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1.  Diffusion weighted imaging and blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging of kidneys in patients with lupus nephritis 
Background
Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of most common secondary glomerulonephritis. There is no ideal method to simultaneously assess renal structure and function in patients with LN. The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging in the assessment of renal involvement and pathological changes in patients with LN.
Methods
Sixty-five patients with LN and 16 healthy volunteers underwent coronal echo-planar DWI and BOLD MR imaging of the kidneys. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and R2* values of the kidneys were calculated with b values of 0 and 500 s/mm2. The relationship between the renal injury variables and the ADCs or R2* values were evaluated. And 16 of 65 patients with LN underwent a repeated evaluation after the induction treatment for 9 to 12 months.
Results
The mean ADC values of kidneys in patients with LN were 2.40 ± 0.25 × 10−3 mm2/ s, the mean R2* values of the renal cortex and medulla were 11.03 ± 1.60/sec and 14.05 ± 3.38/sec respectively, which were all significantly lower than that in volunteers. In patients with LN, the mean ADC values were correlated with eGFR (r = 0.510, p < 0.01). There was a negative correlation between the mean ADC values and renal pathology chronicity indexes (r = −0.249, p < 0.05), the R2* values of the renal medulla and proteinuria (r = −0.244, p < 0.05), and the degree of tubulointerstitial lesions (r = −0.242, p < 0.05). The ADC and R2* values of kidneys were significantly higher than those of pre-treatment in complete remission patients.
Conclusions
DWI and BOLD MR imaging of kidneys may be used to noninvasively monitor the disease activity and evaluate therapeutic efficacy in lupus nephritis.
doi:10.1186/s12967-014-0295-x
PMCID: PMC4221678  PMID: 25342208
Lupus nephritis; Functional MR imaging; Renal function; Pathological changes
2.  Community-based study on CKD subjects and the associated risk factors 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2009;24(7):2117-2123.
Background. The study was performed to investigate the prevalence, awareness and the risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the community population in Shanghai, China.
Methods. A total of 2596 residents were randomly recruited from the community population in Shanghai, China. All were screened for albuminuria, haematuria, morning spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and renal function. Serum creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, triglyceride and haemoglobin were assessed. A simplified MDRD equation was used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). All studied subjects were screened by kidney ultrasound. Haematuria, if present in the morning spot urine dipstick test, was confirmed by microscopy. The associations among the demographic characteristics, health characteristics and indicators of kidney damage were examined.
Results. Two thousand five hundred and fifty-four residents (n = 2554), after giving informed consent and with complete data, were entered into this study. Albuminuria and haematuria were detected in 6.3% and 1.2% of all the studied subjects, respectively, whereas decreased kidney function was found in 5.8% of all studied subjects. Approximately 11.8% of subjects had at least one indicator of kidney damage. The rate of awareness of CKD was 8.2%. The logistic regression model showed that age, central obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anaemia, hyperuricaemia and nephrolithiasis each contributed to the development of CKD.
Conclusion. This is the first Shanghai community-based epidemiological study data on Chinese CKD patients. The prevalence of CKD in the community population in Shanghai is 11.8%, and the rate of awareness of CKD is 8.2%. All the factors including age, central obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anaemia, hyperuricaemia and nephrolithiasis are positively correlated with the development of CKD in our studied subjects.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfn767
PMCID: PMC2698090  PMID: 19193736
awareness; chronic kidney disease; epidemiology; prevalence; risk factors

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