Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is caused by the larval stages of the cestode and affects humans and domestic animals worldwide. Protoscoleces (PSCs) are one component of the larval stages that can interact with both definitive and intermediate hosts. Previous genomic and transcriptomic data have provided an overall snapshot of the genomics of the growth and development of this parasite. However, our understanding of how PSCs subvert the immune response of hosts and maintains metabolic adaptation remains unclear. In this study, we used Roche 454 sequencing technology and in silico secretome analysis to explore the transcriptome profiles of the PSCs from E. granulosus and elucidate the potential functions of the excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs) released by the parasite.
A large number of nonredundant sequences as unigenes were generated (26,514), of which 22,910 (86.4%) were mapped to the newly published E. granulosus genome and 17,705 (66.8%) were distributed within the coding sequence (CDS) regions. Of the 2,280 ESPs predicted from the transcriptome, 138 ESPs were inferred to be involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, while 124 ESPs were inferred to be involved in the metabolism of protein. Eleven ESPs were identified as intracellular enzymes that regulate glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (GL/GN) pathways, while a further 44 antigenic proteins, 25 molecular chaperones and four proteases were highly represented. Many proteins were also found to be significantly enriched in development-related signaling pathways, such as the TGF-β receptor pathways and insulin pathways.
This study provides valuable information on the metabolic adaptation of parasites to their hosts that can be used to aid the development of novel intervention targets for hydatid treatment and control.
The successful infection establishment of parasites depends on their ability to combat their host's immune system while maintaining metabolic adaptation to their hosts. The mechanisms of these processes are not well understood. We used the protoscoleces (PSCs) of E. granulosus as a model system to study this complex host-parasite interaction by investigating the role of excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs) in the physiological adaptation of the parasite. Using Roche 454 sequencing technology and in silico secretome analysis, we predicted 2280 ESPs and analyzed their biological functions. Our analysis of the bioinformatic data suggested that ESPs are integral to the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins within the parasite and/or hosts. We also found that ESPs are involved in mediating the immune responses of hosts and function within key development-related signaling pathways. We found 11 intracellular enzymes, 25 molecular chaperones and four proteases that were highly represented in the ESPs, in addition to 44 antigenic proteins that showed promise as candidates for vaccine or serodiagnostic development purposes. These findings provide valuable information on the mechanisms of metabolic adaptation in parasites that will aid the development of novel hydatid treatment and control targets.