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author:("Zhang, kumei")
1.  Regional covariance patterns of gray matter alterations in Alzheimer’s disease and its replicability evaluation 
Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI  2013;39(1):10.1002/jmri.24143.
To identify regional network covariance patterns of gray matter associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and to further evaluate its replicability and stability.
Materials and Methods
This study applied a multivariate analytic approach based on scaled subprofile modeling (SSM) to structural MRI data from 19 patients with AD and 19 healthy controls (HC). We further applied the derived covariance patterns to examine the replicability and stability of AD-associated covariance patterns in an independent dataset [13 AD and 14 HC] acquired with a different scanner.
The AD-associated covariance patterns identified from SSM combined principal components mainly involved the temporal lobe and parietal lobe. The expression of covariance patterns was significantly higher in AD patients than HC (t(36) = 5.84, p= 5.75E–7) and predicted the AD/HC group membership (84% sensitivity and 90% specificity). In replicability evaluation, the expression of the forward applied covariance patterns was still statistically significant and had acceptable discriminability (69% sensitivity and 71% specificity).
AD patients showed regional gray matter alterations in a reliable covariance manner. The results suggest that SSM has utility for characterizing covariant features, therefore, can assist us with further understanding covariance patterns of gray matter in AD based on the view of the network.
PMCID: PMC3732807  PMID: 23589138
multivariate analysis; scaled subprofile model; Alzheimer’s disease; structural MRI; voxel-based morphometry
2.  Transcriptome Profiles of the Protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus Reveal that Excretory-Secretory Products Are Essential to Metabolic Adaptation 
Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is caused by the larval stages of the cestode and affects humans and domestic animals worldwide. Protoscoleces (PSCs) are one component of the larval stages that can interact with both definitive and intermediate hosts. Previous genomic and transcriptomic data have provided an overall snapshot of the genomics of the growth and development of this parasite. However, our understanding of how PSCs subvert the immune response of hosts and maintains metabolic adaptation remains unclear. In this study, we used Roche 454 sequencing technology and in silico secretome analysis to explore the transcriptome profiles of the PSCs from E. granulosus and elucidate the potential functions of the excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs) released by the parasite.
Methodology/Principal Findings
A large number of nonredundant sequences as unigenes were generated (26,514), of which 22,910 (86.4%) were mapped to the newly published E. granulosus genome and 17,705 (66.8%) were distributed within the coding sequence (CDS) regions. Of the 2,280 ESPs predicted from the transcriptome, 138 ESPs were inferred to be involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, while 124 ESPs were inferred to be involved in the metabolism of protein. Eleven ESPs were identified as intracellular enzymes that regulate glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (GL/GN) pathways, while a further 44 antigenic proteins, 25 molecular chaperones and four proteases were highly represented. Many proteins were also found to be significantly enriched in development-related signaling pathways, such as the TGF-β receptor pathways and insulin pathways.
This study provides valuable information on the metabolic adaptation of parasites to their hosts that can be used to aid the development of novel intervention targets for hydatid treatment and control.
Author Summary
The successful infection establishment of parasites depends on their ability to combat their host's immune system while maintaining metabolic adaptation to their hosts. The mechanisms of these processes are not well understood. We used the protoscoleces (PSCs) of E. granulosus as a model system to study this complex host-parasite interaction by investigating the role of excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs) in the physiological adaptation of the parasite. Using Roche 454 sequencing technology and in silico secretome analysis, we predicted 2280 ESPs and analyzed their biological functions. Our analysis of the bioinformatic data suggested that ESPs are integral to the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins within the parasite and/or hosts. We also found that ESPs are involved in mediating the immune responses of hosts and function within key development-related signaling pathways. We found 11 intracellular enzymes, 25 molecular chaperones and four proteases that were highly represented in the ESPs, in addition to 44 antigenic proteins that showed promise as candidates for vaccine or serodiagnostic development purposes. These findings provide valuable information on the mechanisms of metabolic adaptation in parasites that will aid the development of novel hydatid treatment and control targets.
PMCID: PMC4263413  PMID: 25500817
3.  Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Weight Loss Practice among Beijing Adults, 2011 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e98744.
This study aims to determine the up-to-date prevalence of overweight and obesity, the distributions of body weight perception and weight loss practice in Beijing adults.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. A total of 2563 men and 4088 women aged 18–79 years from the general population were included. Data were obtained from questionnaire and physical examination.
The prevalence of overweight (BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥28 kg/m2) was 42.1% and 20.3% in men and 35.6% and 17.1% in women, respectively. Age was inversely associated with overweight in both sexes, and obesity in women. Education level was negatively associated with overweight and obesity in women but not in men. Only 49.1% men and 58.3% women had a correct perception of their body weight. Underestimation of body weight was more common than overestimation, especially in men, the older people, and those with low education level. The percentage of taking action to lose weight was inversely associated with men and old age, and positively associated with higher education level, higher BMI, and self-perception as “fat” (OR = 3.78 in men, OR = 2.91 in women). Only 26.1% of overweight/obese individuals took action to lose weight. The top two weight loss practices were to reduce the amount of food intake and exercise.
Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent with high incorrect body weight perceptions in the general adult population in Beijing. Weight loss practice was poor in overweight and obese individuals. Actions at multiple levels are needed to slow or control this overweight and obesity epidemic.
PMCID: PMC4165756  PMID: 25225884
4.  Isoflavone intake inhibits the development of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene(DMBA)-induced mammary tumors in normal and ovariectomized rats 
To determine the associations between isoflavone (49.72% genistin, 5.32% daidzin, 34.54% glycitin) and breast cancer risk, 150 rats were given 5 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and half of them were ovariectomized. Then normal rats and ovariectomized rats were divided into 5 groups: control group, isoflavone high (HI), middle (MI), or low (LI) dose group consuming 100, 500, or 1000 mg isoflavones/kg diet, estrogen group (2.5 mg stilboestrol/kg diet). After 24 weeks, tumor incidences were 73% in control group, 7% in HI, 7% in MI, 27% in LI, and 80% in estrogen group for normal rats; 60% in control group, 13% in HI, 7% in MI, 13% in LI, and 73% in estrogen group for ovariectomized rats. Isoflavone treatment decreased tumor incidence and mean tumor number per rat and increased mean latent period compared with those in control group and estrogen group group significantly (p<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptor β were significantly higher in isoflavone treatment groups than those in control group group. Moreover, isoflavone treatment significantly decreased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine content and increased superoxide dismutase level in normal rats and decreased malondialdehyde concentrations in ovariectomized rats compared with control group. In conclusions, isoflavone intake significantly inhibited the development of premenopausal and postmenopausal mammary tumors.
PMCID: PMC3882481  PMID: 24426188
isoflavones; mammary tumors; ovariectomized rats; estrogen receptor
5.  Prevalence of Anemia and Its Risk Factors Among Children 6–36 Months Old in Burma 
Anemia is a common nutritional problem, and it has a remarkably high prevalence rate in Southeast Asia. In this study, children from 6 to 36 months were investigated to determine (1) the prevalence of anemia and (2) risk factors associated with anemia. Convenience sampling was used to select three villages in three different regions in Burma. Hemoglobin and anthropometric indicators were measured for 872 children. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with anemia. The overall prevalence of anemia was 72.6%, with 40.0% having severe anemia. Predictors of anemia are a young age (P < 0.001), mother with anemia (P < 0.001), height-for-age Z score < −2 (P = 0.017), low family income (P < 0.001), mothers without primary education (P = 0.007), drinking unboiled water (P = 0.029), and fever in the last 3 months (P = 0.001). There is a high prevalence of anemia in children, and their nutritional status is quite poor. To control anemia, humanitarians and governments should launch comprehensive interventions.
PMCID: PMC3414569  PMID: 22855763
6.  Waist-to-Height Ratio and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Chinese Adults in Beijing 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69298.
To examine whether waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) performed better than, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) in relation to hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia among Chinese adults in Beijing.
A total of 5720 adults (2371 men and 3349 nonpregnant women) aged 18 to 79 years were selected from the general population in a cross-sectional study. Data from a standardized questionnaire, physical examination, and blood sample were obtained.
The area under curve (AUC) values for WHtR (0.661–0.773) were significantly higher than those for BMI for all outcomes in both sexes, except that WHtR and BMI had similar AUCs for dyslipidemia in men. The AUCs for WHtR were significantly higher than those for WC with respect to hypertension in both sexes, and to diabetes in women. AUCs for the relationships between anthropometric indices and the three outcomes were larger in women than in men, and tended to decrease with age. Optimal cutoffs for WHtR were 0.51–0.53 and 0.48–0.50 in men and women, respectively. With regard to the current Chinese criteria for BMI (≥24 kg/m2), WC (≥90 cm for men, and ≥85 cm for women), and the recommended cutoff of WHtR (≥0.5), WHtR yielded the greatest odds ratio for hypertension and diabetes in both sexes, and dyslipidemia in women. BMI had the highest odds ratio for dyslipidemia in men. The odds ratios of anthropometric indices for hypertension and diabetes, but not for dyslipidemia, were higher in women than in men. The association between anthropometric indices and the three outcomes decreased with age.
WHtR performed better than BMI and WC for the association with hypertension and diabetes. More studies should be conducted to explore the age differences in the relationships between obesity indices and cardiovascular risk factors.
PMCID: PMC3709905  PMID: 23874938
7.  A Longitudinal Study of Hand Motor Recovery after Sub-Acute Stroke: A Study Combined fMRI with Diffusion Tensor Imaging 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64154.
Previous studies have shown that motor recovery of stroke can be assessed by the cortical activity and the structural integrity of the corticospinal tract (CST), but little is known about the relation between the cortical activity and the structural integrity during motor recovery. In the present study, we investigated the changes in brain activities evoked by twenty days’ functional electrical stimulation (FES) training in twelve sub-acute stroke patients with unilateral upper-limb disability. We compared cortex activity evoked by wrist movement of eleven stroke patients to that of eleven age-matched healthy subjects to figure out how cortex activity changed after stroke. We also measured the structural integrity represented by the fractional anisotropy (FA) asymmetry of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) to find the relationship between the brain activity and the structure integrity. In our study, we found that patients with sub-acute stroke have shown greater activity in the contralesional primary motor cortex (M1) during the affected hand’s movement compared with healthy group, while the activity in ipsilesional M1 was decreased after the therapy compared to that before therapy, and the contralesional non-primary motor cortex showed greater activity after therapy. At the baseline we found that the positive correlation between the FA asymmetry of PLIC and the contralesional non-primary motor cortex activity showed that the greater damaged CST, the greater contralesional non-primary motor cortex recruited. While the negative correlation between them after the FES training indicates that after recovery the non-primary motor cortex plays different role in different stroke phases. Our study demonstrates that functional organization of a residual distributed motor system is related to the degree of disruption to the CST, and the non-primary motor areas plays an important role in motor recovery.
PMCID: PMC3665895  PMID: 23724030
8.  Induction of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells via a lyophilized microRNA reverse transfection formulation on a tissue culture plate 
MicroRNA (miRNA) regulation is a novel approach to manipulating the fate of mesenchymal stem cells, but an easy, safe, and highly efficient method of transfection is required. In this study, we developed an miRNA reverse transfection formulation by lyophilizing Lipofectamine 2000-miRNA lipoplexes on a tissue culture plate. The lipoplexes can be immobilized on a tissue culture plate with an intact pseudospherical structure and lyophilization without any lyoprotectant. In this study, reverse transfection resulted in highly efficient cellular uptake of miRNA and enabled significant manipulation of the intracellular target miRNA level. Reverse transfection formulations containing Lipofectamine 2000 1 μL per well generated much higher transfection efficiency without obvious cytotoxicity compared with conventional and other transfection methods. Further, the transfection efficiency of the reverse transfection formulations did not deteriorate during 90 days of storage at 4°C and −20°C. We then assessed the efficiency of the miRNA reverse transfection formulation in promoting osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We found that transfection with anti-miR-138 and miR-148b was efficient for enhancing osteogenic differentiation, as indicated by enhanced osteogenesis-related gene expression, amount of alkaline phosphatase present, production of collagen, and matrix mineralization. Overall, the miRNA reverse transfection formulation developed in this study is a promising approach for miRNA transfection which can control stem cell fate and is suitable for loading miRNAs onto various biomaterials.
PMCID: PMC3647447  PMID: 23662054
microRNAs; lyophilization; tissue culture plate; mesenchymal stem cells; osteogenic differentiation
9.  (±)Equol inhibits invasion in prostate cancer DU145 cells possibly via down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator by antioxidant activity 
Exposure to soy isoflavones has been associated with low mortality of prostate cancer. In this study, we examined the effects of (±)equol and two representative isoflavones, daidzein and genistein, on migration and invasion in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. First of all, the three regents did not show significant growth inhibitive effect in DU145 cells until the treatments last for 72 h. Treatment with 5 µM, 10 µM, 50 µM (±)equol, 0.5 µM, 1 µM, 5 µM daidzein and genistein for 24 h decreased cell migration and invasion significantly. (±)equol activated phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten at protein level but not mRNA level, which activated antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2. A reduction of malondialdehyde concentration, the product of lipid per-oxidation, was observed as well. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator, the crucial members in metastasis, were down-regulated. Overall, our data indicate that (±)equol, daidzein and genistein may have significant anti-invasion effect in DU145 cells (in vitro). The effects induced by (±)equol may relate to its anti-oxidant effect mediated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten.
PMCID: PMC3391865  PMID: 22798715
(±)equol; prostate cancer; DU145 cell; invasion; antioxidant
10.  Concentration- and time-dependent response of human gingival fibroblasts to fibroblast growth factor 2 immobilized on titanium dental implants 
Titanium (Ti) implants are widely used clinically, but peri-implantitis remains one of the most common and serious complications. Healthy integration between gingival tissue and the implant surface is critical to long-term success in dental implant therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate how different concentrations of immobilized fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) on the titania nanotubular surface influence the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs).
Pure Ti metal was anodized at 20 V to form a vertically organized titanium dioxide nanotube array on which three concentrations of FGF2 (250 ng/mL, 500 ng/mL, or 1000 ng/mL) were immobilized by repeated lyophilization. Surface topography was observed and FGF2 elution was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The bioactivity changes of dissolvable immobilized FGF2 were measured by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay. Behavior of HGFs was evaluated using adhesion and methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium bromide assays.
The FGF2 remained for several days on the modified surface on which HGFs were cultured. Over 90% of the dissolvable immobilized FGF2 had been eluted by Day 9, whereas the FGF2 activity was found to diminish gradually from Day 1 to Day 9. The titania nanotubular surface with an optimal preparing concentration (500 ng/mL) of FGF2 immobilization exhibited improved HGF functions such as cellular attachment, proliferation, and extracellular matrix-related gene expression. Moreover, significant bidirectional as well as concentration- and time-dependent bioactivity was observed.
Synergism of the FGF2-impregnated titanium dioxide nanotubular surface revealed good gingival-implant integration, indicating that these materials might have promising applications in dentistry and other biomedical devices.
PMCID: PMC3356224  PMID: 22619534
dental implants; titanium dioxide nanotube; fibroblast growth factor 2; extracellular matrix; real-time polymerase chain reaction
11.  Proteomics study of changes in soybean lines resistant and sensitive to Phytophthora sojae 
Proteome Science  2011;9:52.
Phytophthora sojae causes soybean root and stem rot, resulting in an annual loss of 1-2 billion US dollars in soybean production worldwide. A proteomic technique was used to determine the effects on soybean hypocotyls of infection with P. sojae.
In the present study, 46 differentially expressed proteins were identified in soybean hypocotyls infected with P. sojae, using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The expression levels of 26 proteins were significantly affected at various time points in the tolerant soybean line, Yudou25, (12 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated). In contrast, in the sensitive soybean line, NG6255, only 20 proteins were significantly affected (11 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated). Among these proteins, 26% were related to energy regulation, 15% to protein destination and storage, 11% to defense against disease, 11% to metabolism, 9% to protein synthesis, 4% to secondary metabolism, and 24% were of unknown function.
Our study provides important information on the use of proteomic methods for studying protein regulation during plant-oomycete interactions.
PMCID: PMC3180303  PMID: 21899734
12.  The Preparation and Characterization of Poly(m-phenyleneisophthalamide) Fibers Using Ionic Liquids 
A process to produce fibers from Poly(m-phenyleneisophthalamide)(PMIA) solution in an ionic liquid via wet-spinning technology are described. The spinning process was investigated on a small laboratory scale. Ionic liquid spinning solutions were first prepared for PMIA fibers, followed by wet spinning. In the course of this research, the physical properties of the PMIA fibers were estimated. We studied the dependence of the mechanical properties of the obtained PMIA fibers on the composition of the coagulation bath, and on the choice of solvent in spinning solution. The morphology of the fibers from ionic liquid and traditional DMAc solvents via wet-spinning process were observed by scanning electrical microscopy(SEM). The differences of morphologies and properties of the PMIA fibers obtained from two different solvents are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3716437
poly(m-phenyleneisophthalamide); ionic liquid; wet-spinning
13.  Rheological Behaviors of Polyacrylonitrile/1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Concentrated Solutions 
One of the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) was chosen to prepare the concentrated solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The rheological behaviors of the solutions were measured with rotational rheometry under different conditions, including temperatures, concentration, and molecular weight of PAN. The solutions exhibited shear-thinning behaviors, similar to that of PAN/DMF solutions. The viscosities decreased with the increasing of shear rates. However, the viscosity decreased sharply at high shear rates when the concentration was up to 16wt%. The dependence of the viscosity on temperature was analyzed through the determination of the apparent activation energy. Unusually, the viscosity of solutions of higher concentration is lower than that of lower concentration. Similarly, the viscosity of low molecular weight PAN was higher than high molecular weight PAN at high shear rates. The dynamic rheological measurement indicates the loss modulus is much higher than storage modulus. The trend of complex viscosity is similar with the result of static rheological measurement. The interaction between PAN and ionic liquid [BMIM]Cl was discussed.
PMCID: PMC3685233
Polyacrylonitrile; Ionic liquids; Rheological behaviours

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