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1.  Effects of nitrogen availability on polymalic acid biosynthesis in the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans 
Microbial Cell Factories  2016;15(1):146.
Background
Polymalic acid (PMA) is a novel polyester polymer that has been broadly used in the medical and food industries. Its monomer, L-malic acid, is also a potential C4 platform chemical. However, little is known about the mechanism of PMA biosynthesis in the yeast-like fungus, Aureobasidium pullulans. In this study, the effects of different nitrogen concentration on cell growth and PMA biosynthesis were investigated via comparative transcriptomics and proteomics analyses, and a related signaling pathway was also evaluated.
Results
A high final PMA titer of 44.00 ± 3.65 g/L (49.9 ± 4.14 g/L of malic acid after hydrolysis) was achieved in a 5-L fermentor under low nitrogen concentration (2 g/L of NH4NO3), which was 18.3 % higher yield than that obtained under high nitrogen concentration (10 g/L of NH4NO3). Comparative transcriptomics profiling revealed that a set of genes, related to the ribosome, ribosome biogenesis, proteasome, and nitrogen metabolism, were significantly up- or down-regulated under nitrogen sufficient conditions, which could be regulated by the TOR signaling pathway. Fourteen protein spots were identified via proteomics analysis, and were found to be associated with cell division and growth, energy metabolism, and the glycolytic pathway. qRT-PCR further confirmed that the expression levels of key genes involved in the PMA biosynthetic pathway (GLK, CS, FUM, DAT, and MCL) and the TOR signaling pathway (GS, TOR1, Tap42, and Gat1) were upregulated due to nitrogen limitation. Under rapamycin stress, PMA biosynthesis was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and the transcription levels of TOR1, MCL, and DAT were also downregulated.
Conclusions
The level of nitrogen could regulate cell growth and PMA biosynthesis. Low concentration of nitrogen was beneficial for PMA biosynthesis, which could upregulate the expression of key genes involved in the PMA biosynthesis pathway. Cell growth and PMA biosynthesis might be mediated by the TOR signaling pathway in response to nitrogen. This study will help us to deeply understand the molecular mechanisms of PMA biosynthesis, and to develop an effective process for the production of PMA and malic acid chemicals.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12934-016-0547-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12934-016-0547-y
PMCID: PMC4994417  PMID: 27549441
Aureobasidium pullulans; Nitrogen availability; Polymalic acid; Proteomics; TOR signaling pathway; Transcriptomics
2.  Two novel susceptibility loci for non-small cell lung cancer map to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 
Oncology Letters  2016;12(4):2307-2318.
This study investigated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) on the risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 500 NSCLC patients and 500 healthy controls were recruited for genotyping of 11 SNPs of LRP5. The association between genotype and NSCLC risk was evaluated by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses. Eleven Tag SNPs were detected. The frequency of the LRP5 rs3736228 T allele (18.9% in male NSCLC cases and 23.9% in male controls) was statistically different between male NSCLCs and male controls (P=0.03), and the T allele was associated with a lower risk of NSCLC (OR=0.74; 95% CI, 0.56–0.67), whereas the C/C homozygous genotype and the LRP5 rs64843 T/T genotype were associated with an increased risk of NSCLC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively (OR=1.43 and 1.77, respectively). Using Haploview software, the frequency of the haplotypes of rs312009/rs3120015/rs3120014 CCC was was significantly higher in female SCC cases compared with female controls (0.064 vs. 0.009, P=0.04). LRP5 rs3736228 and rs64843 SNPs were significantly associated with an increased risk of NSCLC and SCC, respectively. Further studies are required to investigate the functional changes in LRP5 expression and activity in NSCLC in vitro.
doi:10.3892/ol.2016.4954
PMCID: PMC5038383  PMID: 27698794
non-small cell lung cancer; genetic susceptibility; low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5; single-nucleotide polymorphisms
3.  Cue-induced Behavioral and Neural Changes among Excessive Internet Gamers and Possible Application of Cue Exposure Therapy to Internet Gaming Disorder 
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) may lead to many negative consequences in everyday life, yet there is currently no effective treatment for IGD. Cue-reactivity paradigm is commonly used to evaluate craving for substance, food, and gambling; cue exposure therapy (CET) is applied to treating substance use disorders (SUDs) and some other psychological disorders such as pathological gambling (PG). However, no study has explored CET’s application to the treatment of IGD except two articles having implied that cues’ exposure may have therapeutic effect on IGD. This paper reviews studies on cue-induced behavioral and neural changes in excessive Internet gamers, indicating that behavioral and neural mechanisms of IGD mostly overlap with those of SUD. The CET’s effects in the treatment of SUDs and PG are also reviewed. We finally propose an optimized CET paradigm, which future studies should consider and investigate as a probable treatment of IGD.
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00675
PMCID: PMC4860503  PMID: 27242589
Internet gaming disorder; excessive Internet gamers; cue-induced changes; substance use disorder; cue exposure therapy; mini-review
4.  Clinical, biochemical and molecular analysis of two infants with familial chylomicronemia syndrome 
Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease due mainly to inherited deficiencies in the proteins or enzymes involved in the clearance of triglycerides from circulation. It usually happens in late childhood and adolescence, which can have serious consequences if misdiagnosed or untreated. In the present study, we investigated two Chinese male babies (A and B), 30d and 48d in age, respectively, who have milky plasma. Clinical, biochemical, and radiological assessments were performed, while samples from the patients were referred for molecular diagnosis, including genetic testing and subsequent analysis of related genes. The fasting serum lipids of the two patients showed extreme lipid abnormalities. Through a low-lipid formula diet including skimmed milk and dietary advice, their plasma lipid levels were significantly lower and more stable at the time of hospital discharge. The genetic testing revealed compound heterozygote mutations in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene for patient A and two known compound heterozygote LPL gene mutations for the patient B. FCS is the most dramatic example of severe hypertriglyceridemia. Early diagnosis and timely dietary intervention is very important for affected children.
doi:10.1186/s12944-016-0254-z
PMCID: PMC4859971  PMID: 27153815
Familial chylomicronemia syndrome; Hypertriglyceridemia; Infancy
5.  Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(1):e0146637.
Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China’s aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water’s surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine’s motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine’s mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02–0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000–52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13–0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110–208 m3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10–15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3+–N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results indicate that the SMWM may be suitable for Wuchang bream pond aquaculture in China and that it can be used in pond aquaculture for regulating and controlling water quality.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146637
PMCID: PMC4720372  PMID: 26789004
6.  Clinical Prognosis in Neonatal Bacterial Meningitis: The Role of Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(10):e0141620.
Neonates are at high risk of meningitis and of resulting neurologic complications. Early recognition of neonates at risk of poor prognosis would be helpful in providing timely management. From January 2008 to June 2014, we enrolled 232 term neonates with bacterial meningitis admitted to 3 neonatology departments in Shanghai, China. The clinical status on the day of discharge from these hospitals or at a postnatal age of 2.5 to 3 months was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Patients were classified into two outcome groups: good (167 cases, 72.0%, GOS = 5) or poor (65 cases, 28.0%, GOS = 1–4). Neonates with good outcome had less frequent apnea, drowsiness, poor feeding, bulging fontanelle, irritability and more severe jaundice compared to neonates with poor outcome. The good outcome group also had less pneumonia than the poor outcome group. Besides, there were statistically significant differences in hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, C-reaction protein, procalcitonin, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose and CSF protein. Multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that poor feeding, pneumonia and CSF protein were the predictors of poor outcome. CSF protein content was significantly higher in patients with poor outcome. The best cut-offs for predicting poor outcome were 1,880 mg/L in CSF protein concentration (sensitivity 70.8%, specificity 86.2%). After 2 weeks of treatment, CSF protein remained higher in the poor outcome group. High CSF protein concentration may prognosticate poor outcome in neonates with bacterial meningitis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141620
PMCID: PMC4625018  PMID: 26509880
7.  Bt rice does not disrupt the host-searching behavior of the parasitoid Cotesia chilonis 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:15295.
We determined whether plant volatiles help explain why Cotesia chilonis (a parasitoid of the target pest Chilo suppressalis) is less abundant in Bt than in non-Bt rice fields. Olfactometer studies revealed that C. chilonis females responded similarly to undamaged Bt and non-Bt rice plants. Parasitoids preferred rice plants damaged by 3rd-instar larvae of C. suppressalis, but did not differentiate between caterpillar-infested Bt and non-Bt plants. According to GC-MS analyses of rice plant volatiles, undamaged Bt and non-Bt rice plants emitted the same number of volatile compounds and there were no significant differences in the quantity of each volatile compound between the treatments. When plants were infested with and damaged by C. suppressalis larvae, both Bt and non-Bt rice plants emitted higher numbers and larger amounts of volatile compounds than undamaged plants, but there were no significant differences between Bt and non-Bt plants. These results demonstrate that the volatile-mediated interactions of rice plants with the parasitoid C. chilonis were not disrupted by the genetic engineering of the plants. We infer that parasitoid numbers are lower in Bt than in non-Bt fields because damage and volatile induction by C. suppressalis larvae are greatly reduced in Bt fields.
doi:10.1038/srep15295
PMCID: PMC4606804  PMID: 26470012
8.  Volatile fragrances associated with flowers mediate host plant alternation of a polyphagous mirid bug 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:14805.
Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important insect pest of cotton and fruit trees in China. The adults prefer host plants at the flowering stage, and their populations track flowering plants both spatially and temporally. In this study, we examine whether flower preference of its adults is mediated by plant volatiles, and which volatile compositions play an important role in attracting them. In olfactometer tests with 18 key host species, the adults preferred flowering plants over non-flowering plants of each species. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography revealed the presence of seven electrophysiologically active compounds from flowering plants. Although the adults responded to all seven synthetic plant volatiles in electroantennography tests, only four (m-xylene, butyl acrylate, butyl propionate and butyl butyrate) elicited positive behavioral responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The adults were strongly attracted to these four active volatiles in multi-year laboratory and field trials. Our results suggest that these four fragrant volatiles, which are emitted in greater amounts once plants begin to flower, mediate A. lucorum’s preference to flowering host plants. We proved that the use of commonly occurring plant volatiles to recognize a large range of plant species can facilitate host selection and preference of polyphagous insect herbivore.
doi:10.1038/srep14805
PMCID: PMC4589772  PMID: 26423224
9.  Tankyrase 1 polymorphism associated with an increased risk in developing non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese population: a proof-of-principle study 
Objectives: Tankyrase 1 (TNKS1), a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, regulates telomere length and apoptosis in cells, overexpression of which occurred in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study investigated TNKS1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with a risk in NSCLC development in a Chinese population. Methods: NSCLC cases and healthy controls of 500 each were recruited for genotyping of 24 TNKS1 SNPs. The association between genotype and NSCLC risk was evaluated by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) with multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses. Haploview software was to analyze association between haplotypes and NSCLC risk. Results: TNKS1 rs6601328 A allele was associated with a lower risk in developing NSCLC and adenocarcinoma (ADC) (OR=0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.99 and OR=0.70; 95% CI, 0.50-0.99), whereas TNKS1 rs11991621 C allele (OR=1.44; 95% CI, 1.03-2.03), rs11991621 C/C (OR=1.44, 95% CI, 1.03-2.35; P=0.03), and rs10503380 G/G (OR= 1.56, 95% CI, 1.09-2.50, P=0.02) were associated with a higher risk in developing NSCLC or ADC in females and rs6601328 A/A major allele (OR=1.39; 95% CI, 1.00-1.92; P=0.047) and rs7015700 G/G (OR= 1.51, 95% CI, 1.04-2.21) was associated with an increased NSCLC or ADC risk in males but a reduced NSCLC risk (OR=0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.96) and ADC risk (OR=0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.97) in females. Haploview showed that there were three Haplotype Blocks associated with NSCLC risk. However, TNKS1 rs12541709 C/C was associated with protective effect against ADC (OR=0.75; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99; P=0.04) in this Chinese population. Conclusion: TNKS1 SNPs (rs11991621 rs10503380, and rs7015700) were associated with NSCLC risk, whereas rs6601328 and rs12541709 inversely associated with NSCLC or ADC risk in this Chinese population.
PMCID: PMC4637575  PMID: 26617760
Non-small cell lung cancer; genetic susceptibility; TNKS1; single nucleotide polymorphisms
10.  Water Use Patterns of Sympatric Przewalski’s Horse and Khulan: Interspecific Comparison Reveals Niche Differences 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(7):e0132094.
Acquiring water is essential for all animals, but doing so is most challenging for desert-living animals. Recently Przewalski’s horse has been reintroduced to the desert area in China where the last wild surviving member of the species was seen before it vanished from China in the1960s. Its reintroduction placed it within the range of a close evolutionary relative, the con-generic Khulan. Determining whether or not these two species experience competition and whether or not such competition was responsible for the extinction of Przewalski’s horses in the wild over 50 years ago, requires identifying the fundamental and realized niches of both species. We remotely monitored the presence of both species at a variety of water points during the dry season in Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Przewalski’s horses drank twice per day mostly during daylight hours at low salinity water sources while Khulans drank mostly at night usually at high salinity water points or those far from human residences. Spatial and temporal differences in water use enables coexistence, but suggest that Przewalski’s horses also restrict the actions of Khulan. Such differences in both the fundamental and realized niches were associated with differences in physiological tolerances for saline water and human activity as well as differences in aggression and dominance.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0132094
PMCID: PMC4498657  PMID: 26161909
11.  Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Polygalacturonase Genes in Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae) 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0126391.
Polygalacturonase (PG) is an enzyme in the salivary glands of piercing-sucking mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) that plays a key role in plant feeding and injury. By constructing a full-length cDNA library, we cloned and characterized 14 PG genes from the salivary glands of Apolygus lucorum, a pestiferous mirid bug in cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China. BLAST search analysis showed that the amino acid sequences deduced from transcripts of the PG genes were closely related to PGs from other mirid bugs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PGs of mirid bugs had six main branches, PG1-PG6 (Genbank accession numbers: KF881899~KF881912). We investigated the mRNA expression patterns of the A. lucorum PG genes using real-time PCR. All 14 PGs were expressed significantly higher in the salivary glands than in other tissues (head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing). For eggs and nymphs, the expression levels of these PGs were much higher in the 5th instar stage than in the egg, and 1st and 3rd instar stages. The PG expression levels in 1-day-old adults were very low, and increased in 5, 20 and 30-day-old adults. Additionally, PG expression levels were generally similar between males and females. The possible physiological functions of PGs in A. lucorum were discussed.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126391
PMCID: PMC4425681  PMID: 25955307
12.  Platelet Parameters and (1, 3)-β-D-Glucan as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker of Invasive Fungal Disease in Preterm Infants 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(4):e0123907.
The diagnosis of neonatal invasive fungal disease (IFD) is difficult and often delayed. The platelet parameters and (1, 3)-β-D-Glucan (BG) may be useful for diagnosing IFD, but their diagnostic performance are not well characterized in neonates. We studied 63 preterm infants with IFD, 160 preterm infants without sepsis (preterm control), and 41 preterm infants with bacterial sepsis. Platelet parameters at the first day of onset of IFD and at the fourteenth day after antifungal treatment were evaluated. Serum BG was measured. Platelet count (PC), plateletcrit (PCT), and platelet distribution width (PDW) values were significantly lower, and mean platelet volume (MPV) values significantly higher in the IFD versus preterm control infants. PC and PCT values were much lower in infants with IFD versus bacterial sepsis, and there were significant differences in BG value between the two groups. After 14 days of antifungal treatment, significant elevations in PC, PCT, PDW and reductions in MPV levels in IFD group were observed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that PC and PCT were strong predictors of IFD. The PC and PCT cut-offs for predicting IFD were 119.5 (sensitivity 78%, specificity 95%) and 0.21 (sensitivity 83%, specificity 85%), respectively. There were significant differences in PC and PCT levels between deceased and survived patients. The PC and PCT cut-offs for predicting deceased IFD were 39 (sensitivity 62%, specificity 86%) and 0.04 (sensitivity 50%, specificity 95%), respectively. The sensitivity in diagnosing IFD by a BG cutoff of ≥10pg/ml was 68.3% and specificity was 75.6%. PC and PCT levels in the BG ≥400 pg/ml group were significantly lower compared to the BG<400 pg/ml group. Platelet parameters and BG could be useful biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of neonatal IFD.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123907
PMCID: PMC4395423  PMID: 25874376
13.  Characterizing heat shock protein 90 gene of Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) and its expression in response to different temperature and pesticide stresses 
Cell Stress & Chaperones  2014;19(5):725-739.
In this study, we cloned a full-length cDNA of heat shock protein (HSP) gene of Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) [AlHSP90, KC109781] and investigated its expression in response to temperature and pesticide stresses. The open reading frame (ORF) of AlHSP90 is 2,169 bp in length, encoding a 722 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 82.99 kDa. Transcriptional and translational expression profiles of AlHSP90 under extreme temperature or pesticide stresses were examined by fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. Results showed that the expression profiles of AlHSP90 protein were in high agreement with those of AlHSP90 RNA and indicated that AlHSP90 was not only an important gene for A. lucorum adults in response to extremely high temperature, but also involved in the resistance or tolerance to cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and emamectin benzoate, especially for female adults to emamectin benzoate and for male adults to cyhalothrin. Transcriptional results of AlHSP90 also confirmed that AlHSP90 was an important gene involved in the resistance or tolerance to both temperature and pesticide stresses. In addition, our study also revealed that ∼24 °C may be the suitable temperature range for A. lucorum survival, which is also confirmed by the results of the expression of AlHSP90, the nymph mortality, and the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) when A. lucorum is reared at six different temperatures. Therefore, these studies are significant in elucidating the AlHSP90 in response to temperature and pesticide stresses and would provide guidance for A. lucorum management with different pesticides or temperatures in fields.
doi:10.1007/s12192-014-0500-0
PMCID: PMC4147072  PMID: 24623316
A. lucorum; HSP90; Pesticide; Extreme temperature; Temperature stress; Expression files
14.  Detection of renal brush border membrane enzymes for evaluation of renal injury in neonatal scleredema 
Objective:
To evaluate renal brush border membrane enzymes in urine as an indicator for renal injury in neonatal scleredema (NS).
Methods:
Sixty nine NS patients in our hospital were enrolled and divided into mild group and moderate/severe group. Patients were further randomly divided into therapy and control subgroups for 7 days ligustrazine administration. Urine samples were collected to detect renal brush border membrane enzymes (RBBME) by ELISA and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results were compared with those of 30 normal neonates. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS13.0 software.
Results:
Both RBBME and β2-MG were found to be higher in urine in NS patients than normal controls (P < 0.01). Level of RBBME increased with the severity of NS (P <0.05), while urinary β2-MG did not (P >0.05). After being treated with ligustrazine, a medicine for renal function recovery, both RBBME and β2-MG were similarly significantly decreased comparing to untreated groups (P < 0.05). 79.7% of NS patients showed abnormal RBBME while only 52.2% had an abnormal urinary β2-MG (χ2=11.65,P < 0.01).
Conclusion:
RBBME was more sensitive than β2-MG in reflecting the renal injury in NS. Examination of RBBME effectively reflected the recovery of renal injury after treatment with ligustrazine.
doi:10.12669/pjms.311.5740
PMCID: PMC4386159  PMID: 25878616
β2-microglobulin; Ligustrazine; Neonatal scleredema;  Renal brush border membrane enzyme; Renal injury
15.  Evaluation of Fast Food Behavior in Pre-School Children and Parents Following a One-Year Intervention with Nutrition Education  
A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4–6 years and their parents) were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into “intervention” and “control” groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as “food”, but rather as a “gift” or “interesting”. The time of children’s consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents’ western style fast food behavior (p < 0.01), although it did not change significantly in children. The healthy nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education.
doi:10.3390/ijerph110706780
PMCID: PMC4113844  PMID: 24983391
western style fast food; Chinese parents; young children
16.  Bundle Block Adjustment of Airborne Three-Line Array Imagery Based on Rotation Angles 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2014;14(5):8189-8202.
In the midst of the rapid developments in electronic instruments and remote sensing technologies, airborne three-line array sensors and their applications are being widely promoted and plentiful research related to data processing and high precision geo-referencing technologies is under way. The exterior orientation parameters (EOPs), which are measured by the integrated positioning and orientation system (POS) of airborne three-line sensors, however, have inevitable systematic errors, so the level of precision of direct geo-referencing is not sufficiently accurate for surveying and mapping applications. Consequently, a few ground control points are necessary to refine the exterior orientation parameters, and this paper will discuss bundle block adjustment models based on the systematic error compensation and the orientation image, considering the principle of an image sensor and the characteristics of the integrated POS. Unlike the models available in the literature, which mainly use a quaternion to represent the rotation matrix of exterior orientation, three rotation angles are directly used in order to effectively model and eliminate the systematic errors of the POS observations. Very good experimental results have been achieved with several real datasets that verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed adjustment models.
doi:10.3390/s140508189
PMCID: PMC4063068  PMID: 24811075
airborne three-line array imagery; block adjustment; rotation angle; systematic error compensation; orientation image
17.  Immunoregulation effect of crude extract of C. elegans on allergic asthma 
To explore effects of natural crude extract of C. elegans on treatment of asthma. Method: Obtain crude extract of C. elegans from synchronically incubated C. elegans via centrifugation, washing and ultrasonic emulsification, etc.; measure C. elegans’s protein molecular weight via SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAG electrophoresis); construct animal models of asthma with 6-8-week-old BALB/c female mice sensitized by chicken ovalbumin (OVA); conduct immunotherapy on animals with asthma with different doses of mixture of C. elegans and OVA (COM) respectively; take PBS buffer group and OVA group as control groups; conduct inspection of cell factors and differential count of cells in serum IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and incise lung tissue for pathology observation. Result: C. elegans’s protein molecular weight is about 50 kd. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of OVA group, cell factors IL-5 and IL-13 are more than those in PBS buffer group, but IL-2 and IFN-γ are less than those in PBS buffer group; these differences are of statistical significance (P<0.05). Total cellular score and number of eosinophile granulocyte in BALF of OVA group are more than those in PBS buffer group (P<0.05), and the difference in serum IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a between these two groups is of statistical significance (P<0.05). For groups treatment by different doses of COM, cell factors IL-5 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) are less than those in OVA group, but IL-2 and IFN-γ are more than those in OVA group; these differences are of statistical significance (P<0.05). Total cellular score and number of eosinophile granulocyte in BALF of COM treatment groups are less than those in OVA group (P<0.05); serum IgE and IgG1 less than those in OVA group, but IgG2a is more than that in OVA group; these differences are of statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion: The natural crude extract of C. elegans has immunoregulation to animals with asthma.
PMCID: PMC4057837  PMID: 24955158
Caenorhabditis elegans; crude extract; asthma; immunoregulation
18.  Lipopolysaccharide Induces Up-Regulation of TGF-α through HDAC2 in a Rat Model of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e91083.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by alveolar simplification with decreased alveolar number and increased airspace. Previous studies suggested that transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) may contribute to arrested alveolar development in BPD. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) control cellular signaling and gene expression. HDAC2 is crucial for suppression of inflammatory gene expression. Here we investigated whether HDAC2 was involved in the arrest of alveolarization, as well as the ability of HDAC2 to regulate TGF-α expression in a rat model of BPD induced by intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results showed that LPS exposure led to a suppression of both HDAC1 and HDAC2 expression and activity, induced TGF-α expression, and disrupted alveolar morphology. Mechanistic studies showed that overexpression of HDAC2, but not HDAC1, suppressed LPS-induced TGF-α expression. Moreover, the HDAC inhibitor TSA or downregulation of HDAC2 by siRNA both significantly increased TGF-α expression in cultured myofibroblasts. Finally, preservation of HDAC activity by theophylline treatment improved alveolar development and attenuated TGF-α release. Together, these findings indicate that attenuation of TGF-α-mediated effects in the lung by enhancing HDAC2 may have a therapeutic effect on treating BPD.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091083
PMCID: PMC3942494  PMID: 24595367
19.  Pleural fluid prealbumin and C-reactive protein in the differential diagnosis of infectious and malignant pleural effusions 
Clinical history and physical examination are helpful in indicating the potential causes of pleural effusions (PEs). However, the accurate diagnosis and establishment of the causes of PE is an ongoing challenge in daily clinical practice. The primary aim of this study was to distinguish between infectious PE and malignant PE (MPE) by measuring two major acute phase response biomarkers: prealbumin (PA) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The study was a prospective trial involving 151 patients who were diagnosed with infectious PE or MPE. Patients with infectious PE were divided into two subgroups: tuberculous PE (TBPE) and parapneumonic PE (PNPE). A further 58 patients with PEs that showed no evidence of MPE, TBPE or PNPE were classified as the chronic non-specific PE (NSPE) group. Demographic characteristics and pleural fluids of the subjects were collected consecutively. The discriminative properties of pleural fluid routine biochemistries, and PA and CRP were evaluated. PA, CRP and classical fluid parameters were also applied to classify patients with infectious PE and MPE. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis established the cutoffs of PA and CRP for discriminating between groups. Pleural fluid PA levels were significantly higher in the MPE group (n=47) than in the infectious PE group (n=104). Pleural fluid CRP levels were significantly higher in the infectious PE group than in the MPE group. Pleural fluid PA levels were identified to be moderately negatively correlated with CRP levels in the MPE group, with a statistically significant correlation coefficient of −0.352. The ROC curve showed that the sensitivity and specificity of PA for the diagnosis of MPE were 0.851 and 0.548, respectively, at the cutoff of 28.3 mg/l. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.784 (95% CI, 0.707–0.861). Using CRP as a diagnostic parameter resulted in an comparable AUC of 0.810 (95% CI, 0.736–0.885), at the cutoff of 35.2 mg/l. Combinations of PA and CRP resulted in incrementally discriminating values for MPE, with a sensitivity of 0.617 and a specificity of 0.903. The measurement of PA and CRP levels in pleural fluid may be a useful adjunctive test in PE, as a potential differentiator between infectious PE and MPE.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.1503
PMCID: PMC3961133  PMID: 24669233
prealbumin; C-reactive protein; pleural effusion
20.  Identification of the Plasma Metabolomics as Early Diagnostic Markers between Biliary Atresia and Neonatal Hepatitis Syndrome 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85694.
Early detection is the most effective way to improve the clinical outcome of biliary atresia (BA). Emerging metabolomics provides a powerful platform for discovering novel biomarkers and biochemical pathways to improve early diagnosis. The aim of this study is to find the potential biomarkers to distinguish BA from neonatal hepatitis syndrome (NHS) by using a metabolomics method. We comprehensively analyzed the serum metabolites in a total of 124 blood samples from patients with BA or neonatal hepatitis syndrome (NHS) and from normal individuals using advanced metabolomic approaches, and found that the levels of glutarylcarnitine (C5DC) significantly increased in the BA group while the levels of threonine (Thr) significantly rose in the NHS group comparing with the other groups. The levels of glutamic acid (Glu) in the BA group were significantly elevated compared to those in the NHS group, but still lower than the hyperbilirubinemia and normal controls. The levels of propionyl carnitine (C3), isovaleryl carnitine (C5) and glutamine (Gln) were reduced in the BA group compared to those in the NHS group, but still higher than the hyperbilirubinemia and normal controls. This study demonstrates the possibility of metabolomics as non-invasive biomarkers for the early detection of BA and also provides new insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms for BA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085694
PMCID: PMC3885726  PMID: 24416443
21.  Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 6 (LRP6) rs10845498 Polymorphism Is Associated with a Decreased Risk of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 
Objectives: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) modulates Wnt signaling transduction. Altered LRP6 expression leads to abnormal Wnt protein activation, cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. This study investigated the association between LRP6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Chinese population. Methods: A total of 500 NSCLC patients and 500 healthy controls were recruited for assessment of four LRP6 SNPs using the SEQUENOM MassARRAY matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The association between genotype and NSCLC risk was evaluated by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) with multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses. Results: The frequency of the LRP6 rs10845498 genotype was 60.9% (A/A), 35.5% (AG) and 3.6% (GG) in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 69.2% (A/A), 27.2% (A/G) and 3.6% (GG) in controls. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the LRP6 rs10845498 A/A major allele was associated with a reduced risk in developing lung SCC (OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.48-1.00; P=0.04), and tobacco smokers had a 2.21 fold greater risk in developing SCC than nonsmokers (p<0.01, 95% CI, 1.72-2.85), and tobacco smokers who carried an “A” allele (AA+AG) in rs6488507 had a 2.34-fold greater risk in developing NSCLC than other patients (p< 0.01, 95%CI, 1.74-3.13). Conclusions: The LRP6 rs10845498 SNP is associated with a reduced risk of lung SCC, while tobacco smoke increases the risk. LRP6 rs6488507 polymorphism synergistically increased the risk of NSCLC in tobacco smokers. Further studies are needed to elucidate the functional impact of LRP6 expression and activity in NSCLC.
doi:10.7150/ijms.8852
PMCID: PMC4025167  PMID: 24843317
Non-small cell lung cancer; genetic susceptibility; low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6; single nucleotide polymorphism.
22.  Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18 μg/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21 μg/mL against EV71 and 9.08 μg/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39 μM) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24 μM). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection.
doi:10.1155/2013/591354
PMCID: PMC3775429  PMID: 24078828
23.  Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Exon 20 Mutation Increased in Post-Chemotherapy Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Detected with Patients' Blood Samples1 
Translational Oncology  2013;6(4):504-510.
PURPOSE: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutations have excellent response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and exon 20 mutation accounts for most of TKI drug resistance. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect EGFR exon 20 mutations of patients with NSCLC after chemotherapy. The same is being analyzed with patients' characteristics. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 273 patients with NSCLC, including 143 with adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 130 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), after chemotherapy. DNA was extracted from whole blood for nested PCR amplification and purification. Sequencing was carried out in an automated 3730 sequencer, followed by analysis of EGFR exon 20 mutations from nested PCR products. RESULTS: The mutations of EGFR exon 20 were mainly point mutations in rs1050171 (c.2361A>G) and rs56183713 (c.2457G>A). The point mutation was 28.21%, 28.46%, and 27.97% in patients with NSCLC, ADC and SCC, respectively. Men had an equivalent mutation (27.18%) to women (30.77%). The mutation in smokers and nonsmokers was 27.68% and 29.17%, respectively. In unselected patients, there was no correlation between EGFR exon 20 mutations and patients' characteristics of age, gender, smoking history, histologic type, or tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system. In subgroup analyses, the EGFR mutation of patients with SCC was correlated with TNM stage [P = .013; odds ratio = 1.758; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.125–2.747]. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that the chemotherapy may induce EGFR-TKI-resistant mutation in NSCLC cells and EGFR-TKI should be used in the early stage of NSCLC but not after chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC3730025  PMID: 23908693
24.  Identification and Characterization of Pheromone Receptors and Interplay between Receptors and Pheromone Binding Proteins in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xyllostella 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e62098.
Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic of pheromone receptors. In the Xenopus-based functional study and in situ hybridization, PxylOR4 is defined as another pheromone receptor in addition to the previously characterized PxylOR1. In the study of interaction between PRs and PBPs, PxylPBPs could increase the sensitivity of the complex expressing oocyte cells to the ligand pheromone component while decreasing the sensitivity to pheromone analogs. We deduce that activating pheromone receptors in olfactory receptor neurons requires some role of PBPs to pheromone/PBP complex. If the chemical signal is not the pheromone component, but instead, a pheromone analog with a similar structure, the complex would have a decreased ability to activate downstream pheromone receptors.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062098
PMCID: PMC3633919  PMID: 23626773
25.  Polymorphisms of CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 Gene Cluster and NSCLC Risk in Chinese Population1 
Translational Oncology  2012;5(6):448-452.
AIM: To explore the potential association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster and the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) susceptibility in never-smoking Chinese. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with 200 NSCLC patients and 200 healthy controls, matched on age and sex. Five SNPs distributed in CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster were selected for genotyping. The association between genotype and lung cancer risk was evaluated by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses with adjustment for gender and age. RESULTS: For CHRNA3 rs578776 status, data were available in 199 NSCLC patients and 199 controls. The G/G homozygote in CHRNB4 rs7178270 had a reduced risk of developing NSCLC (OR = 0.553; 95% CI = 0.309–0.989; P = .0437), especially squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) (OR = 0.344; 95% CI = 0.161–0.732; P = .0043), compared with those who carry at least one C allele (C/C and C/G). The polymorphisms of rs578776, rs938682, rs17486278, and rs11637635 were not significantly different between controls and cases or between controls and histologic subgroups, adenocarcinoma and SQC, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we found that the SNP of CHRNB4 rs7178270 is significantly associated with reduced risk of NSCLC, especially with reduced risk of SQC in never-smoking Chinese population.
PMCID: PMC3567724  PMID: 23397474

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