. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-8, and IL-10 were significantly elevated in Groups A and B relative to Group C. IL-6 was significantly higher in Group A than in Group B, and was significantly positively correlated with pain severity scored on a visual analog scale. Therefore, we suggest that the inflammatory response, especially that of IL-6, in the acute phase of HZ may be associated with hyperalgesia and the development of PHN.
PMCID: PMC2722705  PMID: 19650202
T lymphocyte; Cytokines; Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN); Herpes zoster (HZ)
5.  Effect of tramadol on immune responses and nociceptive thresholds in a rat model of incisional pain*  
Objective: To evaluate the effects of tramadol on the proinflammatory responses in a rat model of incisional pain by investigating its effects on nociceptive thresholds and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-2 levels. Methods: Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats scheduled for plantar incision were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=6 in each group). Rats in Group 1 receiving general anesthesia with no incision were served as control; At 30 min before skin incision, Groups 2~5 were given 5 ml normal saline or 1, 10, and 20 mg/kg tramadol, respectively, intraperitoneally (i.p.); Group 6 received 10 mg/kg tramadol after operation; Group 7 received 10 mg/kg tramadol before incision, followed by 200 μg/kg naloxone after operation. Mechanical allodynia was measured by electronic von Frey filament to evaluate the nociceptive thresholds 1 h before incision, and 1 h and 2 h after operation. Serum IL-6 and IL-2 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 2 h after operation. Results: Mechanical thresholds decreased significantly and serum IL-6 level increased significantly after operation in Group 2 compared with control (P<0.01), and these changes were reversed respectively by tramadol in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). IL-2 level remained unchanged after operation in Group 2, but decreased in Group 3 (P<0.05), then gradually returned to the normal level in Groups 4 and 5. The intraperitoneally injected tramadol (10 and 20 mg/kg) produced a potent and dose-dependent antinocicptive effect on the lesioned paw. The antinocicptive effects of tramadol were partially antagonized by naloxone (200 μg/kg), suggesting an additional non-opioid mechanism. Conclusion: The results suggest that tramadol could be a good choice for the treatment of pain under the conditions that immunosuppression may be particularly contraindicated.
PMCID: PMC2579953  PMID: 18988309
Tramadol; Pain; Mechanical allodynia; Interleukin-6 (IL-6); Interleukin-2 (IL-2); Rat
6.  Anesthetic management of emergent critical tracheal stenosis 
Two case reports of emergent anesthesia of critical tracheal stenosis are presented. The use of extracorporeal circulation may be a lifesaving method for these patients. Two patients both with severe lower tracheal stenosis were admitted with severe inspiratory dyspnea. The first patient had a tracheal tube inserted above the stenosis in the operating room, but ventilation was unsatisfactory, high airway pressure and severe hypercarbia developed, therefore extracorporeal circulation was immediately initiated. For the second patient, we established femoral-femoral cardiopulmonary bypass prior to induction of anaesthesia, and intubated above the tracheal tumor orally under general anesthesia, then adjusted the endotracheal tube to appropriate depth after the tumor had been resected. The patient was gradually weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. The two patients all recovered very well after surgery.
Surgery is lifesaving for patients with critical tracheal stenosis, but how to ensure effective gas exchange is crucial to the anesthetic management. Extracorporeal circulation by the femoral artery and femoral vein cannulation can gain good gas exchange even if the trachea is totally obstructed. Therefore, before the induction of anesthesia, we should assess the site and degree of obstruction carefully and set up cardiopulmonary bypass to avoid exposing the patient to unexpected risks and the anesthesiologist to unexpected challenges.
PMCID: PMC1906600  PMID: 17610334
Tracheal stenosis; Extracorporeal circulation; Anesthesia
7.  Dose requirements of continuous infusion of rocuronium and atracurium throughout orthotopic liver transplantation in humans 
Objective: To compare the dose requirements of continuous infusion of rocuronium and atracurium throughout orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in humans. Methods: Twenty male patients undergoing liver transplantation were randomly assigned to two comparable groups of 10 patients each to receive a continuous infusion of rocuronium or atracurium under intravenous balanced anesthesia. The response of adductor pollicis to train-of-four (TOF) stimulation of unlar nerve was monitored. The infusion rates of rocuronium and atracurium were adjusted to maintain T1/Tc ratio of 2%~10%. The total dose of each drug given during each of the three phases of OLT was recorded. Results: Rocuronium requirement, which were (0.468±0.167) mg/(kg·h) during the paleohepatic phase, decreased significantly during the anhepatic phase to (0.303±0.134) mg/(kg·h) and returned to the initial values at the neohepatic period ((0.429±0.130) mg/(kg·h)); whereas atracuruim requirements remained unchanged during orthotopic liver transplantation. Conclusions: This study showed that the exclusion of the liver from the circulation results in the significantly reduced requirement of rocuronium while the requirement of atracurium was not changed, which suggests that the liver is of major importance in the clearance of rocuronium. A continuous infusion of atracurium with constant rate can provide stable neuromuscular blockade during the three stages of OLT.
PMCID: PMC1389903  PMID: 16130187
Rocuronium; Atracurium; Orthotopic liver transplantation

Results 1-7 (7)