Persistent activation of Survivin and its overexpression contribute to the formation, progression and metastasis of several different tumor types. Therefore, Survivin is an ideal target for RNA interference mediated-growth inhibition. Blockade of Survivin using specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) can significantly reduce prostate tumor growth. RNA interference does not fully ablate target gene expression, owing to the idiosyncrasies associated with shRNAs and their targets. To enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Survivin-specific shRNA, we employed a combinatorial expression of Survivin-specific shRNA and gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM-19). Then, the GRIM-19 coding sequences and Survivin-specific shRNAs were used to create a dual expression plasmid vector and were carried by an attenuated strain of Salmonella enteric serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) to treat prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. We found that the co-expressed Survivin-specific shRNA and GRIM-19 synergistically and more effectively inhibited prostate tumor proliferation and survival, when compared with treatment with either single agent alone in vitro and in vivo. This study has provided a novel cancer gene therapeutic approach for prostate cancer.
GRIM-19; prostate cancer; RNAi; Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium; Survivin; tumor cell growth
Assessment of calf muscle perfusion requires a physiological challenge. Exercise and cuff-occlusion hyperemia are commonly used methods, but it has been unclear if one is superior to the other. We hypothesized that post-occlusion calf muscle perfusion (Cuff) with pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at 3 Tesla (T) would yield greater perfusion and improved reproducibility compared to exercise hyperemia in studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
Exercise and Cuff cohorts were independently recruited. PAD patients had an ankle brachial index (ABI) between 0.4-0.9. Controls (NL) had no risk factors and ABI 0.9-1.4. Subjects exercised until exhaustion (15 NL-Ex, 15 PAD-Ex) or had a thigh cuff inflated for 5 minutes (12 NL-Cuff, 11 PAD-Cuff). Peak exercise and average cuff (Cuffmean) perfusion were compared. Six participants underwent both cuff and exercise testing. Reproducibility was tested in 8 Cuff subjects (5 NL, 3 PAD).
Controls had greater perfusion than PAD independent of stressor (NL-Ex 74 ± 21 vs. PAD-Ex 43 ± 10, p = 0.01; NL-Cuffmean 109 ± 39 vs. PAD-Cuffmean 34 ± 17 ml/min-100 g, p < 0.001). However, there was no difference between exercise and Cuffmean perfusion within groups (p > 0.6). Results were similar when the same subjects had the 2 stressors performed. Cuffmean had superior reproducibility (Cuffmean ICC 0.98 vs. Exercise ICC 0.87) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Cuffmean 0.992 vs. Exercise 0.905).
Cuff hyperemia differentiates PAD patients from controls, as does exercise stress. Cuffmean and exercise calf perfusion values are similar. Cuff occlusion hyperemia has superior reproducibility and thus may be the preferred stressor.
Peripheral arterial disease; Cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Perfusion; Arterial spin labeling; Cuff occlusion hyperemia
Salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant productivity and quality throughout the world. Roots are the sites of salt uptake. To better understand salt stress responses in maize, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling roots from the salt-tolerant genotype F63 and the salt-sensitive genotype F35 under 160 mM NaCl treatment for 2 days. Under salinity conditions, the shoot fresh weight and relative water content were significantly higher in F63 than in F35, while the osmotic potential was significantly lower and the reduction of the K+/Na+ ratio was significantly less pronounced in F63 than in F35. Using an iTRAQ approach, twenty-eight proteins showed more than 2.0- fold changes in abundance and were regarded as salt-responsive proteins. Among them, twenty-two were specifically regulated in F63 but remained constant in F35. These proteins were mainly involved in signal processing, water conservation, protein synthesis and biotic cross-tolerance, and could be the major contributors to the tolerant genotype of F63. Functional analysis of a salt-responsive protein was performed in yeast as a case study to confirm the salt-related functions of detected proteins. Taken together, the results of this study may be helpful for further elucidating salt tolerance mechanisms in maize.
Continuous seismic records near river channels can be used to quantify the energy induced by river sediment transport. During the 2011 typhoon season, we deployed a seismic array along the Chishan River in the mountain area of southern Taiwan, where there is strong variability in water discharge and high sedimentation rates. We observe hysteresis in the high-frequency (5–15 Hz) seismic noise level relative to the associated hydrological parameters. In addition, our seismic noise analysis reveals an asymmetry and a high coherence in noise cross-correlation functions for several station pairs during the typhoon passage, which corresponds to sediment particles and turbulent flows impacting along the riverbed where the river bends sharply. Based on spectral characteristics of the seismic records, we also detected 20 landslide/debris flow events, which we use to estimate the sediment supply. Comparison of sediment flux between seismologically determined bedload and derived suspended load indicates temporal changes in the sediment flux ratio, which imply a complex transition process from the bedload regime to the suspension regime between typhoon passage and off-typhoon periods. Our study demonstrates the possibility of seismologically monitoring river bedload transport, thus providing valuable additional information for studying fluvial bedrock erosion and mountain landscape evolution.
Apoptosis is one of the major types of programmed cell death. During this process, cells experience a series of morphological and biochemical changes. Flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V staining of cell surface phosphatidylserine, in combination with a DNA-staining dye to probe the permeability of the cell membrane, is an established method for detecting apoptosis. The present study aimed to show that the immunofluorescence analysis of cytokeratin (CK) 8/18 staining may provide a new and sensitive assay for the detection of apoptotic cells. Tumor cells were treated with 20 μM cisplatin to induce apoptosis. Following 12 and 24 h of cisplatin treatment, cells were collected and stained with 4′,6-diamidine-2′-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) and fluorescein-labeled anti-CK8/18 antibody. The apoptotic cells were subsequently examined by fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis confirmed that cisplatin was able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that apoptotic cells had a distinct CK8/18 staining pattern. In living cells, CK8/18 was uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm and cytosol; however in the apoptotic cells with a condensed and/or fragmented apoptotic nucleus (as identified by DAPI staining), fluorescein-labeled anti-CK8/18 antibody exhibited unusual punctate and/or bubbly staining in the cytosol. In the apoptotic cells that could not be identified by DAPI staining, fluorescein-labeled CK8/18 displayed polarized aggregated staining in the cytosol. These results indicate that fluorescein-conjugated CK8/18 may be a useful and sensitive indicator of cell apoptosis.
4′,6-diamidine-2′-phenylindole dihydrochloride; cell apoptosis; flow cytometry; immunofluorescence staining; cytokeratin 8/18
Hantavirus; seroprevalence; shrew; rodent; China; viruses
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of maltol, a food-flavoring agent, on alcohol-induced acute oxidative damage in mice. Maltol used in this study was isolated from red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer) and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, pretreatment with maltol (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg; 15 days) drastically prevented the elevated activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and triglyceride (TG) in serum and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in liver tissue (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the levels of hepatic antioxidant, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were elevated by maltol pretreatment, compared to the alcohol group (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that maltol pretreatment significantly inhibited alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. Interestingly, pretreatment of maltol effectively relieved alcohol-induced oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner. Maltol appeared to possess promising anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. It was suggested that the hepatoprotective effect exhibited by maltol on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.
maltol; red ginseng; alcohol-induced liver injury; oxidative stress
Telomere dysfunction is closely associated with human diseases such as cancer and ageing. Inappropriate changes in telomere length and/or structure result in telomere dysfunction. Telomeres have been considered to be transcriptionally silent, but it was recently demonstrated that mammalian telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA, a long non-coding RNA, participates in the regulation of telomere length, telomerase activity and heterochromatinization. The correct regulation of telomere length may be crucial to telomeric homeostasis and functions. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the crucial role of TERRA in the maintenance of telomere length, with focus on the variety of mechanisms by which TERRA is involved in the regulation of telomere length. This review aims to enable further understanding of how TERRA-targeted drugs can target telomere-related diseases.
TERRA; telomere length; telomerase; HDR; ALT; protection of chromosome end
Fitness costs associated with resistance to insecticides have been well documented, usually at normal temperature conditions, in many insect species. In this study, using chlorpyrifos-resistant homozygote (RR) and chlorpyrifos-susceptible homozygote (SS) of resistance ace1 allele of Plutella xylostella (DBM), we confirmed firstly that high temperature experience in pupal stage influenced phenotype of wing venation in insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible Plutella xylostella, and SS DBM showed significantly higher thermal tolerance and lower damages of wing veins under heat stress than RR DBM. As compared to SS DBM, RR DBM displayed significantly lower AChE sensitivity to chlorpyrifos, higher basal GSTs activity and P450 production at 25°C, but higher inhibitions on the enzyme activities and P450 production as well as reduced resistance to chlorpyrifos under heat stress. Furthermore, RR DBM displayed significantly higher basal expressions of hsp69s, hsp72s, hsp20,hsp90,Apaf-1, and caspase-7 at 25°C, but lower induced expressions of hsps and higher induced expressions of Apaf-1,caspase-9, and caspase-7 under heat stress. These results suggest that fitness costs of chlorpyrifos resistance in DBM may partly attribute to excess consumption of energy caused by over production of detoxification enzymes and hsps when the proteins are less demanded at conducive environments but reduced expressions when they are highly demanded by the insects to combat environmental stresses, or to excess expressions of apoptotic genes under heat stress, which results in higher apoptosis. The evolutionary and ecological implications of these findings at global warming are discussed.
Caspase; fitness cost of chlorpyrifos resistance; heat shock proteins; Plutella xylostella; resistance-related enzymes; thermal tolerance
Sex-based differences are prominent in affective disorders, but there are no biomarkers available to support sex-specific, laboratory-based diagnostics for male and female bipolar disorder (BD) patients. Here, a NMR-based metabonomic approach was used to preliminarily identify sex-specific urinary metabolite biomarkers for diagnosing male and female BD patients. A male-specific biomarker panel consisting of four metabolites (α-hydroxybutyrate, choline, formate, and N-methylnicotinamide) effectively discriminated between male BD and healthy controls (HC) subjects, achieving an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.942. A female-specific biomarkers panel consisting of four metabolites (α-hydroxybutyrate, oxalacetate, acetone, and N-methylnicotinamide) effectively discriminated between female BD and HC subjects, achieving an AUC of 0.909. The male-specific biomarker panel displayed low discriminatory power in the female group, and the female-specific biomarker panel displayed low discriminatory power in the male group. Moreover, several other metabolites showed different trends between male and female BD subjects. These findings suggest that male and female BD patients have distinct biomarker fingerprints and that these two sex-specific biomarker panels may serve as effective diagnostic tools in distinguishing male and female BD patients from their healthy counterparts. Our work may provide a window into the mechanisms underlying the pathoetiology of BD in both men and women.
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a distinct type of pancreatitis associated with a presumed autoimmune mechanism. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features and expressions of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in type 1 AIP in China and to identify factors for differentiation of AIP from non-AIP chronic pancreatitis (CP).
We retrospectively reviewed pancreatic specimens with diagnosis of type 1 AIP and non-AIP CP at Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital in China from January 2000 to December 2013. The clinical symptoms, serological data, imaging findings, histopathology, and immunohistochemical findings of Foxp3 and IL-17 in the 2 groups were analyzed.
Twenty-nine patients with type 1 AIP and 20 patients with non-AIP CP were enrolled. Obstructive jaundice was more common in type 1 AIP than in non-AIP CP (62.1% vs. 30.0%, P=0.042). The diffuse or segmental enlargement of the pancreas was more frequent in type 1 AIP than in non-AIP CP (72.4% vs. 40.0%, P=0.038). Histopathology of type 1 AIP presented dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, “snowstorm-like” fibrosis and abundant immunoglobulin (Ig) G4+ cells. Foxp3+ cells were more frequently observed in type 1 AIP than in non-AIP CP. IL-17+ cell infiltration was similar between the 2 groups. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between Foxp3+ and IgG4+ cell counts in the pancreas of patients with type 1 AIP.
Type 1 AIP has distinctive symptoms, image, and pathological characteristics, which could be used for differentiation from non-AIP CP. Foxp3+ cells might be helpful to distinguish type 1 AIP from non-AIP CP.
Forkhead Transcription Factors; Immunoglobulin G; Interleukin-17; Pancreatitis; Pancreatitis, Chronic
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes. Glycemic variability could be an independent risk factor for diabetes complications in addition to average glucose. Type 2 diabetes with well-controlled glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) may have different terms of glycemic variability and vascular complication consequences. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between glycemic variability and DPN in type 2 diabetes with well-controlled HbA1c (HbA1c < 7.0%).
45 type 2 diabetes with well-controlled HbA1c(HbA1c < 7.0%) and with DPN (DM/DPN group) were recruited in the study, and 45 type 2 diabetes with well-controlled HbA1c and without DPN (DM/–DPN group) were set as controls. The two groups were also matched for age and diabetic duration. Blood pressure, body mass index(BMI), insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda index, ISI), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) were tested in the two groups. And all patients were monitored using the continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system for consecutive 72 hours. The multiple parameters of glycemic variability included the standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG), mean of daily differences (MODD) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE).
The DM/DPN group had a greater SDBG, MODD and MAGE, when compared to the DM/–DPN group (p < 0.05). BMI, TC, and LDLC of DM/DPN group were lower than those of DM/–DPN group (p < 0.05). The patients with hypoglycemia were comparable between the two groups (p > 0.05). Univariate analysis showed DPN was closely associated with BMI (OR 0.82, CI 0.72–0.94, p = 0.005), TC (OR 0.63, CI 0.42–0.93, p = 0.02), LDLC (OR 0.4, CI 0.20–0.80, p = 0.009), SDBG (OR 2.95, CI 1.55–5.61, p = 0.001), MODD (OR 4.38, CI 1.48–12.93, p = 0.008), MAGE (OR 2.18, CI 1.47–3.24, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that MAGE (OR 2.05, CI 1.36–3.09, p = 0.001) and BMI (OR 0.85, CI 0.73–0.99, p = 0.033) were significantly correlating with DPN. Glycemic variability, evaluated by MAGE, was the most significantly independent risk factor for DPN.
There was a close relationship between glycemic variability evaluated by MAGE and DPN in type 2 diabetes with well-controlled HbA1c.
Glycemic variability; Continuous glucose monitoring; Diabetic peripheral neuropathy; Type 2 diabetes
Objective: NF-κB, especially p65 subunit, plays important role in the process of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we transformed fibroblast into myofibroblast induced by bleomycin, and then studied the effects of NF-κB p65 antisense oligonucleotide on pulmonary fibrosis in mouse model. Methods: Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by bleomycin in C57BL/6 mouse (modeling group). The NF-κB antisense oligonucleotide was injected intravenously into mouse 6 hours before inducing (test group), we performed broncho-alveolar lavage and blood collecting through cardiac puncture. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) and serum from normal C57BL/6 mouse (control group) were collected for comparison. Immunohistochemistry staining of the NF-κB and α-SMA on lung tissues and cultured cells were carried out in each group, respectively. Results: The expression level of NF-κB and α-SMA were both consistently higher in modeling group when compared with control group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, they were reduced significantly through the intervention of NF-κB p65 antisense oligonucleotide in the test group (P < 0.05). More importantly, the expression of NF-κB was positively correlated with α-SMA. Conclusion: our study suggests the potential in prevention of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis with NF-κB p65 antisense oligonucleotide.
Fibroblast; myofibroblast; NF-κB; α-SMA; antisense oligonucleotide
There is some disagreement about whether idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) increases the risk of neonatal developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). This study aimed to investigate the incidence of DDH in our infants with idiopathic CTEV.
We conducted an observational cohort study over a three-year period to assess the relationship between idiopathic CTEV and DDH. All neonates younger than six weeks with idiopathic CTEV who were treated in our medical centre were admitted to this study. Each subject underwent hip ultrasound examination using the Graf method at the age of six weeks. DDH was diagnosed when a hip was type IIa(−) or worse according to the Graf classification of sonographic hip type.
A total of 184 patients were diagnosed with idiopathic CTEV and underwent hip sonography. In total, seven hips of five individuals underwent treatment (four girls and one boy). The results indicated that 2.7 % of babies (five of 184) with idiopathic CTEV had DDH. However, we did not find any statistically significant difference (p = 0.5776) in the Pirani scores between the DDH group and group with normal hips.
This study revealed that the idiopathic CTEV group had a greater incidence of DDH in comparison with the general population. It is recommended that hip sonography be undertaken particularly in patients with idiopathic CTEV.
Idiopathic clubfoot; DDH; Infant; Hip sonography; Graf method; Ultrasound
To determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Hunan province, drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping methods were performed among 171 M. tuberculosis isolates. In addition, the mutated characteristics of 12 loci, including katG, inhA, rpoB, rpsL, nucleotides 388 to 1084 of the rrs gene [rrs(388–1084)], embB, pncA, tlyA, eis, nucleotides 1158 to 1674 of the rrs gene [rrs(1158–1674)], gyrA, and gyrB, among drug-resistant isolates were also analyzed by DNA sequencing. Our results indicated that the prevalences of isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), streptomycin (SM), ethambutol (EMB), pyrazinamide (PZA), capreomycin (CAP), kanamycin (KAN), amikacin (AKM), and ofloxacin (OFX) resistance in Hunan province were 35.7%, 26.9%, 20.5%, 9.9% 15.2%, 2.3%, 1.8%, 1.2%, and 10.5%, respectively. The previously treated patients presented significantly increased risks for developing drug resistance. The majority of M. tuberculosis isolates belonged to the Beijing family. Almost all the drug resistance results demonstrated no association with genotype. The most frequent mutations of drug-resistant isolates were katG codon 315 (katG315), inhA15, rpoB531, rpoB526, rpoB516, rpsL43, rrs514, embB306, pncA96, rrs1401, gyrA94, and gyrA90. These results contribute to the knowledge of the prevalence of drug resistance in Hunan province and also expand the molecular characteristics of drug resistance in China.
To evaluate the role of small mammals as hosts of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), we tested serum samples from rodents and shrews in China, collected in 2013. SFTSV antibodies and RNA were detected, suggesting that rodents and shrews might be hosts for SFTSV.
severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus; SFTS virus; bunyavirus; seroprevalence; shrews; rodents; viruses; animal hosts; China
This paper presents the generic concept of using cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities as an important application of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. This type of services will become an integral part of a generic IoT operational platform for smart cities due to its pure business-oriented features. A high-level view of the proposed middleware is outlined and the corresponding operational platform is illustrated. To demonstrate the provision of car parking services, based on the proposed middleware, a cloud-based intelligent car parking system for use within a university campus is described along with details of its design, implementation, and operation. A number of software solutions, including Kafka/Storm/Hbase clusters, OSGi web applications with distributed NoSQL, a rule engine, and mobile applications, are proposed to provide ‘best’ car parking service experience to mobile users, following the Always Best Connected and best Served (ABC&S) paradigm.
Internet of Things (IoT); smart cities; Always Best Connected and best Served (ABC&S); Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); car parking; middleware; Hadoop
Increasing glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) activity is one of the most important ways to increase the cellular influx of glucose. We previously demonstrated that increased GLUT-1 expression was an independent predictor of survival in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. Thus, GLUT-1 may present a novel therapeutic target in laryngeal carcinoma. In this study, the expression of GLUT-1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and glutathione S-transferase-π (GST-π) in laryngeal carcinomas was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, possible correlations between GLUT-1 and P-gp, MRP1 and GST-π and various clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. In this study, 52.9% (18/34), 58.8% (20/34), 20.6% (7/34) and 58.8% (20/34) of the laryngeal carcinomas were positive for GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-π, respectively. The expression of GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-π was higher in laryngeal carcinoma specimens when compared with laryngeal precancerous lesions (P<0.05). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed correlations between GLUT-1 and P-gp (r=0.364; P=0.034), GLUT-1 and MRP1 (r=0.359; P=0.037) and P-gp and GST-π (r=0.426; P=0.012). GLUT-1 expression was found to significantly correlate with tumor-node-metastasis classification (P=0.02) and clinical stage (P=0.037). Furthermore, P-gp was found to significantly correlate with clinical stage (P=0.026). Univariate analysis showed that MRP1 expression was significantly associated with poor survival (c2=5.16; P=0.023). Multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis (P=0.009) and MRP1 overexpression (P=0.023) were significant predictors of poor survival. In the present study, the expression of GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-π in laryngeal carcinomas was investigated, as well as the correlations between these proteins. P-gp was found to significantly correlate with clinical stage, while MRP1 overexpression was significantly associated with poor survival.
laryngeal carcinoma; glucose transporter-1; P-glycoprotein; multidrug resistance-associated protein; glutathione-s-transferase-π
AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis comparing laparoscopic (LGD2) and open D2 gastrectomies (OGD2) for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC).
METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs comparing LGD2 with OGD2 for AGC treatment, published between 1 January 2000 and 12 January 2013, were identified in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Primary endpoints included operative outcomes (operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and conversion rate), postoperative outcomes (postoperative analgesic consumption, time to first ambulation, time to first flatus, time to first oral intake, postoperative hospital stay length, postoperative morbidity, incidence of reoperation, and postoperative mortality), and oncologic outcomes (the number of lymph nodes harvested, tumor recurrence and metastasis, disease-free rates, and overall survival rates). The Cochrane Collaboration tools and the modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale were used to assess the quality and risk of bias of RCTs and non-RCTs in the study. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore the incidence rate of various postoperative morbidities as well as recurrence and metastasis patterns. A Begg’s test was used to evaluate the publication bias.
RESULTS: One RCT and 13 non-RCTs totaling 2596 patients were included in the meta-analysis. LGD2 in comparison to OGD2 showed lower intraoperative blood loss [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -137.87 mL, 95%CI: -164.41--111.33; P < 0.01], lower analgesic consumption (WMD = -1.94, 95%CI: -2.50--1.38; P < 0.01), shorter times to first ambulation (WMD = -1.03 d, 95%CI: -1.90--0.16; P < 0.05), flatus (WMD = -0.98 d, 95%CI: -1.30--0.66; P < 0.01), and oral intake (WMD = -0.85 d, 95%CI: -1.67--0.03; P < 0.05), shorter hospitalization (WMD = -3.08 d, 95%CI: -4.38--1.78; P < 0.01), and lower postoperative morbidity (odds ratio = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.61-0.99; P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between LGD2 and OGD2 for the following criteria: reoperation incidence, postoperative mortality, number of harvested lymph nodes, tumor recurrence/metastasis, or three- or five-year disease-free and overall survival rates. However, LGD2 had longer operative times (WMD = 57.06 min, 95%CI: 41.87-72.25; P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Although a technically demanding and time-consuming procedure, LGD2 may be safe and effective, and offer some advantages over OGD2 for treatment of locally AGC.
D2 lymph node dissection; Gastrectomy; Gastric cancer; Laparoscopy; Meta-analysis
Schwann cells, nerve regeneration promoters in peripheral nerve tissue engineering, can be used to repair both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, isolation and purification of Schwann cells are complicated by contamination with fibroblasts. Current reported measures are mainly limited by either high cost or complicated procedures with low cell yields or purity. In this study, we collected dorsal root ganglia from neonatal rats from which we obtained highly purified Schwann cells using serum-free melanocyte culture medium. The purity of Schwann cells (> 95%) using our method was higher than that using standard medium containing fetal bovine serum. The obtained Schwann cells were implanted into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats. Results showed that axonal diameter and area were significantly increased and motor functions were obviously improved in the rat sciatic nerve tissue. Experimental findings suggest that serum-free melanocyte culture medium is conducive to purify Schwann cells and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan nerve conduits combined with Schwann cells contribute to restore sciatic nerve defects.
nerve regeneration; Schwann cells; dorsal root ganglia; melanocyte medium; fibroblasts; poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid); chitosan; sciatic nerve defect; NSFC grants; neural regeneration
The expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR-21, have been reported to change in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that they may influence the pathophysiological process in brain injury. To analyze the potential effect of miR-21 on neurological function after TBI, we employed the fluid percussion injury rat model and manipulated the expression level of miR-21 in brain using intracerebroventricular infusion of miR-21 agomir or antagomir. We found that upregulation of miR-21 level in brain conferred a better neurological outcome after TBI by improving long-term neurological function, alleviating brain edema and decreasing lesion volume. To further investigate the mechanism underlying this protective effect, we evaluated the impact of miR-21 on apoptosis and angiogenesis in brain after TBI. We found that miR-21 inhibited apoptosis and promoted angiogenesis through regulating the expression of apoptosis- and angiogenesis-related molecules. In addition, the expression of PTEN, a miR-21 target gene, was inhibited and Akt signaling was activated in the procedure. Taken together, these data indicate that miR-21 could be a potential therapeutic target for interventions after TBI.
Obstructive sleep apnea can induce chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during sleep and is associated with obesity and diabetes. Resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic phytoalexin, can regulate glucose metabolism, thereby reducing insulin resistance. The present study aimed to assess whether RSV attenuates CIH-induced insulin resistance in rats and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 40 rats were randomly assigned into five groups: i) Control; ii) subjected to CIH only; iii) subjected to CIH and treated with 3 mg/kg/day of RSV; iv) subjected to CIH and treated with 30 mg/kg/day of RSV; v) subjected to CIH and treated with 60 mg/kg/day of RSV. All animals were sacrificed following 28 days of treatment. Subsequently, the blood and livers were harvested and blood insulin and glucose levels were measured. Levels of sirtuin (Sirt) 1, insulin receptor (InsR) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) in the liver were measured. RSV treatment was demonstrated to suppress weight gain and improve hepatic morphology. RSV treatment also significantly reduced the homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance of the rats exposed to CIH. This effect occurred in a dose-dependent manner. RSV significantly upregulated liver Sirt1 levels and inhibited InsR and Glut2 expression in the liver. Additionally, RSV activated the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and AKT. The present study demonstrates that RSV prevents CIH-induced insulin resistance in rats. Upregulation of Sirt1 and activation of PI3K/AKT signaling may be involved in this process.
resveratrol; intermittent hypoxia; insulin resistance; sirtuin 1; obstructive sleep apnea
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of salivary glands is a rare kind tumor. In this study, the authors evaluated 21 patients with LELC of salivary glands who had long-term follow-up. Clinical characteristics, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, immunohistochemical features, oncoprotein expression, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed. All patients were Chinese. Their ages ranged from 20 to 73 years. All tumors showed the typical syncytial growth pattern of undifferentiated epithelial cells with a significant lymphocyte reaction. All of patients were found by in situ hybridization to have the EBV genome. All tumors showed positive immunostaining of AE1/AE3, CK5/6 and p63. Nearly all cases had bcl-2 oncoprotein expression, but the detection rate of p53, and c-erb B-2 expression was extremely low. LELC of salivary glands is a distinct entity of salivary cancer. LELC of salivary glands can receive multimodality treatment and has a better prognosis similar to that of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Lymphoepithial carcinoma; salivary gland; Epstein-Barr virus; oncogenes; bcl-2; prognosis
The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal cells turnover regularly under physiological conditions, which may be stimulated in various pathological situations including inflammation. Local epithelial stem cells appear to play a major role in such mucosal renewal or pathological regeneration. Less is clear about the involvement of multipotent stem cells from blood in GI repair. We attempted to explore a role of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSCs) and soluble stem cell factor (SCF) in GI mucosa regeneration in a rat model of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).
BMMSCs labelled with the fluorescent dye PKH26 from donor rats were transfused into rats suffering indomethacin-induced GI injury. Experimental effects by BMMSCs transplant and SCF were determined by morphometry of intestinal mucosa, double labeling of PKH26 positive BMMSCs with endogenous proliferative and intestinal cell markers, and western blot and PCR analyses of the above molecular markers in the recipient rats relative to controls.
PKH26 positive BMMSCs were found in the recipient mucosa, partially colocalizing with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Lgr5, Musashi-1 and ephrin-B3. mRNA and protein levels of PCNA, Lgr5, Musashi-1 and ephrin-B3 were elevated in the intestine in BMMSCs-treated rats, most prominent in the BMMSCs-SCF co-treatment group. The mucosal layer and the crypt layer of the small intestine were thicker in BMMSCs-treated rats, more evident in the BMMSCs-SCF co-treatment group.
BMMSCs and SCF participate in but may play a synergistic role in mucosal cell regeneration following experimentally induced intestinal injury. Bone marrow stem cell therapy and SCF administration may be of therapeutic value in IBD.
Atherosclerotic plaques can cause serious syndromes and mortality. Cholesterol accumulation in the plaques can disrupt the arterial flow, with lumen narrowing and stenosis, which contributes to heart attack and sudden cardiac death. The pharmacological treatment to atherosclerotic plaques can be anti-hypertensives, anti-cholesterol, and cleaning of the existed plaques. This work examined the effects of pharmacological Tongmaijiangzhi (TMJZ) capsule on atherosclerotic plaques. The radiological findings of the atherosclerotic plaques of 107 patients receiving TMJZ treatment were analyzed. We found that the TMJZ administration decreases plaque volume and alters the composition in a relatively short period, showing highly promising effects. TMJZ treatment is able to remove the existed atherosclerotic plaques with no side effects observed.
Tongmaijiangzhi; Atherosclerotic plaques; stenosis; hypertension