Progress in the development of nonviral gene delivery vectors continues to be hampered by low transfection activity and toxicity. Here we proposed to develop a lipid prodrug based on a polyamine analogue bisethylnorspermine (BSP) that can function dually as gene delivery vector and, after intracellular degradation, as active anticancer agent targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism. We synthesized a prodrug of BSP (LS-BSP) capable of intracellular release of BSP using thiolytically sensitive dithiobenzyl carbamate linker. Biodegradability of LS-BSP contributed to decreased toxicity compared with nondegradable control L-BSP. BSP showed a strong synergistic enhancement of cytotoxic activity of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in human breast cancer cells. Decreased enhancement of TRAIL activity was observed for LS-BSP when compared with BSP. LS-BSP formed complexes with plasmid DNA and mediated transfection activity comparable to DOTAP and L-BSP. Our results show that BSP-based vectors are promising candidates for combination drug/gene delivery.
gene delivery; plasmid DNA; cationic lipid; bisethylnorspermine; TRAIL
Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an attractive multipotent stem cell source with therapeutic applicability across diverse fields for the repair and regeneration of acute and chronically damaged tissues. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in ADSC for tissue engineering applications. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ADSC proliferation are not fully understood. Here we show that 47 transcripts are up-regulated while 23 are down-regulated in ADSC compared to terminally differentiated cells based on global mRNA profiling and microRNA profiling. Among the up-regulated genes, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is fine-tuned by miR-199a-5p. Further investigation indicates that VEGF accelerates ADSC proliferation whereas the multipotency of ADSC remains stable in terms of adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic potentials after VEGF treatment, suggesting that VEGF may serve as an excellent supplement for accelerating ADSC proliferation during in vitro expansion.
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of combination lamivudine (LAM) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) versus entecavir (ETV) monotherapy for naïve HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.
Fifty enrolled patients with CHB were evenly divided into 2 groups: a group treated with of lamivudine (LAM) (100 mg/day) plus adefovir (ADV) (10 mg/day) combination, and a group treated with entecavir (ETV) (0.5 mg/day). Serum levels of ALT, AST, creatinine, bilirubin, HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV viral load, and genotypic resistance were analyzed at 0, 12, 24, 52, and 104 weeks. HBV DNA levels were determined by real-time PCR and HBsAg and HBeAg by chemiluminescence. Serum levels of ALT, AST, creatinine, and bilirubin were measured by an automatic biochemical analyzer. Data analysis was performed with SPSS 12.0 software.
There were no significant differences in the virological response (VR) rates between LAM+ADV and ETV cohorts at 24, 52, and 104 weeks (P>0.05). The HBeAg seroconversion rates were 28% and 20%, and the biochemical response (BR) rates were 88% and 84% at week 104 in the LAM+ADV and ETV groups, respectively. The rates of undetectable HBV DNA, HBeAg seroconversion, and ALT normalization rates were similar in both cohorts. No virological breakthrough or serious adverse effects were noted for any patient during the study period.
Both LAM + ADV combination therapy and ETV monotherapy were effective and safe in the treatment of naïve HBeAg-positive CHB patients. However, further studies are needed to obtain long-term results.
chronic hepatitis B; HBeAg-positive; lamivudine; adefovir dipivoxil; entecavir
Aptamers have recently emerged as an excellent alternative to antibodies, because of their inherent stability and ease of modification. In this paper, we describe the development of an aptamer-based surface for capture of cells expressing CD4 antigen. The glass or silicon surfaces were modified with amine terminated silanes and then modified with thiolated RNA aptamer against CD4. Modification of the surface was first characterized by ellipsometry to demonstrate assembly of biointerface components and to show specific capture of recombinant CD4 protein. Subsequently, surfaces were challenged with model lymphocytes (cell lines) that were either positive or negative for CD4 antigen. Our experiments show that aptamer-functionalized surfaces have similar capture efficiency to substrates containing anti-CD4 antibody. When mimicking capture of specific T-cells from a complex cell mixture, aptamer-modified surfaces were exposed to binary mixtures containing Molt-3 cells (CD4+) spiked into Daudi B cells (CD4-). As high as 94% purity of CD4 cells was observed captured on aptamer-containing surfaces from an initial fraction of 15% of CD4. Given the importance of CD4 cell capture in HIV/AIDS diagnosis and monitoring, aptamer-based devices may offer an opportunity for novel cell detection strategies and may yield more robust and less expensive blood analysis devices in the future.
T-cell capture and isolation; Biosensors; Aptamers
Penguins are an important seabird species in Antarctica and are sensitive to climate and environmental changes. Previous studies indicated that penguin populations increased when the climate became warmer and decreased when it became colder in the maritime Antarctic. Here we determined organic markers in a sediment profile collected at Cape Bird, Ross Island, high Antarctic, and reconstructed the history of Adélie penguin colonies at this location over the past 700 years. The region transformed from a seal to a penguin habitat when the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500–1800 AD) began. Penguins then became the dominant species. Penguin populations were the highest during ca. 1490 to 1670 AD, a cold period, which is contrary to previous results in other regions much farther north. Different responses to climate change may occur at low latitudes and high latitudes in the Antarctic, even if for same species.
Fibromyalgia (FM), characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue, and cognitive/mood disturbances, leads to reduced workplace productivity and increased healthcare expenses. To determine if acquired epigenetic/genetic changes are associated with FM, we compared the frequency of spontaneously occurring micronuclei (MN) and genome-wide methylation patterns in women with FM (n = 10) to those seen in comparably aged healthy controls (n = 42 (MN); n = 8 (methylation)). The mean (sd) MN frequency of women with FM (51.4 (21.9)) was significantly higher than that of controls (15.8 (8.5)) (χ2 = 45.552; df = 1; P = 1.49 × 10−11). Significant differences (n = 69 sites) in methylation patterns were observed between cases and controls considering a 5% false discovery rate. The majority of differentially methylated (DM) sites (91%) were attributable to increased values in the women with FM. The DM sites included significant biological clusters involved in neuron differentiation/nervous system development, skeletal/organ system development, and chromatin compaction. Genes associated with DM sites whose function has particular relevance to FM included BDNF, NAT15, HDAC4, PRKCA, RTN1, and PRKG1. Results support the need for future research to further examine the potential role of epigenetic and acquired chromosomal alterations as a possible biological mechanism underlying FM.
To reconstruct the lamellar cornea using human amniotic epithelial (HAE) cells and rabbit cornea stroma in vitro using tissue engineering technology.
Human amnia taken from uncomplicated caesarean sections were digested by collagenase to obtain HAE cells, and the cells were cultured to proliferate. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were removed by n-heptanol to make lamellar matrix sheets. The second passage of HAE cells were cultured on the corneal stroma sheets for 1 or 2 days, then transferred to an air-liquid interface environment to culture for 2 weeks. Tissue engineered lamellar cornea (TELC) morphology was observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining; its ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM); corneal epithelial cell-specific keratin 3 and keratin 12 were detected with immunofluorescence microscopy.
HAE cells grew on the rabbit corneal stroma, forming a monolayer after 1-2 days. About 4-5 layers of epithelial cells developed after 2 weeks of air-liquid interface cultivation, a result similar to normal corneal epithelium. Rabbit corneal stromal cells were significantly reduced after one week, then almost completely disappeared after 2 weeks. TEM showed desmosomes between the epithelial cells; hemidesmosomes formed between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. SEM revealed that the HAE cells which grew on the lamellar cornea had abundant microvilli. The tissue-engineered cornea expressed keratin 3 and keratin 12, as detected by immunofluorescence assay.
Functional tissue-engineered lamellar corneal grafts can be constructed in vitro using HAE cells and rabbit corneal stroma.
amniotic epithelial cells; cornea; tissue engineering; keratin
To compare the efficacy of the sole intravitreal triamcinolone (IVT) versus intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) alone or IVB combined with IVT in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME).
Pertinent publications were identified through systematic searches of database and manually searching. Methodological quality of the literatures was valuated according to the Jadad Score. RevMan 5.1.0 was used to do the meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was determined and sensitivity was conducted.
Six studies were ultimately included in the meta-analysis. The results of our analysis showed IVT had a statistically significant improvement in vision over the IVB at 1 month and 3 months (P<0.01). However, the reduction was not significant regarding central macular thickness (CMT) during the earlier (1 month and 3 months) follow-up period (P=0.12, P=0.41, respectively). At later visit (6 months), IVT had a significant decrease in CMT when compared to IVB (P<0.01) while no significant improvement in visual acuity (VA) was observed (P=0.14). The incidence of intraocular hypertension was 13/102 in IVT group during follow-up period while 0/103 in IVB group. The difference was significant (P<0.01). With regards to IVT versus IVB combined with IVT, there were no significant differences in CMT at 1 month (P=0.86) and 3 months (P=0.06). The incidence of intraocular hypertension was 6/67 in IVT group during follow-up period while 4/66 in IVB+IVT group. But the difference was not significant (P=0.53).
Current evidence shows IVT is superior in improving VA at earlier follow-up (1 month and 3 months) and in reducing CMT at later follow-up (6 months) for DME. At other time, it is in favor of IVT treatment but there are no statistically significances. However, IVT has the side-effect of ocular hypertension. There is no adequate evidence of the benefit adding IVB to IVT in contrast to IVT alone.
triamcinolone; bevacizumab; diabetic macular edema; meta-analysis
The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that the main effect of authoritative parenting, and the interactions of authoritarian parenting × effortful control and authoritative parenting × anger/frustration (parents’ reports only) prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problems. The above results did not vary by child sex and remained significant after controlling for co-occurring externalizing problems. These findings suggest that: a) children with low effortful control may be particularly susceptible to the adverse effect of authoritarian parenting, and b) the benefit of authoritative parenting may be especially important for children with high anger/frustration.
temperament; parenting styles; internalizing problems
Cryptococcosis presenting as endobronchial obstruction was scarce. We report a case of patient with cryptococcosis. A chest CT scan showed masses in the right upper lobe and right hilar, with evidence of narrowing of the right upper lobe bronchus. PET-CT scans showed the mass in the bronchus with the high mSUVs. A biopsy specimen was taken from the mass by lung puncture biopsy and showed cryptococcus infection. Culture of lung tissue was C. neoformans. The serum was positive for cryptococcal antigen, with a titer of more than 1:1,280. He was successfully treated using amphotericin B liposome. This case is worth discussing because it was cryptococcosis presenting as endobronchial obstruction that is often considered tumor.
Cryptococcosis; airway obstruction; amphotericin B liposome
Isoprene and monoterpenes are important precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in continents. However, their contributions to aerosols over oceans are still inconclusive. Here we analyzed SOA tracers from isoprene and monoterpenes in aerosol samples collected over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. Combined with literature reports elsewhere, we found that the dominant tracers are the oxidation products of isoprene. The concentrations of tracers varied considerably. The mean average values were approximately one order of magnitude higher in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. High values were generally observed in coastal regions. This phenomenon was ascribed to the outflow influence from continental sources. High levels of isoprene could emit from oceans and consequently have a significant impact on marine SOA as inferred from isoprene SOA during phytoplankton blooms, which may abruptly increase up to 95 ng/m3 in the boundary layer over remote oceans.
Direct sequencing was used to identify EGFR mutations in 180 pairs of lung adenocarcinoma samples from the primary tumor and one metastatic site in 3,071 patients. Correlations between EGFR genetic heterogeneity and patient characteristics were examined.
Non-small cell lung cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations have mixed responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Intertumor heterogeneity in EGFR mutations is one potential explanation for this phenomenon.
We performed direct sequencing to identify EGFR mutations in 180 pairs of lung adenocarcinoma samples (from 3,071 patients). The high-resolution melting method was used in discordant cases to confirm EGFR mutation status. Matching samples were divided into four groups: primary lesions detected at different times, primary tumors with matched metastatic lymph nodes, multiple pulmonary nodules, and primary tumors with matched distant metastases. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlations between heterogeneity and patient characteristics.
In the study population, the discordance rate was 13.9% (25 of 180). The multiple pulmonary nodules group had the highest discordance rate of 24.4% (10 of 41; odds ratio for heterogeneity in primary lesions detected at different times, 6.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.71–23.72; p = .006). Discordance rates in the metachronous and synchronous settings were 15.7% (22 of 140) and 7.5% (three of 40), respectively. In the 34 patients who developed EGFR TKI resistance, 10 (29.4%) cases exhibited heterogeneity and five (14.7%) patients exhibited a mixed response to the drug. Three (8.8%) of the patients with a mixed response also exhibited discordant EGFR mutations.
The overall discordance rate of EGFR mutation heterogeneity in Asian patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma is relatively low, but the rate in patients with multiple pulmonary nodules is significantly higher. This observation may explain the mixed tumor response to EGFR TKIs.
Lung neoplasm; Epidermal growth factor receptor; Metastasis; Heterogeneity
Aberrant activation of the proto-oncogene B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 11A (BCL11A) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of leukemia and lymphoma. However, the clinical significance of BCL11A in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown.
We examined BCL11A expression at the protein and mRNA levels in a cohort (n = 114) of NSCLC patients and assessed the relationship between BCL11A expression and clinicopathological parameters. Data from array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) and microRNA transfection experiments were integrated to explore the potential mechanisms of abnormal BCL11A activation in NSCLC. Compared to adjacent non-cancerous lung tissues, BCL11A expression levels were specifically upregulated in NSCLC tissues at both the mRNA (t = 9.81, P < 0.001) and protein levels. BCL11A protein levels were higher in patients with squamous histology (χ2 = 15.81, P = 0.001), smokers (χ2 = 8.92, P = 0.004), patients with no lymph node involvement (χ2 = 5.14, P = 0.029), and patients with early stage disease (χ2 = 3.91, P = 0.048). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that in early stage NSCLC (IA–IIB), BCL11A was not only an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (hazards ratio [HR] 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.50, P < 0.001), but also for overall survival (HR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.09-0.61, P = 0.003). The average BCL11A expression level was much higher in SCC samples with amplifications than in those without amplifications (t = 3.30, P = 0.023). Assessing functionality via an in vitro luciferase reporter system and western blotting, we found that the BCL11A protein was a target of miR-30a.
Our results demonstrated that proto-oncogene BCL11A activation induced by miR-30a and gene amplification may be a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for effective management of this disease.
BCL11A; Proto-oncogene; Non-small cell lung cancer; microRNA; Prognosis
Microbacterium barkeri strain 2011-R4 is a Gram-positive epiphyte which has been confirmed as a biocontrol agent against several plant pathogens in our previous studies. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of this strain, which was isolated from the rice rhizosphere in Tonglu city, Zhejiang province, China.
Background: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is believed to be the critical process in malignant tumor invasion and metastases, and has a great influence on improving the survival rate in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Recent studies suggested that eukaryotic initiation factor 5A-2 (eIF5A-2) might serve as an adverse prognostic marker of survival. We detected eIF5A-2 in NSCLC A549 cells, and found that the invasive capability correlates with the eIF5A-2 expression. Methods: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 was used to induce EMT in A549 cells. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, wound healing assay, and transwell-matrigel invasion chambers were used to identify phenotype changes. Western blotting was also used to observe changes of the expression of eIF5A-2. We down-regulated the eIF5A-2 expression using an eIF5A-2 siRNA and identified the phenotype changes by western blotting and immunofluorescence. We tested the change of migration and invasion capabilities of A549 cells by the wound healing assay and transwell-matrigel invasion chambers. Results: After stimulating with TGF-β1, almost all A549 cells changed to the mesenchymal phenotype and acquired more migration and invasion capabilities. These cells also had higher eIF5A-2 protein expression. Down-regulation of eIF5A-2 expression with eIF5A-2 siRNA transfection could change the cells from mesenchymal to epithelial phenotype and decrease tumor cell migration and invasive capabilities significantly. Conclusions: The expression of eIF5A-2 was up-regulated following EMT phenotype changes in A549 cells, which correlated with enhanced tumor invasion and metastatic capabilities. Furthermore, in the A549 cell line, the process of EMT phenotype change could be reversed by eIF5A-2 siRNA, with a consequent weakening of both invasive and metastatic capabilities.
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A-2 (eIF5A-2); Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1; A549
In the absence of intracellular nucleotides, ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels exhibit spontaneous activity via a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-dependent gating process. Previous studies show that stability of this activity requires subunit-subunit interactions in the cytoplasmic domain of Kir6.2; selective mutagenesis and disease mutations at the subunit interface result in time-dependent channel inactivation. Here, we report that mutation of the central glycine in the pore-lining second transmembrane segment (TM2) to proline in Kir6.2 causes KATP channel inactivation. Unlike C-type inactivation, a consequence of selectivity filter closure, in many K+ channels, the rate of inactivation in G156P channels was insensitive to changes in extracellular ion concentrations or ion species fluxing through the pore. Instead, the rate of G156P inactivation decreased with exogenous application of PIP2 and increased when PIP2-channel interaction was inhibited with neomycin or poly-L-lysine. These findings indicate the G156P mutation reduces the ability of PIP2 to stabilize the open state of KATP channels, similar to mutations in the cytoplasmic domain that produce inactivation. Consistent with this notion, when PIP2-dependent open state stability was substantially increased by addition of a second gain-of-function mutation, G156P inactivation was abolished. Importantly, bath application and removal of Mg2+-free ATP or a nonhydrolyzable analog of ATP, which binds to the cytoplasmic domain of Kir6.2 and causes channel closure, recover G156P channel from inactivation, indicating crosstalk between cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains. The G156P mutation provides mechanistic insight into the structural and functional interactions between the pore and cytoplasmic domains of Kir6.2 during gating.
Epigenetic mechanisms play key roles in initiation and progression of prostate cancer by changing gene expression. The Prostate Epigenetic Database (PEpiD: http://wukong.tongji.edu.cn/pepid) archives the three extensively characterized epigenetic mechanisms DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA implicated in prostate cancer of human, mouse, and rat. PEpiD uses a distinct color scheme to present the three types of epigenetic data and provides a user-friendly interface for flexible query. The retrieved information includes Refseq ID, gene symbol, gene alias, genomic loci of epigenetic changes, tissue source, experimental method, and supportive references. The change of histone modification (hyper or hypo) and the corresponding gene expression change (up or down) are also indicated. A graphic view of DNA methylation with exon-intron structure and predicted CpG islands is provided as well. Moreover, the prostate-related ENCODE tracks (DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodelers), and other key transcription factors with reported roles in prostate are displayed in the browser as well. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations has made them potential markers for diagnosis and prognosis, and targets for treatment of cancers. This curated information will improve our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation in prostate cancer, and serve as an important resource for epigenetic research in prostate cancer.
This present study deals with synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde. Results from this study indicated that cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde markedly inhibited the growth of antibiotic-resistant Burkholderia cepacia complex regardless of bacterial species and incubation time while bacterial growth was unaffected by solid chitosan. Furthermore, high temperature treated cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde showed strong antibacterial activity against the selected strain 0901 although the inhibitory effects varied with different temperatures. In addition, physical-chemical and structural characterization revealed that the cross-linking of chitosan with glutaraldehyde resulted in a rougher surface morphology, a characteristic Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) band at 1559 cm−1, a specific X-ray diffraction peak centered at 2θ = 15°, a lower contents of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, and a higher stability of glucose units compared to chitosan based on scanning electron microscopic observation, FTIR spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern, as well as elemental and thermo gravimetric analysis. Overall, this study indicated that cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde is promising to be developed as a new antibacterial drug.
antibacterial activity; characterization; chitosan; cross-link; glutaraldehyde
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a complex family of pre-leukemic diseases in which hematopoietic stem cell defects lead to abnormal differentiation in one or more blood lineages. Disease progression is associated with increasing genomic instability and a large proportion of patients go on to develop acute myeloid leukemia. Primarily a disease of the elderly, it can also develop following chemotherapy. We have previously reported that CREB binding protein (Crebbp) heterozygous mice have an increased incidence of hematological malignancies, and others have shown that CREBBP is one of the genes altered by chromosomal translocations found in patients suffering from therapy-related MDS. This led us to investigate whether hematopoietic tumor development in Crebbp+/- mice is preceded by a myelodysplastic phase and whether we could uncover molecular mechanisms that might contribute to its development. We report here that Crebbp+/- mice invariably develop myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm within 9-12 months of age. They are also hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and show a marked decrease in PARP1 activity after irradiation. In addition, protein levels of XRCC1 and APEX1, key components of base excision repair machinery, are reduced in unirradiated Crebbp+/- cells or upon targeted knock down of CREBBP levels. Our results thus provide validation of a novel myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm mouse model and, more importantly, point to defective repair of DNA damage as a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of this currently incurable disease.
CREBBP; MDS/MPN; DNA repair; radiation hypersensitivity; PARP1
We retrospectively studied the efficacy of bevacizumab as salvage therapy for recurrent malignant glioma with a focus on the overall survival (OS).
Patients who received a therapy other than surgery for recurrent malignant glioma were included. Efficacy was evaluated using MRI. Neurological function was evaluated using the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO). The survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
Fifty-one patients with recurrent glioma (31 grade III, 20 grade IV) were included. Among them, 22 subjects (43.1%) received bevacizumab. The median OS was 10.2 months (range, 1 to 27 months). Patients receiving bevacizumab had comparable OS (a median of 9.9 vs. 10.0 months) and similar 6-month survival rate (43% vs. 34%) to those who did not receive bevacizumab. A subgroup analysis failed to notice any significant difference in grade III glioma patients receiving bevacizumab vs. those who did not. The median survival was significantly longer at 8.9 months (range, 4 to 13 months) in grade IV glioma patients receiving bevacizumab than in those who did not (5.6 months, range, 2 to 7 months, P=0.042). The 6-month survival rate was higher (83%) in those who received bevacizumab than in those who did not (47%, P=0.046). No grade 3/4 adverse events were observed in any patient.
Bevacizumab, as a rescue therapy, provides a survival benefit for recurrent grade IV glioma.
Bevacizumab; recurrent malignant glioma
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) occurs as a consequence of unregulated insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cells. Severe recessive mutations and milder dominant mutations have been described in the ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes encoding SUR1 and Kir6.2 subunits of the beta-cell ATP-sensitive K(+) channel. Here we report two patients with CHI unresponsive to medical therapy with diazoxide. Sequencing analysis identified a compound heterozygous mutation in ABCC8 in both patients. The first one is a carrier for the known mild dominant mutation p.Glu1506Lys jointly with the novel mutation p.Glu1323Lys. The second carries the p.Glu1323Lys mutation and a second novel mutation, p.Met1394Arg. Functional studies of both novel alleles showed reduced or null cell surface expression, typical of recessive mutations. Compound heterozygous mutations in congenital hyperinsulinism result in complex interactions. Studying these mechanisms can improve the knowledge of this disease and modify its therapy.
Congenital hyperinsulinism; Mutation; ABCC8; Functional study
The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children’s temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society.
temperament; parenting styles; bidirectional
The development of atherosclerosis (AS) is a multifactorial process in which elevated plasma cholesterol levels play a central role. As a new class of players involved in AS, the regulation and function of microRNAs (miR) in response to AS remain poorly understood. This study analyzed the effects of miR-1 (antagomir and mimic) on endothelial permeability and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression and activity in the artery wall of apoE knock-out mice after feeding them a high-cholesterol diet. Further, we tested to determine whether that effects are involved in ERK phosphorylation. Here, we show that a high-cholesterol diet induces a significant decrease of miR-1 expression. Histopathologic examination demonstrated that miR-1 antagomir enhances endothelial permeability induced by high cholesterol and miR-1 mimic attenuated endothelial barrier dysfunction. Consistent with endothelial permeability, Western blotting, qPCR, and γ-32P-ATP phosphate incorporation showed that MLCK expression and activity were further increased in miR-1 antagomir-treated mice and decreased in miR-1 mimic-treated mice compared with those of mice receiving control miR. Further mechanistic studies showed that high-cholesterol-induced extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation was enhanced by miR-1 antagomir and attenuated by miR-1 mimic. Collectively, those results indicate that miR-1 contributes to endothelial barrier function via mechanisms involving not only MLCK expression and activity but also ERK phosphorylation.
MicroRNA-1; Permeability; Myosin light chain kinase
In the title adduct, C11H11N3O·C2H4O2, all non-H atoms of the acetamide molecule are roughly coplanar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0720 Å. The dihedral angle between the ring plane and the acetamide group is 8.5 (2)°. In the crystal, O—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the acetamide and acetic acid molecules.
Nucleosome occupancy results in complex sequence variation rate heterogeneity by either increasing mutation rate or inhibiting DNA repair in yeast, fish, and human. H2A.Z nucleosome is extensively involved in gene transcription activation and regulation. To test whether H2A.Z nucleosome has the similar impact on sequence variability in the Drosophila genome, we profiled the H2A.Z nucleosome occupancy and sequence variation rate at gene ends and splicing sites. Consistent with previous studies, H2A.Z nucleosome positioning helps to demarcate the borders of exons. Nucleosome occupancy is anticorrelated with sequence divergence rate in the regions flanking transcription start sites and splicing sites. However, there is no rate heterogeneity between the linker DNA and H2A.Z nucleosomal DNA regardless of nucleosome occupancy, fuzziness, positioning in promoter, coding, and intergenic regions, young or old genes. But the rate at intergenic nucleosomes and the flanking linker regions is higher than that at the genic counterparts. Further analyses found that the high sequence divergence rate in the promoter regions that are usually nucleosome depleted regions may be likely resulted from the high mutation rate in the enriched tandem repeats. Interestingly, within nucleosomes spanning splicing sites, sequence variability of nucleosomal DNA significantly increases from the end within exons to the other end protruding into introns. The relaxed functional constraint in introns contributes to the high rate of nucleosomal DNA residing in introns while the strict functional constraint in exons maintains the low rate of nucleosomal DNA residing in exons. Taken together, H2A.Z nucleosome occupancy has no effect on sequence variability of Drosophila genome, which is likely determined by local sequence composition and the concomitant selection pressure.