We have previously demonstrated that pre- and post-treatment of animals with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), can improve survival in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced severe shock. This study was to assess whether SAHA affects LPS/Toll like receptor4 (TLR4) signaling through acetylation of HSP90 and degradation of its client protein interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 1 (IRAK1).
Methods and Results
RAW264.7 cells were exposed to LPS (1 μg/ml) for two hours followed by treatment with SAHA (10 μM) or one of HSP90 inhibitors, geldanamycin (GA) (3 μM). Sham (no SAHA, no LPS) macrophages served as a control. The cells were harvested at different time points, and time zero served as the reference point. LPS dramatically increased protein expression of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and IRAK1, and stimulated nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kB (NF-kB), leading to increases of gene expression and protein production of TNF-α and IL-6. Treatment with SAHA significantly attenuated these LPS- stimulated alterations. LPS or SAHA did not change the levels of HSP90 protein, but immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that SAHA treatment enhanced acetylation of HSP90, and increased the dissociation of IRAK1, compared to the LPS control.
SAHA suppresses LPS/TLR4 signaling in LPS-stimulated macrophages through multiple possible mechanisms. It inhibits the function of HSP90 through hyperacetylation of the chaperone protein, which results in dissociation and degradation of the client protein IRAK1 and, at least in part, leads to a resultant decrease in nuclear translocation of NF-κB and attenuation of key pro-inflammatory cytokine expression.
Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; Lipopolysaccharides; Toll-Like Receptor 4; HSP90; macrophages; inflammation; immune response; acetylation
We have previously shown that targeting human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) with a bispecific antibody (BiAb) directed against myosin light chain (MLC) increases delivery of cells to the injured hearts and improves cardiac performance in the nude rat. In this study, we have sought to validate our previous observations and to perform more detailed determination of ventricular function in immunocompetent mice with myocardial infarction (MI) that were treated with armed CD34+ HSC. We examined whether armed CD34+ HSC would target the injured heart following MI and restore ventricular function in vitro. MI was created by ligation of the left anterior descending artery. After 48 h, adult ICR mice received either 0.5 × 106 human CD34+ HSC armed with anti-CD45 × anti-MLC BiAb or an equal volume of medium through a single tail vein injection. Two weeks after stem cell administration, ventricular function of hearts from mice receiving armed CD34+ HSC was significantly greater compared with the same parameters from control mice. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the accumulation of CD34+ HSC in MI hearts infused with stem cells. Angiogenesis was significantly enhanced in CD34+ HSC-treated heart as determined by vascular density per area. Furthermore, histopathological examination revealed that the retained cardiac function observed in CD34+ HSC-treated mice was associated with decreased ventricular fibrosis. These results suggest that peripheral administration of armed CD34+ HSC results in localization of CD34+ HSC to injured myocardium and restores myocardial function.
CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell; bispecific antibody; mouse; myocardium
Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skins.
To determine the optimum conditions with the maximum yield of the pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) extraction.
Materials and Methods:
The conditions of the extraction were optimized using response surface methodology. The Box–Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the three independent variables (extraction time, enzyme concentration, and solid–liquid ratio) on the PSC yield of the sturgeon skin.
The optimal conditions were: solid–liquid ratio of 1:11.88, enzyme concentration of 2.42%, and extraction time of 6.45 h. The maximum yield of 86.69% of PSC was obtained under the optimal conditions. This value was not significantly different from the predicted value (87.4%) of the RSM (P < 0.05).
The results of this study indicated that the production of PSC from sturgeon skin is feasible and beneficial. The patterns of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the sturgeon skin contains type I collagen, which is made of α-chain and β-chain. The infrared spectra of the collagens also indicated that pepsin hydrolysis does not affect the secondary structure of collagen, especially triple-helical structure.
Extraction; pepsin-soluble collagen; response surface methodology; sturgeon skin; SDS-PAGE
We have demonstrated that post-shock administration of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), can significantly improve early survival in a highly lethal model of hemorrhagic shock. As the primary insult in hemorrhagic shock is cellular hypoxia, and transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) controls pro-inflammatory gene expression in macrophages, we hypothesized that SAHA would attenuate the HIF-1α associated pro-inflammatory pathway in a hypoxic macrophage model.
Mouse macrophages were exposed to hypoxic conditions (0.5% O2, 10% CO2, and 89.5% N2) at 37°C in the presence or absence of SAHA (10 μmol/L). The cells and culture medium were harvested at 1hour, 4 hours and 8 hours. Sham (no hypoxia, no SAHA) served as a control. Western blots were performed to assess protein levels of prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), HIF-1α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the cells. Colorimetric biochemical assay and ELISA were utilized to analyze the release of nitric oxide (NO) and secretion of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) respectively in the cell culture medium.
Hypoxia significantly increased cellular level of HIF-1α (1 and 4 hours), gene transcription of iNOS (4 and 8 hours), iNOS protein (8 hours), NO production (8 hours), and TNF-α secretion (4 & 8 hours). SAHA treatment attenuated all of above hypoxia-induced alterations in the macrophages. In addition, SAHA treatment significantly increased cellular level of PHD2, one of the upstream negative regulators of HIF-1α, at 1 hour.
Treatment with SAHA attenuates hypoxia- HIF-1α-inflammatory pathway in macrophages, and suppresses hypoxia-induced release of proinflammatory NO and TNF-α. SAHA also causes an early increase in cellular PHD2, which provides, at least in part, a new explanation for the decrease in the HIF-1α protein levels.
Hypoxia; macrophages; SAHA; HIF-1α; PHD2
We have recently demonstrated that treatment with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, significantly improves survival in a rodent model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock. However, the precise mechanisms have not been well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of SAHA treatment on gene expression profiles at an early stage of shock.
Male C57B1/6J mice were treated with or without SAHA (50 mg/kg, i.p), followed by a lethal dose of LPS (20 mg/kg, i.p) and a second dose of SAHA. Lungs of the animals (LPS and SAHA+LPS groups, n=3/group) were harvested 3 hours post-LPS insult. Sham mice (no LPS and no SAHA) served as controls. RNA was isolated from the tissues and gene expression was analyzed using Affymatrix microarray (23,000 genes). A lower confidence bound (LCB) of fold change was determined for comparison of LPS vs. SAHA+LPS, and genes with LCB >2 were considered to be differentially expressed. RT-PCR, western blotting and tissue staining were performed to verify the key changes. Network graphs were used to determine gene interaction, and biological relevance.
The expression of many genes known to be involved in septic pathophysiology changed after the LPS insult. Interestingly, a number of genes not previously implicated in the septic response were also altered. SAHA treatment attenuated expression of several key genes involved in inflammation. It also reduced neutrophil infiltration in lungs and histological evidence of acute lung injury. Further analysis confirmed genes engaged in the cellular and humoral arms of innate immune system that were specifically inhibited by SAHA. Gene network analysis identified numerous molecules for the potential development of targeted therapies.
Administration of SAHA in a rodent model of LPS shock rapidly modulates gene transcription, with an attenuation of inflammatory mediators derived from both arms (cellular and humoral) of the innate immune system. This may be a novel mechanism responsible for the survival advantage seen with SAHA treatment.
Endotoxic shock; microarray; immune; inflammation; suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; lung
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of collagen composition on engraftment of progenitor cells within infarcted myocardium.
We previously reported that intramyocardial penetration of stem/progenitor cells in epicardial patches was enhanced when collagen was reduced in hearts overexpressing adenylyl cyclase-6 (AC6). In this study we hypothesized an alternative strategy wherein overexpression of microRNA-29b (miR-29b), inhibiting mRNAs that encode cardiac fibroblast proteins involved in fibrosis, would similarly facilitate progenitor cell migration into infarcted rat myocardium.
In vitro: A tri-cell patch (Tri-P) consisting of cardiac sodium-calcium exchanger-1 (NCX1) positive iPSC (iPSCNCX1+), endothelial cells (EC), and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) was created, co-cultured, and seeded on isolated peritoneum. The expression of fibrosis-related genes was analyzed in cardiac fibroblasts (CFb) by qPCR and Western blot. In vivo: Nude rat hearts were administered mimic miRNA-29b (miR-29b), miRNA-29b inhibitor (Anti-29b), or negative mimic (Ctrl) before creation of an ischemically induced regional myocardial infarction (MI). The Tri-P was placed over the infarcted region 7 days later. Angiomyogenesis was analyzed by micro-CT imaging and immunofluorescent staining. Echocardiography was performed weekly.
The number of green fluorescent protein positive (GFP+) cells, capillary density, and heart function were significantly increased in hearts overexpressing miR-29b as compared with Ctrl and Anti-29b groups. Conversely, down-regulation of miR-29b with anti-29b in vitro and in vivo induced interstitial fibrosis and cardiac remodeling.
Overexpression of miR-29b significantly reduced scar formation after MI and facilitated iPSCNCX1+ penetration from the cell patch into the infarcted area, resulting in restoration of heart function after MI.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry is a multiple-step process involving a number of host factors and hence represents a promising target for new antiviral drug development. In search of novel inhibitors of HCV infection, we found that a human apolipoprotein E (apoE) peptide, hEP, containing both a receptor binding fragment and a lipid binding fragment of apoE, specifically blocked the entry of cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc) at sub-micromolar concentrations. hEP caused little cytotoxicity in vitro and remained active even if left 24 hours in cell culture. Interestingly, hEP inhibited neither HIV-HCV pseudotypes (HCVpp) nor HIV and Dengue virus (DENV) infection. Further characterization mapped the anti-HCV activity to a 32-residue region that harbors the receptor binding domain of apoE, but this fragment must contain a cysteine residue at the N-terminus to mediate dimer formation. The anti-HCV activity of the peptide appears to be dependent on both its length and sequence and correlates with its ability to bind lipids. Finally, we demonstrated that the apoE-derived peptides directly blocked the binding of both HCVcc and patient serum-derived virus to hepatoma cells as well as primary human hepatocytes.
apoE peptides potently inhibit HCV infection and suggest a direct role of apoE in mediating HCV entry. Our findings also highlight the potential of developing apoE mimetic peptides as novel HCV entry inhibitors by targeting HCV-host interactions.
apolipoprotein E; viral hepatitis; viral entry; peptide inhibitor; virus binding
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from many sources, including adults and fetuses. Previous studies have demonstrated that, compared with their adult counterpart, fetal MSCs with several remarkable advantages may be a better resource for clinical applications. In this study, we successfully isolated a rapidly proliferating cell population from limb bud of aborted fetus and termed them “human limb bud–derived mesenchymal stem cells” (hLB-MSCs). Characteristics of their morphology, phenotype, cell cycle, and differentiation properties were analyzed. These adherent cell populations have a typically spindle-shaped morphology. Flow cytometry analysis showed that hLB-MSCs are positive for CD13, CD29, CD90, CD105, and CD106, but negative for CD3, CD4, CD5, CD11b, CD14, CD15, CD34, CD45, CD45RA, and HLA-DR. The detection of cell cycle from different passages indicated that hLB-MSCs have a similar potential for propagation during long culture in vitro. The most novel finding here is that, in addition to their mesodermal differentiation (osteoblasts and adipocytes), hLB-MSCs can also differentiated into extramesenchymal lineages, such as neural (ectoderm) and hepatic (endoderm) progenies. These results indicate that hLB-MSCs have a high level of plasticity and can differentiate into cell lineages from all three embryonic layers in vitro.
We aimed to investigate the awareness of and willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Xinjiang, China and determine factors that predict willingness to use oral PrEP.
Between November 2009 and December 2010, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among 351 HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from three cities in Xinjiang, China. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess their awareness of and willingness to use oral PrEP. Additionally, blood samples were collected to test for HIV infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP.
Only 10 participants (2.8%) reported having heard of PrEP, and only two reported ever using PrEP. However, 297 (84.6%) reported that they were willing to use oral PrEP if it was proven to be both safe and effective. Results of multivariate analysis revealed the following independent predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP: monthly household income (adjusted odds ratio = 2.78, <1000 RMB vs. ≥1000 RMB, 95% confidence interval: 1.36–5.69), perceived likelihood of contracting HIV from HIV-positive partner (adjusted odds ratio = 2.63, likely vs. unlikely, 95% confidence interval: 1.12–6.19), and worrying about being discriminated against by others due to oral PrEP use (adjusted odds ratio = 9.43, No vs. Yes, 95% confidence interval: 3.78–23.50).
Our results showed HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in China had low awareness of oral PrEP but high willingness to use oral PrEP for HIV prevention. Cost of oral PrEP should be taken into consideration in future PrEP prevention strategy. In addition, efforts should be made to reduce stigma attached to oral PrEP use, which may increase its acceptability among potential users.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a member of the proglucagon incretin family implicated in the control of appetite and satiety. GLP-1 has insulinotropic, insulinomimetic, and glucagonostatic effects, thereby exerting multiple complementary actions to lower blood glucose in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A major advantage over conventional insulin is the fact that the insulinotropic actions of GLP-1 are dependent upon ambient glucose concentration, mitigating the risks of hypoglycemia. Recently, the crucial role of GLP-1 in cardiovascular disease has been suggested in both preclinical and clinical studies. The experimental data indicate GLP-1 and its analogs to have direct effects on the cardiovascular system, in addition to their classic glucoregulatory actions. Clinically, beneficial effects of GLP-1 have also been demonstrated in patients with myocardial ischemia and heart failure. GLP-1 has recently been demonstrated to be a more effective alternative in treating myocardial injury. This paper provides a review on the current evidence supporting the use of GLP-1 in experimental animal models and human trials with the ischemic and non-ischemic heart and discusses their molecular mechanisms and potential as a new therapeutic approach.
GLP-1; Insulin resistance; Heart; Cardiovascular disease; Diabetes
We and others have demonstrated that HDAC inhibition protects the heart against myocardial injury. It is known that Akt-1 and MAP kinase play an essential role in modulation of myocardial protection and cardiac preconditioning. Our recent observations have shown that Akt-1 was activated in post-myocardial infarction following HDAC inhibition. However, it remains unknown whether MKK3 and Akt-1 are involved in HDAC inhibition-induced myocardial protection in acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. We sought to investigate whether the genetic disruption of Akt-1 and MKK3 eliminate cardioprotection elicited by HDAC inhibition and whether Akt-1 is associated with MKK3 to ultimately achieve protective effects. Adult wild type and MKK3−/−, Akt-1−/− mice received intraperitoneal injections of trichostatin A (0.1mg/kg), a potent inhibitor of HDACs. The hearts were subjected to 30 min myocardial ischemia/30 min reperfusion in the Langendorff perfused heart after twenty four hours to elicit pharmacologic preconditioning. Left ventricular function was measured, and infarct size was determined. Acetylation and phosphorylation of MKK3 were detected and disruption of Akt-1 abolished both acetylation and phosphorylation of MKK3. HDAC inhibition produces an improvement in left ventricular functional recovery, but these effects were abrogated by disruption of either Akt-1 or MKK3. Disruption of Akt-1 or MKK3 abolished the effects of HDAC inhibition-induced reduction of infarct size. Trichostatin A treatment resulted in an increase in MKK3 phosphorylation or acetylation in myocardium. Taken together, these results indicate that stimulation of the MKK3 and Akt-1 pathway is a novel approach to HDAC inhibition -induced cardioprotection.
Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (circEPCs) of bone marrow (BM) origin contribute to postnatal neovascularization and represent a potential therapeutic target for ischemic disease. Statins are beneficial for ischemia disease and have been implicated to increase neovascularization via mechanisms independent of lipid lowering. However, the effect of Statins on EPC function is not completely understood. Here we sought to investigate the effects of Rosuvastatin (Ros) on EPC mobilization and EPC-mediated neovascularization during ischemic injury. In a mouse model of surgically-induced hindlimb ischemia (HLI), treatment of mice with low dose (0.1 mg/kg) but not high dose (5 mg/kg) significantly increased capillary density and accelerated blood flow recovery, as compared to saline-treated group. When HLI was induced in mice that had received Tie2/LacZ BM transplantation, Ros treatment led a significantly larger amount of endothelial cells (ECs) of BM origin incorporated at ischemic sites than saline. After treatment of mice with a single low dose of Ros, circEPCs significantly increased from 2 h, peaked at 4 h, declined until 8 h. In a growth-factor reduced Matrigel plug-in assay, Ros treatment for 5 d induced endothelial lineage differentiation in vivo. Interestingly, the enhanced circEPCs and post-HLI neovascularization stimulated by Ros were blunted in mice deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and Ros increased p-Akt/p-eNOS levels in EPCs in vitro, indicating these effects of Ros are dependent on eNOS activity. We conclude that Ros increases circEPCs and promotes their de novo differentiation through eNOS pathway.
Cardiac dysfunction is well-described in endotoxemia and diagnosed in up to 60% of patients with endotoxic shock. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are critical to cardiac function. This study investigates the role of Kir6.2 subunits of KATP channels on cardiac dysfunction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia.
Kir6.2 subunits knockout (Kir6.2−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice were injected with LPS to induce endotoxemia. Cardiac function was monitored by echocardiography. Left ventricles were taken for microscopy (both light and electron) and TUNEL examination. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in both serum and left ventricular tissues were determined.
Compared to WT, Kir6.2−/− mice showed significantly declined cardiac function 360 min after LPS administration, aggravated myocardial damage and elevated serum LDH and CK activities. Apoptotic cells were obviously increased in heart tissues from Kir6.2−/− mice at 90, 180 and 360 min. TNF-α expression in both serum and heart tissues of Kir6.2−/− mice was significantly increased.
We conclude that Kir6.2 subunits are critical in resistance to endotoxemia-induced cardiac dysfunction through reducing myocardial damage by inhibition of apoptosis and inflammation. KATP channels blockers are extensively used in the treatment of diabetes, their potential role should therefore be considered in the clinic when patients treated with antidiabetic sulfonylureas are complicated by endotoxemia.
Endotoxemia; Cardiac dysfunction; Kir6.2 subunits
This research is among the few that has been conducted on the feasibility of subcritical water extraction (SWE) as a rapid and efficient extraction tool for polysaccharides.
The aim of the study was to extractand optimize the parameter conditions of SWE of polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa using response surface methodology.
Materials and Methods:
In the study, SWEwas applied to extractbioactive compounds from G. frondosa. A preliminary analysis was made on the physical properties and content determination of extracts using SWE and hot water extraction (HWE). Analysis of the sample residues and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides extracted by SWE and HWE were then evaluated.
The optimal extraction conditions include: extraction temperature of 210°C, extraction time of 43.65 min and the ratio of water to raw material of 26.15:1. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental yield of the polysaccharides (25.1 ± 0.3%) corresponded with the mean value predicted by the model and two times more than the mean value obtained by the traditional HWE. The antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted by SWE were generally higher than those extracted by HWE. From the study, the SWE technology could be a time-saving, high yield, and bioactive technique for production of polysaccharides.
Antioxidant activity; Grifola frondosa; polysaccharide; response surface methodology; subcritical water extraction
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising anti-fibrosis drugs; however, nonselective inhibition of class I and class II HDACs does not allow a detailed elucidation of the individual HDAC functions in renal fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of MS-275, a selective class I HDAC inhibitor, on the development of renal fibrosis in a murine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and activation of cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts.
The UUO model was established by ligation of the left ureter and the contralateral kidney was used as a control. At seven days after UUO injury, kidney developed fibrosis as indicated by deposition of collagen fibrils and increased expression of collagen I, fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). Administration of MS-275 inhibited all these fibrotic responses and suppressed UUO-induced production of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta), increased expression of TGF-beta receptor I, and phosphorylation of Smad-3. MS-275 was also effective in suppressing phosphorylation and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling molecule, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. Moreover, class I HDAC inhibition reduced the number of renal tubular cells arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, a cellular event associated with TGF-beta1overproduction. In cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts, MS-275 treatment inhibited TGF-beta induced phosphorylation of Smad-3, differentiation of renal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and proliferation of myofibroblasts.
Conclusions and Significance
These results demonstrate that class I HDACs are critically involved in renal fibrogenesis and renal fibroblast activation through modulating TGF-beta and EGFR signaling and suggest that blockade of class I HDAC may be a useful treatment for renal fibrosis.
The GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP) technique, based on functional complementation between two nonfluorescent GFP fragments, can be used to detect the location of synapses quickly, accurately and with high spatial resolution. The method has been previously applied in the nematode and the fruit fly but requires substantial modification for use in the mammalian brain. We developed mammalian GRASP (mGRASP) by optimizing transmembrane split-GFP carriers for mammalian synapses. Using in silico protein design, we engineered chimeric synaptic mGRASP fragments that were efficiently delivered to synaptic locations and reconstituted GFP fluorescence in vivo. Furthermore, by integrating molecular and cellular approaches with a computational strategy for the three-dimensional reconstruction of neurons, we applied mGRASP to both long-range circuits and local microcircuits in the mouse hippocampus and thalamocortical regions, analyzing synaptic distribution in single neurons and in dendritic compartments.
Motivation: A new technique, mammalian green fluorescence protein (GFP) reconstitution across synaptic partners (mGRASP), enables mapping mammalian synaptic connectivity with light microscopy. To characterize the locations and distribution of synapses in complex neuronal networks visualized by mGRASP, it is essential to detect mGRASP fluorescence signals with high accuracy.
Results: We developed a fully automatic method for detecting mGRASP-labeled synapse puncta. By modeling each punctum as a Gaussian distribution, our method enables accurate detection even when puncta of varying size and shape partially overlap. The method consists of three stages: blob detection by global thresholding; blob separation by watershed; and punctum modeling by a variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture models. Extensive testing shows that the three-stage method improved detection accuracy markedly, and especially reduces under-segmentation. The method provides a goodness-of-fit score for each detected punctum, allowing efficient error detection. We applied this advantage to also develop an efficient interactive method for correcting errors.
Availability: The software is available on http://jinny.kist.re.kr
Inflammation processes are important participants in the pathophysiology of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The role of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) in inflammation has recently been identified. Our previous study has demonstrated that the α7nAChR-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is impaired systemically in the genetic model of hypertension. In this work, we investigated the changes of α7nAChR expression in a model of secondary hypertension.
The 2-kidney 1-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rat model was used. Blood pressure, vagus nerve function, serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and both the mRNA and protein levels of α7nAChR in tissues from heart, kidney and aorta were measured at 4, 8 and 20 weeks after surgery.
Compared with age-matched control, it was found that vagus nerve function was significantly decreased in 2K1C rats with the development of hypertension. Serum levels of TNF-α were greater in 2K1C rats than in age-matched control at 4, 8 and 20 weeks. α7nAChR mRNA in the heart was not altered in 2K1C rats. In the kidney of 2K1C rats, α7nAChR expression was significantly decreased at 8 and 20 weeks, but markedly increased at 4 weeks. α7nAChR mRNA was less in aorta of 2K1C rats than in age-matched control at 4, 8 and 20 weeks. These findings were confirmed at the protein levels of α7nAChR.
Our results suggested that secondary hypertension may induce α7nAChR downregulation, and the decreased expression of α7nAChR may contribute to inflammation in 2K1C hypertension.
α7nAChR; 2K1C; Vagus nerve function; Tumor necrosis factor-α
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death with poor survival due to the late stage at which lung cancer is typically diagnosed. Given the clinical burden from lung cancer, and the relatively favorable survival associated with early stage lung cancer, biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer are of important potential clinical benefit.
We performed a global lung cancer serum biomarker discovery study using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a set of pooled non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) case sera and matched controls. Immunoaffinity subtraction was used to deplete the top most abundant serum proteins; the remaining serum proteins were subjected to trypsin digestion and analyzed in triplicate by LC-MS/MS. The tandem mass spectrum data were searched against the human proteome database and the resultant spectral counting data were used to estimate the relative abundance of proteins across the case/control serum pools. The spectral counting derived abundances of some candidate biomarker proteins were confirmed with multiple reaction monitoring MS assays.
A list of 49 differentially abundant candidate proteins was compiled by applying a negative binomial regression model to the spectral counting data (p<0.01). Functional analysis with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tools showed significant enrichment of inflammatory response proteins, key molecules in cell-cell signaling and interaction network and differential physiological responses for the two common NSCLC subtypes.
We identified a set of candidate serum biomarkers with statistically significant differential abundance across the lung cancer case/control pools which, when validated, could improve lung cancer early detection.
Lung cancer; serum biomarkers; LC-MS/MS
We have demonstrated an important role of bone marrow-derived stem cells in preservation of myocardial function. We investigated whether Akt-1 of lin−c-kit+ stem cells preserves ventricular function following myocardial infarction (MI).
Methods and results
Isolated lin−c-kit+ cells were conjugated with anti-c-kit heteroconjugated to anti-vascular cell adhesion molecule to facilitate the attachment of stem cells into damaged tissues. Female severe combined immunodeficient mice were used as recipients. MI was created by ligation of the left descending artery. After 48 h, animals were divided into four groups: (i) sham (n = 5): animals underwent thoracotomy without MI; (ii) MI (n = 5): animals underwent MI and received medium; (iii) MI + wild-type (Wt) stem cells (n = 6): MI animals received 5 × 105 Wt lin−c-kit+ stem cells; (iv) MI + Akt-1−/− stem cells (n = 6): MI animals received 5 × 105 Akt-1−/− lin−c-kit+ stem cells. Two weeks later, left ventricular function was measured in the Langendorff mode. The peripheral administration of Wt armed stem cells into MI animals restored ventricular function, which was absent in animals receiving Akt-1−/− cells. Real-time PCR indicates a decrease in SRY3, a Y chromosome marker in hearts receiving Akt-1−/− cells. An increase in angiogenic response was demonstrated in hearts receiving Wt stem cells but not Akt-1−/− stem cells.
Our results demonstrate that the peripheral administration of Wt lin−c-kit+ stem cells restores ventricular function and promotes angiogenic response following MI. These benefits were abrogated in MI mice receiving Akt-1−/− stem cells, suggesting the pivotal role of Akt-1 in mediating stem cells to protect MI hearts.
Akt-1; Myocardial infarction; Stem cells; Heart; Mouse
We have recently shown that the inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) protects the heart against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. The mechanism by which HDAC inhibition induces cardioprotection remains unknown. We sought to investigate whether the genetic disruption of gp-91, a subunit of NADPH-oxidase, would mitigate cardioprotection of HDAC inhibition. Wild-type and gp-91−/− mice were treated with a potent inhibitor of HDACs, trichostatin A (TSA, 0.1mg/kg, i.p.). Twenty-four hours later, the perfused hearts were subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion. HDAC inhibition in wild-type mice produced marked improvements in ventricular functional recovery and the reduction of infarct size. TSA-induced cardioprotection was eliminated with genetic deletion of gp91. Notably, Western blot and immunostaining displayed a significant increase in gp-91 in myocardium following HDAC inhibition, which resulted in a mildly subsequent increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The pretreatment of H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with TSA (50 nmol/L) decreased cell necrosis and increased viability in response to simulated ischemia (SI), which was abrogated by the transfection of cells with gp-91 siRNA, but not by scrambled siRNA. Furthermore, treatment of PLB-985 gp91+/+cells with TSA increased the resistance to SI, which also diminished with genetic disruption of gp91 in gp91phox-deficient PLB-985 cells. TSA treatment inhibited the increased active caspase-3 in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and PLB-985 gp91+/+cells exposed to SI, which were prevented by knockdown of gp-91 by siRNA. These results suggest that a cascade consisting of gp-91 and HDAC inhibition plays an essential role in orchestrating the cardioprotective effect.
Histone deacetylase; gp-91; NADPH-oxidase; ischemia; myocardial infarction
Digital reconstruction of neurons from microscope images is an important and challenging problem in neuroscience. In this paper, we propose a model-based method to tackle this problem. We first formulate a model structure, then develop an algorithm for computing it by carefully taking into account morphological characteristics of neurons, as well as the image properties under typical imaging protocols. The method has been tested on the data sets used in the DIADEM competition and produced promising results for four out of the five data sets.
DIADEM; Neuron tracing; Tube models; Tree structure reconstruction; 3D microscopy
Anisodamine, an antagonist of muscarinic receptor, has been used therapeutically to improve blood flow in circulatory disorders such as septic shock in China since 1965. The main mechanism of anisodamine for anti-shock proposed in Pharmacology for Chinese medical students is to improve blood flow in the microcirculation. Here, we suggest a new mechanism for its anti-shock effect. That is, anisodamine, by blocking muscarinic receptor, results in rerouting of acetylcholine to α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) bringing about increased acetylcholine-mediated activation of α7nAChR and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.
anisodamine; acetylcholine; α7nAChR; inflammation; shock
The well-known excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) assessment, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), is not consistently qualified for patients with diverse living habits. This study is aimed to build a modified ESS (mESS) and then to verify its feasibility in the assessment of EDS for patients with suspected sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in central China.
A Ten-item Sleepiness Questionnaire (10-ISQ) was built by adding two backup items to the original ESS. Then the 10-ISQ was administered to 122 patients in central China with suspected SDB [among them, 119 cases met the minimal diagnostic criteria for obstructive sleep apnea by sleep study, e.g., apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5 h−1] and 117 healthy central Chinese volunteers without SDB. Multivariate exploratory techniques were used for item validation. The unreliable item in the original ESS was replaced by the eligible backup item, thus a modified ESS (mESS) was built, and then verified.
Item 8 proved to be the only unreliable item in central Chinese patients, with the least factor loading on the main factor and the lowest item-total correlation both in the 10-ISQ and in the original ESS, deletion of it would increase the Cronbach’s alpha (from 0.86 to 0.87 in the 10-ISQ; from 0.83 to 0.85 in the original ESS). The mESS was subsequently built by replacing item 8 in the original ESS with item 10 in the 10-ISQ. Verification with patients’ responses revealed that the mESS was a single-factor questionnaire with good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86). The sum score of the mESS not only correlated with AHI (P < 0.01) but was also able to discriminate the severity of obstructive apnea (P < 0.01). Nasal CPAP treatment for severe OSA reduced the score significantly (P < 0.001). The performance of the mESS was poor in evaluating normal subjects.
The mESS improves the validity of ESS for our patients. Therefore, it is justified to use it instead of the original one in assessment of EDS for patients with SDB in central China.
Epworth Sleepiness Scale; Excessive daytime sleepiness; Sleep-disordered breathing