The graphene nanosheets-based epoxy resin coating (0, 0.1, 0.4 and 0.7 wt %) was prepared by a situ-synthesis method. The effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone/reduced graphene oxide (PVP-rGO) on mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resin coating was investigated using nanoindentation technique and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. A significant enhancement (ca. 213% and 73 °C) in the Young modulus and thermal stability of epoxy resin coating was obtained at a loading of 0.7 wt %, respectively. Furthermore, the erosion resistance of graphene nanosheets-based epoxy resin coating was investigated by electrochemical measurement. The results showed also that the Rrcco (ca. 0.3 mm/year) of graphene nanosheets-based epoxy resin coating was far lower than neat epoxy resin (1.3 mm/year). Thus, this approach provides a novel route for improving erosion resistance and mechanical-thermal stability of polymers coating, which is expected to be used in mechanical-thermal-corrosion coupling environments.
graphene; epoxy resin; composite coating; mechanical properties; erosion resistance
This paper explored our hypothesis that sRNA (18∼30 bp) deep sequencing technique can be used as an efficient strategy to identify microorganisms other than viruses, such as prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens. In the study, the clean reads derived from the sRNA deep sequencing data of wild-caught ticks and mosquitoes were compared against the NCBI nucleotide collection (non-redundant nt database) using Blastn. The blast results were then analyzed with in-house Python scripts. An empirical formula was proposed to identify the putative pathogens. Results showed that not only viruses but also prokaryotic and eukaryotic species of interest can be screened out and were subsequently confirmed with experiments. Specially, a novel Rickettsia spp. was indicated to exist in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks collected in Beijing. Our study demonstrated the reuse of sRNA deep sequencing data would have the potential to trace the origin of pathogens or discover novel agents of emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases.
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) acts as the first line of defense against respiratory pathogens. In this assay, the variable regions of heavy chain (VH) and Light chain (VL) genes from a mouse monoclonal antibody against H5N1 were cloned and fused with human IgA constant regions. The full-length chimeric light and heavy chains were inserted into a eukaryotic expressing vector and then transfected into CHO/dhfr-cells. The chimeric monomeric IgA antibody expression was confirmed by using ELISA, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot. In order to obtain a dimeric secretory IgA, another two expressing plasmids, namely, pcDNA4/His A-IgJ and pcDNA4/His A-SC, were cotransfected into the CHO/dhfr-cells. The expression of dimeric SIgA was confirmed by using ELISA assay and native gel electrophoresis. In microneutralization assay on 96-well immunoplate, the chimeric SIgA showed neutralization activity against H5N1 virus on MDCK cells and the titer was determined to be 1 : 64. On preadministrating intranasally, the chimeric SIgA could prevent mice from lethal attack by using A/Vietnam/1194/04 H5N1 with a survival rate of 80%. So we concluded that the constructed recombinant chimeric SIgA has a neutralization capability targeting avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in vitro and in vivo.
Enterococcus faecalis is increasingly becoming an important nosocomial infection opportunistic pathogen. E. faecalis can easily obtain drug resistance, making it difficult to be controlled in clinical settings. Using bacteriophage as an alternative treatment to drug-resistant bacteria has been revitalized recently, especially for fighting drug-resistant bacteria. In this research, an E. faecalis bacteriophage named IME-EF1 was isolated from hospital sewage. Whole genomic sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolated IME-EF1 belong to the Siphoviridae family, and has a linear double-stranded DNA genome consisting of 57,081 nucleotides. The IME-EF1 genome has a 40.04% G+C content and contains 98 putative coding sequences. In addition, IME-EF1 has an isometric head with a width of 35 nm to 60 nm and length of 75 nm to 90 nm, as well as morphology resembling a tadpole. IME-EF1 can adsorb to its host cells within 9 min, with an absorbance rate more than 99% and a latent period time of 25 min. The endolysin of IME-EF1 contains a CHAP domain in its N-terminal and has a wider bactericidal spectrum than its parental bacteriophage, including 2 strains of vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. When administrated intraperitoneally, one dose of IME-EF1 or its endolysin can reduce bacterial count in the blood and protected the mice from a lethal challenge of E. faecalis, with a survival rate of 60% or 80%, respectively. Although bacteriophage could rescue mice from bacterial challenge, to the best of our knowledge, this study further supports the potential function of bacteriophage in dealing with E. faecalis infection in vivo. The results also indicated that the newly isolated bacteriophage IME-EF1 enriched the arsenal library of lytic E. faecalis bacteriophages and presented another choice for phage therapy in the future.
Oxidative stress and selenoprotein deficiency are thought to be associated with the pathogenesis of Keshan disease (KD). However, to our knowledge, the level of oxidative stress and expression of selenoproteins have not been investigated in the myocardium of patients with KD. In this study, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine (8-OH-dG), a marker of oxidative stress, was used to assess the level of oxidative stress, and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) were assessed to reflect the level of selenoproteins. Myocardial samples from 8 patients with KD and 9 non-KD patients (controls) were immunohistochemically stained for 8-OH-dG, TrxR1, and GPx1. The staining intensities were subsequently quantified using Olympus Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. The data showed that the positive rate of 8-OH-dG expression in myocardial nuclei was higher in the KD group (68.6%) than that in the control group (2.4%). In addition, a positive correlation between the positive rate of 8-OH-dG and the degree of myocardial damage was observed in the KD group. The distribution of TrxR1 and GPx-1 was not associated with the distribution of myocardial damage. The expression of these two selenoproteins was higher in the control group than that in the KD group. Our study represents the first report on the expression profiles of oxidative stress and selenoproteins in the myocardium of patients with KD. The level of oxidative stress significantly increased and was positively correlated with the degree of myocardial damage in patients with KD. The selenoproteins, TrxR1 and GPx1, may have a role in the pathogenesis of KD.
Avian influenza virus A/chicken/Jiangsu/1001/2013(H5N2) was identified from a healthy chicken in an eastern China poultry market. Whole-genome analysis demonstrated that the H5N2 virus originated from a reassortance between a previous A/chicken/Hebei/1102/2010(H5N2) virus and an endemic H5N1 virus. The results indicated that continuing reassortance of H5N2 has been occurring in domestic poultry of China.
A photonic integrated microfluidic device is demonstrated to perform optical excitation and forward scatter collection all on-chip in a planar format. Integrated on-chip optics formed a tailored beam geometry for optimal excitation of particles while a special design modification allowed for on-chip forward collection with the beam shaping capabilities. A notch was placed in the lens system that caused a dark spot on the facet of a collection waveguide while not affecting the beam geometry at the point of interrogation. The modified device with the ability to form a 10 μm beam geometry was demonstrated to detect the forward scatter from blank 5 μm diameter polystyrene beads. Free-space collection of side scatter signals was performed simultaneously with the on-chip collection and the designs demonstrated and enhanced SNR while the reliability of detection was determined to be appropriate for many applications. Excellent performance was confirmed via a false positive rate of 0.4%, a missed events rate of 6.8%, and a coincident rate of 96.3% as determined between simultaneously performed free-space and on-chip detection schemes.
(130.5460) Polymer waveguides; (290.2558) Forward scattering; (130.3120) Integrated optics devices; (170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology; (230.3990) Micro-optical devices
T7-like bacteriophages are a class of virulent bacteriophages which have a clearer genetic background and smaller genomes than other phages. In addition, it grows faster and is easier to culture than other phages. At present, the numbers of available T7-like bacteriophage genomes and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia genomes are small, and IME15 is the first T7-like virulent Stenotrophomonas phage whose sequence has been reported. It shows effective lysis of S. maltophilia. Here we announce its complete genome, and major findings from its annotation are described.
N4-like bacteriophages are a class of virulent Podoviridae phages for which few genome sequences are present in GenBank. IME11, a novel lytic Escherichia bacteriophage with a wide host range, was isolated, and the whole genome was sequenced. It has a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 72,570 bp. Genomic analysis showed that it resembles another Escherichia phage, vB_EcoP_G7C. Here we announce its complete genome and major findings from its annotation.
It is thought that methylcytosine can be inherited through meiosis and mitosis, and that epigenetic variation may be under genetic control or correlation may be caused by neutral drift. However, DNA methylation also varies with tissue, developmental stage, and environmental factors. Eliminating these factors, we analyzed the levels and patterns, diversity and structure of genomic methylcytosine in the xylem of nine natural populations of Chinese white poplar.
On average, the relative total methylation and non-methylation levels were approximately 26.567% and 42.708% (P<0.001), respectively. Also, the relative CNG methylation level was higher than the relative CG methylation level. The relative methylation/non-methylation levels were significantly different among the nine natural populations. Epigenetic diversity ranged from 0.811 (Gansu) to 1.211 (Shaanxi), and the coefficients of epigenetic differentiation (GST = 0.159) were assessed by Shannon’s diversity index. Co-inertia analysis indicated that methylation-sensitive polymorphism (MSP) and genomic methylation pattern (CG-CNG) profiles gave similar distributions. Using a between-group eigen analysis, we found that the Hebei and Shanxi populations were independent of each other, but the Henan population intersected with the other populations, to some degree.
Genome methylation in Populus tomentosa presented tissue-specific characteristics and the relative 5′-CCGG methylation level was higher in xylem than in leaves. Meanwhile, the genome methylation in the xylem shows great epigenetic variation and could be fixed and inherited though mitosis. Compared to genetic structure, data suggest that epigenetic and genetic variation do not completely match.
Although the molecular basis of poplar sex-specific flower development remains largely unknown, increasing evidence indicates an essential role for microRNAs (miRNAs). The specific miRNA types and precise miRNA expression patterns in dioecious plant flower development remain unclear. Here, we used andromonoecious poplar, an exceptional model system, to eliminate the confounding effects of genetic background of dioecious plants. This system, combined with high-throughput sequencing and computational analysis, allowed us to characterize sex-specific miRNAomes from female and male flowers. Comparative miRNAome analysis combined with quantitative real-time PCR revealed the expression patterns of 27 miRNAs in poplar flower and showed that the targets of these miRNAs are involved in flower organogenesis, Ca2+ transport, phytohormone synthesis and metabolism, and DNA methylation. This paper describes a complex regulatory network consisting of these miRNAs expressed in sex-specific flower development in a dioecious plant. The conserved and novel miRNA locations were annotated in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Among these, miRNA Pto-F70 and 4 targets are located in the sex-determination regions of chromosome XIX. Furthermore, two novel miRNAs, Pto-F47 and Pto-F68, were shown for the first time to be regulatory factors in phytohormone interactions. To our knowledge, this report is the first systematic investigation of sex-specific flower-related miRNAs and their targets in poplar, and it deepens our understanding of the important regulatory functions of miRNAs in female and male flower development in this dioecious plant.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteriophage IME13 is a virulent phage with a large burst size, exceeding 3,000, much larger than that of any other stenotrophomonas phage reported before. It showed effective lysis of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Additionally, the phage IME13 developed at least three obviously different sizes of plaques when a single plaque was picked out and inoculated on a double-layer Luria broth agar plate with its host. Here we announce its complete genome and describe major findings from its annotation.
Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b is responsible for a high percentage of fatal cases of food-borne infection. In a previous study, we created 15 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against a ∼77 kDa antigen that is associated with the cell surface of live L. monocytogenes serotype 4b cells. Here we report an extensive characterization of these MAbs to further their development as diagnostic reagents. The ∼77 kDa target antigen was identified by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing to be IspC, a novel surface associated autolysin. Epitope localization experiments revealed that each of the 15 MAbs recognized the C-terminal cell-wall binding domain of IspC. The presence of IspC was shown to be highly conserved within L. monocytogenes serotype 4b, as evidenced by a strong reaction between anti-IspC MAbs and all 4b isolates. To determine the range of cross-reactivity with other L. monocytogenes serotypes ELISA was used to test each MAb against multiple isolates from each of the L. monocytogenes serotypes. Of the 15 MAbs, five: M2774, M2775, M2780, M2790 and M2797, showed specificity for L. monocytogenes serotype 4b and only cross reacted with serotype 4ab isolates. The kinetics of the interaction between each of the MAbs and IspC was measured using surface plasmon resonance. The MAbs M2773, M2792, M2775, M2797 and M2781 each had very low dissociation constants (4.5 × 10−9 to 1.2 × 10−8 M). While several of these antibodies have properties which could be useful in diagnostic tests, the combined high fidelity and affinity of M2775 for the IspC protein and serotype 4b isolates, makes it a particularly promising candidate for use in the development of a specific L. monocytogenes serotype 4b diagnostic test.
An optofluidic device is demonstrated with photonic components integrated onto the chip for use in fluorescence and scatter detection and counting applications. The device is fabricated by integrating the optical and fluidic components in a single functional layer. Optical excitation on-chip is accomplished via a waveguide integrated with a system of lenses that reforms the geometry of the beam in the microfluidic channel into a specific shape that is more suitable for reliable detection. Separate counting tests by detecting fluorescence and scattered signals from 2.5 and 6.0 μm beads were performed and found to show detection reliability comparable to that of conventional means of excitation and an improvement over other microchip-based designs.
(130.5460) Polymer waveguides; (300.2530) Fluorescence, laser-induced; (120.5820) Scattering measurements; (130.3120) Integrated optics devices; (170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology; (230.3990) Micro-optical devices
Drought is one of the main environmental factors limiting tree growth and productivity of plantation forests worldwide. Populus hopeiensis Hu et Chow is one of the most important commercial plantation tree species in China. However, the genes controlling drought tolerance in this species have not been identified or characterized. Here, we conducted differential expression analyses and identified a number of genes that were up- or downregulated in P. hopeiensis during water stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study of differentially expressed genes in water-stressed P. hopeiensis.
Using the cDNA-AFLP detection technique, we used 256 primer combinations to identify differentially expressed genes in P. hopeiensis during water stress. In total, 415 transcript derived-fragments (TDFs) were obtained from 10× deep sequencing of 473 selected TDFs. Of the 415 TDFs, 412 were annotated by BLAST searches against various databases. The majority of these genes encoded products involved in ion transport and compartmentalization, cell division, metabolism, and protein synthesis. The TDFs were clustered into 12 groups on the basis of their expression patterns. Of the 415 reliable TDFs, the sequences of 35 were homologous to genes that play roles in short or long-term resistance to drought stress. Some genes were further selected for validation of cDNA-AFLP expression patterns using real-time PCR analyses. The results confirmed the expression patterns that were detected using the cDNA-AFLP technique.
The cDNA-AFLP technique is an effective and powerful tool for identifying candidate genes that are differentially expressed under water stress. We demonstrated that 415 TDFs were differentially expressed in water-stressed poplar. The products of these genes are involved in various biological processes in the drought response of poplar. The results of this study will aid in the identification of candidate genes of future experiments aimed at understanding this response of poplar.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can cause secondary brain damage through inflammation-related pathways. Thrombin and one of its receptors, protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1); matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9; and aquaporin (AQP)-4 are stroke-related inflammatory mediators that have been implicated in ICH pathology. To further characterize the inflammatory response after ICH, we studied the temporal profile of the expression of these inflammatory mediators and assessed their potential correlation with brain edema formation after brain hemorrhage in rats. ICH was modeled by infusing autologous blood into the striatum. Then mRNA and protein expression was assessed over the course of 5 days. We found that the mRNA and/or protein expression of thrombin, PAR-1, AQP-4, and MMP-9 was upregulated between 2 h and 5 days after ICH. Each reached a maximal level at day 2, except for AQP-4 protein, which peaked at day 5. Brain water content after ICH presented a similar trend; it was increased at 2 h, peaked at day 2, and then decreased but remained elevated at day 5. Our data provide novel evidence that upregulation of these selected inflammatory mediators occurs very early and persists for several days after ICH, and that temporal patterns of expression of thrombin and AQP-4 are associated with brain edema formation. These findings have important implications for efforts to reduce secondary brain damage after ICH.
Aquaporin-4; Blood; MMP-9; PAR-1; Thrombin; Intracerebral hemorrhage
This histopathologic case-control study was designed to characterize the dynamic changes in protein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/p65 subunit, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in postmortem brains of patients with and without intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Thirty-six human brains from patients with ICH and six control brains were included in this study. We found that expression levels of NF-κB/p65, MIP-2, and MMP-9 were each upregulated on the injured side of the hippocampus at times ranging from 2 hr to 5 days post-ICH. Interestingly, the expression of all three markers was also upregulated on the uninjured side of the hippocampus and in the cerebellum, although to a lesser extent. These data suggest that inflammation occurs early and persists for several days after ICH in humans and could be involved in the progression of ICH-induced secondary brain damage.
brain damage; intracerebral hemorrhage; MIP-2; MMP-9; NF-κB/p65
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium is one of the major causative agents of human gastroenteritis. Here we raised a panel of 45 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against ser. Typhimurium DT104 by immunizing mice with formalin-killed bacteria and demonstrated that all the MAbs recognized the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen. These MAbs were specific for group O:4 Salmonella with very little or no cross-reactivity with other closely related bacteria and were able to bind to the cell surface of live bacterial cells, making them potential candidates for capture and concentration of the pathogen in food and water samples. Epitope characterization revealed that the O:5 antigen present in the LPS of some serogroup 4 Salmonella is the critical factor for the binding of these MAbs to LPS. This study has provided some insights into the structure of the Salmonella LPS and its influence on the antigenicity of LPS.
An optimal excitation beam shape is necessary to perform reliable flow cytometric analysis but has so far not been implemented in a photonic-microfluidic integrated (i.e. optofluidic) device. We have achieved this feature by integrating a 1D lens system with planar waveguides and microfluidic channel on a substrate using one patterning material via a one-shot process. In this paper, we report the method of design and the performance of specifically formed excitation regions shaped to be ideal for reducing double detections, improving SNR, and for reliable detection in a flow cytometry application. Demonstration of different sizes via changes to lens design shows the ability to control the width of the shaped beam according to a targeted detection.
(170.2945) Illumination design; (170.4580) Optical diagnostics for medicine; (130.3990) Micro-optical devices