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1.  Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer Thickness and Local Visual Field Sensitivity in Glaucoma 
Archives of ophthalmology  2011;129(12):1529-1536.
Objective
To compare loss in sensitivity measured using standard automated perimetry (SAP) with local retinal ganglion cell layer (RGC) thickness measured using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography in the macula of patients with glaucoma.
Methods
To compare corresponding locations of RGC thickness with total deviation (TD) of 10-2 SAP for 14 patients with glaucoma and 19 controls, an experienced operator hand-corrected automatic segmentation of the combined RGC and inner plexiform layer (RGC + IPL) of 128 horizontal B-scans. To account for displacement of the RGC bodies around the fovea, the location of the SAP test points was adjusted to correspond to the location of the RGC bodies rather than to the photoreceptors, based on published histological findings. For analysis, RGC + IPL thickness vs SAP (TD) data were grouped into 5 eccentricities, from 3.4° to 9.7° radius on the retina with respect to the fovea.
Results
The RGC + IPL thickness correlated well with SAP loss within approximately 7.2° of the fovea (Spearman ρ = 0.71–0.74). Agreement was worse (0.53–0.65) beyond 7.2°, where the normal RGC layer is relatively thin. A linear model relating RGC + IPL thickness to linear SAP loss provided a reasonable fit for eccentricities within 7.2°.
Conclusion
In the central 7.2°, local RGC + IPL thickness correlated well with local sensitivity loss in glaucoma when the data were adjusted for RGC displacement.
doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.352
PMCID: PMC4331118  PMID: 22159673
2.  Toxoplasma gondii prevalent in China induce weaker apoptosis of neural stem cells C17.2 via endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) signaling pathways 
Parasites & Vectors  2015;8:73.
Background
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular pathogen, has a strong affinity for the nervous system. TgCtwh3, a representative Chinese 1 Toxoplasma strain prevalent in China, has the polymorphic features of the effectors ROP16I/III with type I and GRA15II with type II Toxoplasma strains. The interaction of this atypical strain with host cells remains extremely elusive.
Methods
Using a transwell system, neural stem cells C17.2 were co-cultured with the tachyzoites of TgCtwh3 or standard type I RH strain. The apoptosis levels of C17.2 cells and the expression levels of related proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-mediated pathway were detected by flow cytometry and Western blotting.
Results
The apoptosis level of C17.2 cells co-cultured with TgCtwh3 had a significant increase compared to the negative control group; however, the apoptosis level in the TgCtwh3 group was significantly lower than that in the RH co-culture group. Western blotting analyses reveal that, after the C17.2 cells were co-cultured with TgCtwh3 and RH tachyzoites, the expression levels of caspase-12, CHOP and p-JNK in the cells increased significantly when compared to the control groups. After the pretreatment of Z-ATAD-FMK, an inhibitor of caspase-12, the apoptosis level of the C17.2 cells co-cultured with TgCtwh3 or RH tachyzoites had an apparent decline, and correspondingly, the expression levels of those related proteins were notably decreased.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that TgCtwh3 may induce the apoptosis of the C17.2 cells by up-regulation of caspase-12, CHOP, and p-JNK, which are associated with ERS signaling pathways. This work contributes to better understanding the possible mechanism of brain pathology induced by T. gondii Chinese 1 isolates prevalent in China, and also reveals the potential value of ERS inhibitors to treat such related diseases in the future.
doi:10.1186/s13071-015-0670-3
PMCID: PMC4322664  PMID: 25649541
Toxoplasma gondii; TgCtwh3; C17.2; Apoptosis
3.  Genes Underlying Positive Influence of Prenatal Environmental Enrichment and Negative Influence of Prenatal Earthquake Simulation and Corrective Influence of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Rat Offspring: Irf7 and Ninj2 
Background
Prenatal environmental enrichment (EE) has been proven to positively affect but prenatal stress negatively influence the physiological and psychological processes in animals, whose trans-generational genetic mechanism remains unclearly defined. We aimed to investigate and find out key genes underlying the positive-negative effects derived from prenatal interventions.
Materials and Methods
Pregnant rats were randomized into EE group (EEG), earthquake simulation group (ESG), herbal group (HG) received herbal supplements in feed after earthquake simulation, and control group (CG).
Results
Light Box Defecation Test (LBDT) showed EEG offspring presented less fecal pellets than CG offspring, ESG's more than CG's, and HG's less than ESG (p's<0.05). Open-field Test (OFT) score of EEG was higher than CG offspring, of ESG's was lower than CG's, and HG's higher than ESG's. Irf7 and Ninj were screened, which were up-regulated in EEG, down-regulated in ESG (FC<0.5), and were neutralized in HG. Prenatal EE could positively promote the nervous system development, prenatal earthquake simulation could retard the nervous system development and Chinese herbal remedy (JKSQW) which could correct the retardation.
Conclusion
The negative-positive prenatal effect could contribute to altered gene expression of Irf7 and Ninj2 which also could play a key role in the improving function of JKSQW for the kidneys.
PMCID: PMC4202648  PMID: 25435624
Prenatal stress; Earthquake simulation; Light Box Defecation Test; Open-field Test; Irf7; Ninj2
4.  Tuning LeSPL-CNR expression by SlymiR157 affects tomato fruit ripening 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:7852.
In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in growth, development, yield, stress response and interactions with pathogens. However no miRNA has been experimentally documented to be functionally involved in fruit ripening although many miRNAs have been profiled in fruits. Here we show that SlymiR157 and SlymiR156 differentially modulate ripening and softening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). SlymiR157 is expressed and developmentally regulated in normal tomato fruits and in those of the Colourless non-ripening (Cnr) epimutant. It regulates expression of the key ripening gene LeSPL-CNR in a likely dose-dependent manner through miRNA-induced mRNA degradation and translation repression. Viral delivery of either pre-SlymiR157 or mature SlymiR157 results in delayed ripening. Furthermore, qRT-PCR profiling of key ripening regulatory genes indicates that the SlymiR157-target LeSPL-CNR may affect expression of LeMADS-RIN, LeHB1, SlAP2a and SlTAGL1. However SlymiR156 does not affect the onset of ripening, but it impacts fruit softening after the red ripe stage. Our findings reveal that working together with a ripening network of transcription factors, SlymiR157 and SlymiR156 form a critical additional layer of regulatory control over the fruit ripening process in tomato.
doi:10.1038/srep07852
PMCID: PMC4297963  PMID: 25597857
5.  Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase 
Nature  2014;510(7506):542-546.
Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) since it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain, or posing a risk of hypoglycemia1,2. For over half a century, this agent has been prescribed to T2D patients worldwide, yet the underlying mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD), resulting in an altered hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute and chronic low-dose metformin treatment effectively reduced endogenous glucose production (EGP), while increasing cytosolic redox and decreasing mitochondrial redox states. Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) knockdown of hepatic mGPD in rats resulted in a phenotype akin to chronic metformin treatment, and abrogated metformin-mediated increases in cytosolic redox state, decrease in plasma glucose concentrations and inhibition of EGP. These findings were replicated in whole-body mGPD knockout mice. These results have significant implications for understanding the mechanism of metformin’s blood glucose lowering effects and provide a novel therapeutic target for T2D.
doi:10.1038/nature13270
PMCID: PMC4074244  PMID: 24847880
6.  Transcriptional Analyses of Natural Leaf Senescence in Maize 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e115617.
Leaf senescence is an important biological process that contributes to grain yield in crops. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying natural leaf senescence, we harvested three different developmental ear leaves of maize, mature leaves (ML), early senescent leaves (ESL), and later senescent leaves (LSL), and analyzed transcriptional changes using RNA-sequencing. Three sets of data, ESL vs. ML, LSL vs. ML, and LSL vs. ESL, were compared, respectively. In total, 4,552 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Functional classification placed these genes into 18 categories including protein metabolism, transporters, and signal transduction. At the early stage of leaf senescence, genes involved in aromatic amino acids (AAAs) biosynthetic process and transport, cellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process, and the cell wall macromolecule catabolic process, were up-regulated. Whereas, genes involved in amino acid metabolism, transport, apoptosis, and response to stimulus were up-regulated at the late stage of leaf senescence. Further analyses reveals that the transport-related genes at the early stage of leaf senescence potentially take part in enzyme and amino acid transport and the genes upregulated at the late stage are involved in sugar transport, indicating nutrient recycling mainly takes place at the late stage of leaf senescence. Comparison between the data of natural leaf senescence in this study and previously reported data for Arabidopsis implies that the mechanisms of leaf senescence in maize are basically similar to those in Arabidopsis. A comparison of natural and induced leaf senescence in maize was performed. Athough many basic biological processes involved in senescence occur in both types of leaf senescence, 78.07% of differentially expressed genes in natural leaf senescence were not identifiable in induced leaf senescence, suggesting that differences in gene regulatory network may exist between these two leaf senescence programs. Thus, this study provides important information for understanding the mechanism of leaf senescence in maize.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115617
PMCID: PMC4274115  PMID: 25532107
7.  Primary carcinoid tumor of medulla spinalis: case report and review of the literature 
Background
Carcinoid tumors are slow growing neuroendocrine tumors which can originate from various sites within the body. A carcinoid tumor originating in the medulla spinalis has not previously been reported in the literature.
Case report
We report a case of a 33-year-old man, presenting with a five-month history of bilateral lower extremity pain, as well as paresthesia, and mild weakness in one lateral lower extremity. A lumbar laminectomy of L3 to L5 and en bloc resection of the tumor was performed. Postoperative histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor were consistent with that of a carcinoid tumor. There were no clinical or radiological signs of tumor recurrence or metastasis at the patient’s two year postoperative follow-up.
Conclusions
During the differential diagnosis of medulla spinalis tumors, the possibility of a primary carcinoid tumor originating within the medulla spinalis should be considered. An accurate tumor classification is imperative to ensure that the most effective course of treatment is pursued.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40001-014-0071-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s40001-014-0071-7
PMCID: PMC4272791  PMID: 25523133
Carcinoid tumor; Medulla spinalis; Neuroendocrine tumor; Spinal tumor
8.  Rapid Detection of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase Gene and Variants Coding for Carbapenemases with Different Activities by Use of a PCR-Based In Vitro Protein Expression Method 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2014;52(6):1947-1953.
New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing bacteria are considered potential global health threats. It is necessary to monitor NDM-1 and its variants in clinical isolates in order to understand the NDM-1 epidemic and the impact of its variants on β-lactam resistance. To reduce the lengthy time needed for cloning and expression of NDM-1 variants, a novel PCR-based in vitro protein expression (PCR-P) method was used to detect blaNDM-1 and its variants coding for carbapenemases with different activities (functional variants). The PCR-P method combined a long-fragment real-time quantitative PCR (LF-qPCR) with in vitro cell-free expression to convert the blaNDM-1 amplicons into NDM for carbapenemase assay. The method could screen for blaNDM-1 within 3 h with a detection limit of 5 copies and identify functional variants within 1 day. Using the PCR-P to analyze 5 recent blaNDM-1 variants, 2 functional variants, blaNDM-4 and blaNDM-5, were revealed. In the initial testing of 23 clinical isolates, the PCR-P assay correctly found 8 isolates containing blaNDM-1. This novel method provides the first integrated approach for rapidly detecting the full-length blaNDM-1 and revealing its functional variants in clinical isolates.
doi:10.1128/JCM.03363-13
PMCID: PMC4042754  PMID: 24671780
9.  Immunomodulatory Effects of Polysaccharide from Marine Fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108 on T Cells and Dendritic Cells 
Mediators of Inflammation  2014;2014:738631.
YCP, as a kind of natural polysaccharides from the mycelium of marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108, has great antitumor potential via enhancement of host immune response, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we mainly focused on the effects and mechanisms of YCP on the specific immunity mediated by dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells. T cell /DC activation-related factors including interferon- (IFN-) γ, interleukin-12 (IL-12), and IL-4 were examined with ELISA. Receptor knock-out mice and fluorescence-activated cell sorting are used to analyze the YCP-binding receptor of T cells and DCs. RT-PCR is utilized to measure MAGE-A3 for analyzing the tumor-specific killing effect. In our study, we demonstrated YCP can provide the second signal for T cell activation, proliferation, and IFN-γ production through binding to toll-like receptor- (TLR-) 2 and TLR-4. YCP could effectively promote IL-12 secretion and expression of markers (CD80, CD86, and MHC II) via TLR-4 on DCs. Antigen-specific immunity against mouse melanoma cells was strengthened through the activation of T cells and the enhancement of capacity of DCs by YCP. The data supported that YCP can exhibit specific immunomodulatory capacity mediated by T cells and DCs.
doi:10.1155/2014/738631
PMCID: PMC4267005  PMID: 25525304
11.  The Drosophila Sp8 transcription factor Buttonhead prevents premature differentiation of intermediate neural progenitors 
eLife  2014;3:e03596.
Intermediate neural progenitor cells (INPs) need to avoid differentiation and cell cycle exit while maintaining restricted developmental potential, but mechanisms preventing differentiation and cell cycle exit of INPs are not well understood. In this study, we report that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Sp8 transcription factor Buttonhead (Btd) prevents premature differentiation and cell cycle exit of INPs in Drosophila larval type II neuroblast (NB) lineages. We show that the loss of Btd leads to elimination of mature INPs due to premature differentiation of INPs into terminally dividing ganglion mother cells. We provide evidence to demonstrate that Btd prevents the premature differentiation by suppressing the expression of the homeodomain protein Prospero in immature INPs. We further show that Btd functions cooperatively with the Ets transcription factor Pointed P1 to promote the generation of INPs. Thus, our work reveals a critical mechanism that prevents premature differentiation and cell cycle exit of Drosophila INPs.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03596.001
eLife digest
Whereas the majority of cells in the brain are unable to divide to produce new cells, neural stem cells can divide numerous times and have the potential to become many different types of brain cells. However, in between these two extremes there is another group of cells called neural progenitors. These cells can give rise to multiple types of neurons but, in contrast to stem cells, they can undergo only a limited number of divisions.
Many of the molecular mechanisms by which stem cells give rise to progenitors are similar in mammals and in the fruit fly Drosophila. In the brains of fruit fly larvae, neural stem cells called neuroblasts give rise to ‘intermediate neural progenitors', each of which can divide between four and six times. Every division generates a replacement intermediate progenitor and a cell called a GMC, which divides one last time to produce two brain cells.
Intermediate progenitors must be tightly regulated to ensure that they undergo an appropriate number of divisions: too few divisions will result in a shortage of cells, disrupting brain development, whereas too many divisions will result in the formation of tumors. Now, using Drosophila brains in the laboratory, Xie et al.—and, independently, Komori et al.—have shown that a protein called ‘Buttonhead’ is responsible for maintaining this balance.
Xie et al. show that deletion of the gene for Buttonhead gene caused the progenitor cells to become GMCs before they had undergone the correct number of divisions. Further experiments revealed that Buttonhead prevents this problem by suppressing a protein called Prospero.
The mammalian equivalent of Buttonhead—a protein called Sp8—can substitute for Buttonhead in Drosophila neural progenitors, suggesting that the observed mechanisms may also apply to mammals. Further work is required to test this possibility directly and to examine the involvement of Sp8 in brain development and tumor formation.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03596.002
doi:10.7554/eLife.03596
PMCID: PMC4221738  PMID: 25285448
Sp8; Buttonhead; intermediate neural progenitor; neuroblast; pointed; Prospero; D. melanogaster
12.  Transcriptional Evidence for Inferred Pattern of Pollen Tube-Stigma Metabolic Coupling during Pollination 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e107046.
It is difficult to derive all qualitative proteomic and metabolomic experimental data in male (pollen tube) and female (pistil) reproductive tissues during pollination because of the limited sensitivity of current technology. In this study, genome-scale enzyme correlation network models for plants (Arabidopsis/maize) were constructed by analyzing the enzymes and metabolic routes from a global perspective. Then, we developed a data-driven computational pipeline using the “guilt by association” principle to analyze the transcriptional coexpression profiles of enzymatic genes in the consecutive steps for metabolic routes in the fast-growing pollen tube and stigma during pollination. The analysis identified an inferred pattern of pollen tube-stigma ethanol coupling. When the pollen tube elongates in the transmitting tissue (TT) of the pistil, this elongation triggers the mobilization of energy from glycolysis in the TT cells of the pistil. Energy-rich metabolites (ethanol) are secreted that can be taken up by the pollen tube, where these metabolites are incorporated into the pollen tube's tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which leads to enhanced ATP production for facilitating pollen tube growth. In addition, our analysis also provided evidence for the cooperation of kaempferol, dTDP-alpha-L-rhamnose and cell-wall-related proteins; phosphatidic-acid-mediated Ca2+ oscillations and cytoskeleton; and glutamate degradation IV for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling activation in Arabidopsis and maize stigmas to provide the signals and materials required for pollen tube tip growth. In particular, the “guilt by association” computational pipeline and the genome-scale enzyme correlation network models (GECN) developed in this study was initiated with experimental “omics” data, followed by data analysis and data integration to determine correlations, and could provide a new platform to assist inachieving a deeper understanding of the co-regulation and inter-regulation model in plant research.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107046
PMCID: PMC4162560  PMID: 25215523
13.  Orientation-Cue Invariant Population Responses to Contrast-Modulated and Phase-Reversed Contour Stimuli in Macaque V1 and V2 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e106753.
Visual scenes can be readily decomposed into a variety of oriented components, the processing of which is vital for object segregation and recognition. In primate V1 and V2, most neurons have small spatio-temporal receptive fields responding selectively to oriented luminance contours (first order), while only a subgroup of neurons signal non-luminance defined contours (second order). So how is the orientation of second-order contours represented at the population level in macaque V1 and V2? Here we compared the population responses in macaque V1 and V2 to two types of second-order contour stimuli generated either by modulation of contrast or phase reversal with those to first-order contour stimuli. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging, we found that the orientation of second-order contour stimuli was represented invariantly in the orientation columns of both macaque V1 and V2. A physiologically constrained spatio-temporal energy model of V1 and V2 neuronal populations could reproduce all the recorded population responses. These findings suggest that, at the population level, the primate early visual system processes the orientation of second-order contours initially through a linear spatio-temporal filter mechanism. Our results of population responses to different second-order contour stimuli support the idea that the orientation maps in primate V1 and V2 can be described as a spatial-temporal energy map.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106753
PMCID: PMC4154761  PMID: 25188576
14.  Artemisia scoparia extract attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in diet-induced obesity mice by enhancing hepatic insulin and AMPK signaling independently of FGF21 pathway 
Metabolism: clinical and experimental  2013;62(9):10.1016/j.metabol.2013.03.004.
Objective
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease which has no standard treatment. In this regard, we sought to evaluate the effects of extracts of Artemisia santolinaefolia (SANT) and Artemisia scoparia (SCO) on hepatic lipid deposition and cellular signaling in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) animal model.
Materials/Methods
DIO C57/B6J mice were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. HFD, SANT and SCO. Both extracts were incorporated into HFD at a concentration of 0.5% (w/w). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and FGF21 concentrations were measured.
Results
At the end of the 4-week intervention, liver tissues were collected for analysis of insulin, AMPK, and FGF21 signaling. SANT and SCO supplementation significantly increased plasma adiponectin levels when compared with the HFD mice (P < 0.001). Fasting insulin levels were significantly lower in the SCO than HFD mice, but not in SANT group. Hepatic H&E staining showed fewer lipid droplets in the SCO group than in the other two groups. Cellular signaling data demonstrated that SCO significantly increased liver IRS-2 content, phosphorylation of IRS-1, IR β, Akt1 and Akt2, AMPK α1 and AMPK activity and significantly reduced PTP 1B abundance when compared with the HFD group. SCO also significantly decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS), HMG-CoA Reductase (HMGR), and Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), but not Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1) when compared with HFD group. Neither SANT nor SCO significantly altered plasma FGF21 concentrations and liver FGF21 signaling.
Conclusion
This study suggests that SCO may attenuate liver lipid accumulation in DIO mice. Contributing mechanisms were postulated to include promotion of adiponectin expression, inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis, and/or enhanced insulin and AMPK signaling independent of FGF21 pathway.
doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2013.03.004
PMCID: PMC3838888  PMID: 23702383
Obesity; Insulin resistance NAFLD; FGF21; AMPK
15.  Binding Pocket Alterations in Dihydrofolate Synthase Confer Resistance to para-Aminosalicylic Acid in Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
The mechanistic basis for the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), an important agent in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, has yet to be fully defined. As a substrate analog of the folate precursor para-aminobenzoic acid, PAS is ultimately bioactivated to hydroxy dihydrofolate, which inhibits dihydrofolate reductase and disrupts the operation of folate-dependent metabolic pathways. As a result, the mutation of dihydrofolate synthase, an enzyme needed for the bioactivation of PAS, causes PAS resistance in M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Here, we demonstrate that various missense mutations within the coding sequence of the dihydropteroate (H2Pte) binding pocket of dihydrofolate synthase (FolC) confer PAS resistance in laboratory isolates of M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. From a panel of 85 multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, 5 were found to harbor mutations in the folC gene within the H2Pte binding pocket, resulting in PAS resistance. While these alterations in the H2Pte binding pocket resulted in reduced dihydrofolate synthase activity, they also abolished the bioactivation of hydroxy dihydropteroate to hydroxy dihydrofolate. Consistent with this model for abolished bioactivation, the introduction of a wild-type copy of folC fully restored PAS susceptibility in folC mutant strains. Confirmation of this novel PAS resistance mechanism will be beneficial for the development of molecular method-based diagnostics for M. tuberculosis clinical isolates and for further defining the mode of action of this important tuberculosis drug.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01775-13
PMCID: PMC3957869  PMID: 24366731
16.  Reversal of Hypertriglyceridemia, Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance by a Liver-Targeted Mitochondrial Uncoupler 
Cell metabolism  2013;18(5):740-748.
Summary
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects one in three Americans and is a major predisposing condition for type 2 diabetes (T2D), however there are currently no drugs available to treat this disease. We examined whether a functionally liver-targeted derivative of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), DNP-methyl ether (DNPME), could safely decrease hypertriglyceridemia, NAFLD and insulin resistance without systemic toxicities. Treatment with DNPME reversed hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver and whole-body insulin resistance in high-fat fed rats and decreased hyperglycemia in a rat model of T2D with a wide therapeutic index. The reversal of liver and muscle insulin resistance was associated with reductions in tissue diacylglycerol content and reductions in PKCε and PKCθ activity in liver and muscle respectively. These results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of DNP on hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver and insulin resistance can be dissociated from systemic toxicities and suggest the potential utility of liver-targeted mitochondrial uncoupling agents for the treatment of the related epidemics of NAFLD, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2013.10.004
PMCID: PMC4104686  PMID: 24206666
17.  Efficient Whole-Cell Biocatalyst for Acetoin Production with NAD+ Regeneration System through Homologous Co-Expression of 2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenase and NADH Oxidase in Engineered Bacillus subtilis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e102951.
Acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone), an extensively-used food spice and bio-based platform chemical, is usually produced by chemical synthesis methods. With increasingly requirement of food security and environmental protection, bio-fermentation of acetoin by microorganisms has a great promising market. However, through metabolic engineering strategies, the mixed acid-butanediol fermentation metabolizes a certain portion of substrate to the by-products of organic acids such as lactic acid and acetic acid, which causes energy cost and increases the difficulty of product purification in downstream processes. In this work, due to the high efficiency of enzymatic reaction and excellent selectivity, a strategy for efficiently converting 2,3-butandiol to acetoin using whole-cell biocatalyst by engineered Bacillus subtilis is proposed. In this process, NAD+ plays a significant role on 2,3-butanediol and acetoin distribution, so the NADH oxidase and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase both from B. subtilis are co-expressed in B. subtilis 168 to construct an NAD+ regeneration system, which forces dramatic decrease of the intracellular NADH concentration (1.6 fold) and NADH/NAD+ ratio (2.2 fold). By optimization of the enzymatic reaction and applying repeated batch conversion, the whole-cell biocatalyst efficiently produced 91.8 g/L acetoin with a productivity of 2.30 g/(L·h), which was the highest record ever reported by biocatalysis. This work indicated that manipulation of the intracellular cofactor levels was more effective than the strategy of enhancing enzyme activity, and the bioprocess for NAD+ regeneration may also be a useful way for improving the productivity of NAD+-dependent chemistry-based products.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102951
PMCID: PMC4103878  PMID: 25036158
18.  Whole-genome sequencing reveals novel insights into sulfur oxidation in the extremophile Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans 
BMC Microbiology  2014;14:179.
Background
Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans), a chemolithoautotrophic extremophile, is widely used in the industrial recovery of copper (bioleaching or biomining). The organism grows and survives by autotrophically utilizing energy derived from the oxidation of elemental sulfur and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs). However, the lack of genetic manipulation systems has restricted our exploration of its physiology. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, the whole genome sequence analysis of A. thiooxidans has allowed preliminary models to be built for genes/enzymes involved in key energy pathways like sulfur oxidation.
Results
The genome of A. thiooxidans A01 was sequenced and annotated. It contains key sulfur oxidation enzymes involved in the oxidation of elemental sulfur and RISCs, such as sulfur dioxygenase (SDO), sulfide quinone reductase (SQR), thiosulfate:quinone oxidoreductase (TQO), tetrathionate hydrolase (TetH), sulfur oxidizing protein (Sox) system and their associated electron transport components. Also, the sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR) gene was detected in the draft genome sequence of A. thiooxidans A01, and multiple sequence alignment was performed to explore the function of groups of related protein sequences. In addition, another putative pathway was found in the cytoplasm of A. thiooxidans, which catalyzes sulfite to sulfate as the final product by phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase and adenylylsulfate (APS) kinase. This differs from its closest relative Acidithiobacillus caldus, which is performed by sulfate adenylyltransferase (SAT). Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that most of sulfur oxidation genes were more strongly expressed in the S0 medium than that in the Na2S2O3 medium at the mid-log phase.
Conclusion
Sulfur oxidation model of A. thiooxidans A01 has been constructed based on previous studies from other sulfur oxidizing strains and its genome sequence analyses, providing insights into our understanding of its physiology and further analysis of potential functions of key sulfur oxidation genes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-14-179
PMCID: PMC4109375  PMID: 24993543
Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans; Whole genome sequence; Bioinformatics analysis; Real-time quantitative PCR; Sulfur oxidation model
19.  Improving Glaucoma Detection Using Spatially Correspondent Clusters of Damage and by Combining Standard Automated Perimetry and Optical Coherence Tomography 
Purpose.
To improve the detection of glaucoma, techniques for assessing local patterns of damage and for combining structure and function were developed.
Methods.
Standard automated perimetry (SAP) and frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT) data, consisting of macular retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (mRGCPL) as well as macular and optic disc retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL and dRNFL) thicknesses, were collected from 52 eyes of 52 healthy controls and 156 eyes of 96 glaucoma suspects and patients. In addition to generating simple global metrics, SAP and fdOCT data were searched for contiguous clusters of abnormal points and converted to a continuous metric (pcc). The pcc metric, along with simpler methods, was used to combine the information from the SAP and fdOCT. The performance of different methods was assessed using the area under receiver operator characteristic curves (AROC scores).
Results.
The pcc metric performed better than simple global measures for both the fdOCT and SAP. The best combined structure-function metric (mRGCPL&SAP pcc, AROC = 0.868 ± 0.032) was better (statistically significant) than the best metrics for independent measures of structure and function. When SAP was used as part of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, AROC scores increased for all metrics, including the best combined structure-function metric (AROC = 0.975 ± 0.014).
Conclusions.
A combined structure-function metric improved the detection of glaucomatous eyes. Overall, the primary sources of value-added for glaucoma detection stem from the continuous cluster search (the pcc), the mRGCPL data, and the combination of structure and function.
SAP and fdOCT data were searched for contiguous clusters of abnormal points, converted to a continuous metric. This combined structure-function metric improved the detection of glaucomatous eyes.
doi:10.1167/iovs.13-12351
PMCID: PMC3908820  PMID: 24408977
glaucoma; glaucomatous; detection; diagnosis; sensitivity; specificity; visual fields; standard automated perimetry; optical coherence tomography; retinal nerve fiber layer; retinal ganglion cells; macula
20.  Novel Chimeric Lysin with High-Level Antimicrobial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus In Vitro and In Vivo 
The treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a challenge worldwide. In our search for novel antimicrobial agents against MRSA, we constructed a chimeric lysin (named as ClyH) by fusing the catalytic domain of Ply187 (Pc) with the non-SH3b-like cell wall binding domain of phiNM3 lysin. Herein, the antimicrobial activity of ClyH against MRSA strains in vitro and in vivo was studied. Our results showed that ClyH could kill all of the tested clinical isolates of MRSA with higher efficacy than lysostaphin as well as its parental enzyme. The MICs of ClyH against clinical S. aureus strains were found to be as low as 0.05 to 1.61 mg/liter. In a mouse model, a single intraperitoneal administration of ClyH protected mice from death caused by MRSA, without obvious harmful effects. The present data suggest that ClyH has the potential to be an alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of infections caused by MRSA.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01793-13
PMCID: PMC3910767  PMID: 24189265
21.  Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pyrazinamide Susceptibility Related to pncA Mutations in Sputum Specimens through an Integrated Gene-to-Protein Function Approach 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2014;52(1):260-267.
Testing the pyrazinamide (PZA) susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is challenging. In a previous paper, we described the development of a rapid colorimetric test for the PZA susceptibility of M. tuberculosis by a PCR-based in vitro-synthesized-pyrazinamidase (PZase) assay. Here, we present an integrated approach to detect M. tuberculosis and PZA susceptibility directly from sputum specimens. M. tuberculosis was detected first, using a novel long-fragment quantitative real-time PCR (LF-qPCR), which amplified a fragment containing the whole pncA gene. Then, the positive amplicons were sequenced to find mutations in the pncA gene. For new mutations not found in the Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Mutation Database (www.tbdreamdb.com), the in vitro PZase assay was used to test the PZA resistance. This approach could detect M. tuberculosis within 3 h with a detection limit of 7.8 copies/reaction and report the PZA susceptibility within 2 days. In an initial testing of 213 sputum specimens, the LF-qPCR found 53 positive samples with 92% sensitivity and 97% specificity compared to the culture test for M. tuberculosis detection. DNA sequencing of the LF-qPCR amplicons revealed that 49 samples were PZA susceptible and 1 was PZA resistant. In the remaining 3 samples, with new pncA mutations, the in vitro PZase assay found that 1 was PZA susceptible and 2 were PZA resistant. This integrated approach provides a rapid, efficient, and relatively low-cost solution for detecting M. tuberculosis and PZA susceptibility without culture.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02285-13
PMCID: PMC3911477  PMID: 24226918
22.  Comparative Genome Analysis Reveals Metabolic Versatility and Environmental Adaptations of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans Strain ST 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e99417.
The genus Sulfobacillus is a cohort of mildly thermophilic or thermotolerant acidophiles within the phylum Firmicutes and requires extremely acidic environments and hypersalinity for optimal growth. However, our understanding of them is still preliminary partly because few genome sequences are available. Here, the draft genome of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain ST was deciphered to obtain a comprehensive insight into the genetic content and to understand the cellular mechanisms necessary for its survival. Furthermore, the expressions of key genes related with iron and sulfur oxidation were verified by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The draft genome sequence of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain ST, which encodes 3225 predicted coding genes on a total length of 3,333,554 bp and a 48.35% G+C, revealed the high degree of heterogeneity with other Sulfobacillus species. The presence of numerous transposases, genomic islands and complete CRISPR/Cas defence systems testifies to its dynamic evolution consistent with the genome heterogeneity. As expected, S. thermosulfidooxidans encodes a suit of conserved enzymes required for the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds (ISCs). The model of sulfur oxidation in S. thermosulfidooxidans was proposed, which showed some different characteristics from the sulfur oxidation of Gram-negative A. ferrooxidans. Sulfur oxygenase reductase and heterodisulfide reductase were suggested to play important roles in the sulfur oxidation. Although the iron oxidation ability was observed, some key proteins cannot be identified in S. thermosulfidooxidans. Unexpectedly, a predicted sulfocyanin is proposed to transfer electrons in the iron oxidation. Furthermore, its carbon metabolism is rather flexible, can perform the transformation of pentose through the oxidative and non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathways and has the ability to take up small organic compounds. It encodes a multitude of heavy metal resistance systems to adapt the heavy metal-containing environments.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099417
PMCID: PMC4062416  PMID: 24940621
23.  The Use of Mixed Generalized Additive Modeling to Assess the Effect of Temperature on the Usage of Emergency Electrocardiography Examination among the Elderly in Shanghai 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e100284.
Background
Acute coronary artery diseases have been observed to be associated with some meteorological variables. But few of the previous studies considered autocorrelated outcomes. Electrocardiography is a widely used tool in the initial diagnosis of acute cardiovascular events, and emergency electrocardiography counts were shown to be highly correlated with acute myocardial infarction in our pilot study, hence a good index of prediction for acute cardiovascular events morbidity among the elderly. To indirectly assess the impact of temperature on the number of acute cardiovascular events, we studied the association between temperature and emergency electrocardiography counts while considering autocorrelated nature of the response variables.
Methods
We collected daily emergency electrocardiography counts for elderly females and males in Shanghai from 2007 to middle 2012, and studied temperature and other effects on these data using Mixed Generalized Additive Modelling methods. Delayed temperature effect distribution was described as the weighted average of the temperatures within 3 days before the counts was recorded. Autoregressive random effects were used in the model to describe the autocorrelation of the response variables.
Main Results
Temperature effect was observed to be piecewise linearly associated with the logarithm of emergency electrocardiography counts. The optimal weights of the delayed temperature effect distribution were obtained from the model estimation. The weights of lag-1 were the maximums, significantly greater than the weights of lag-2 and lag-3 for both females and males. The model showed good fit with R2 values of 0.860 for females and 0.856 for males.
Conclusion
From the mixed generalized additive model, we infer that during cold and mild days, the number of emergency electrocardiography counts increase as temperature effect decreases, while during hot days, counts increase as temperature effect increases. Similar properties could be inferred for the occurrence of cardiovascular events.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100284
PMCID: PMC4061122  PMID: 24936868
24.  A giant primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma in right adrenal region in a 39-year-old female 
We report an unusual case of a giant primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma in right adrenal region in a 39-year-old Chinese female. The patient has complained of dizziness and a high blood pressure approximately 170/110 mmHg for half one year. A plain helical and enhanced CT scan showed a huge tumor with a mixing density in recessus hepatorenalis. This tumor had calcification and fat, as well as a mild enhancement in part of the tumor. The patient was successfully treated with a right surgical resection of the mass. Although the primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratomas in right adrenal regions are extremely rare, we should pay attention to it and close follow up is indispensable on account of the incidence of malignant transformation is approximately 3-6%.
PMCID: PMC4100974  PMID: 25035788
Mature cystic teratoma; primary retroperitoneal; adrenal region
25.  Dynamic Coupling Between the Lateral Occipital-Cortex, Default-Mode, and Frontoparietal Networks During Bistable Perception 
Brain Connectivity  2013;3(3):286-293.
Abstract
The lateral occipital cortex (LOC), a visual area known to be involved in object recognition, was dynamically coupled with each of two distributed patterns of neural activity depending upon the percept (default or alternative) elicited by a bistable figure. The two distributed patterns included core nodes of the default-mode and frontoparietal networks (FPN), and they were most highly coupled to each other during the alternative percept, whereas they were less coupled during the default percept. Surprisingly, the regions associated with the nonengaged percept exhibited the highest connectivity to the LOC. Together, these findings reveal a dynamic organization between the default mode and the FPNs, and the incoming bottom-up visual stream during perceptual binding of visual images.
doi:10.1089/brain.2012.0119
PMCID: PMC3685318  PMID: 23510237
default mode network (DMN); frontoparietal network (FPN); functional connectivity; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); image segmentation; neural suppression; psychophysiological interactions (PPI); visual perception

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