AIM: To investigate the mechanisms by which Csk-binding protein (CBP) inhibits tumor progression in esophageal carcinoma.
METHODS: A CBP overexpressing esophageal carcinoma cell line (TE-1) was established. The growth, invasion, and migration of CBP-TE-1 cells, as well as the expression of Src were then determined and compared with those in normal TE-1 cells.
RESULTS: The expression of Src was decreased by the overexpression of CBP in TE-1 cells. The growth, invasion, and migration of TE-1 cells were decreased by the overexpression of CBP.
CONCLUSION: This study indicates that CBP may decrease the metastasis of esophageal carcinoma by inhibiting the activation of Src. CBP may be a potential tumor suppressor and targeting the CBP gene may be an alternative strategy for the development of therapies for esophageal carcinoma.
Csk-binding protein; Esophageal carcinoma; Cell growth; Invasion; Migration
Knowledge of the polymicrobial etiology of root caries is limited. To conduct a comprehensive research study on root caries, we utilized 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries and quantitative PCR to compare supra-gingival bacterial communities from healthy sites and carious sites of 21 patients with root caries (Patient-controls and Patient-cases) and the sites of 21 healthy individuals (Healthy-controls) from two nursing homes. Healthy-controls and Patient-cases showed no significant differences in terms of biomass, species richness, and species diversity. However, as for beta diversity based on either community membership metric (unweighted UniFrac) or community structure metric (weighted UniFrac), Healthy-controls and Patient-cases were clearly distinguished from each other, appearing more variable in the community membership and structure in root caries microbiome but relatively conserved in the health microbiome. The Patient-controls group was at an intermediate stage between Healthy-controls and Patient-cases, but was more inclined to the former. Demonstrated in both relative abundance and prevalence of species in health and root caries, Propionibacterium acidifaciens, Streptococcus mutans, Olsenella profusa, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, and Lactobacillus crispatus were found to be most associated with root caries, whereas Delftia acidovorans, Bacteroidetes[G-2] sp., Lachnospiraceae[G-3] sp., and Prevotella intermedia are most associated with health. Our study provides a basis for further elucidating the microbial etiology of root caries in the elderly.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the commonest primary brain tumour in adults characterized by relentless recurrence due to resistance towards the standard chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ). Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, beta polypeptide (P4HB), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, is known to be upregulated in TMZ-resistant GBM cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-protein-coding transcripts that may play important roles in GBM chemoresistance. We surmised that miRNA dysregulations may contribute to P4HB upregulation, hence chemoresistance. We found that miRNA-210 (miR-210) was P4HB-targeting and was highly downregulated in TMZ-resistant GBM cells. Forced overexpression of miR-210 led to P4HB downregulation and a reduction in TMZ-resistance. A reciprocal relationship between their expressions was also verified in clinical glioma specimens. Our study is the first to demonstrate a potential link between miR-210 and ER chaperone in determining chemosensitivity in GBM. The findings have important translational implications in suggesting new directions of future studies.
Glioblastoma; miRNA; P4HB; ER stress reponse; chemoresistance; temozolomide
The tumor suppressor protein p16INK4a has been extensively studied in many tumors with very different results, ranging from its loss to its clear overexpression, which may be associated with degree of tumor differentiation and prognosis. However, its expression remains unclear in human retinoblastoma (RB), a common malignant tumor of retina in childhood. The aim of this study was to explore the expression pattern of p16INK4a in RB, and the correlation between p16INK4a expression and histopathological features of RB.
Sixty-five cases of RB were retrospectively analyzed. Paraffin-embedded blocks were retrieved from the archives of ocular pathology department at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University, China. Serial sections were cut and subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining. Immunohistochemical staining was further done with antibodies p16INK4a, CRX and Ki67. The correlation of p16 INK4a expression with CRX and Ki67 and clinicopathological features of RB were analyzed.
RB tumor histologically consists of various differentiation components including undifferentiated (UD) cells, Homer-Wright rosettes (HWR) or Flexner-Winterstein rosettes (FWR) and fleurettes characteristic of photoreceptor differentiation or Retinocytoma (RC). p16INK4a expression was negative in both fleurette region and the residual retinal tissue adjacent to the tumor, weakly to moderately positive in FWR, strongly positive in both HWR and UD region. However, CRX had the reverse expression patterns in comparison with p16INK4a. It was strongly positive in photoreceptor cells within the residual retina and fleurettes, but weakly to moderately positive in UD area. Together with Ki67 staining, high p16INK4a expression was associated with poor histological differentiation of RB tumors, which had higher risk features with the optic nerve invasion and uveal invasion.
p16INK4a expression increased with the decreasing level of cell differentiation of RBs. RB tumors extensively expressing p16INK4a tended to have higher risk features with poor prognosis. This study suggested that p16INK4a would be a valuable molecular marker of RB to distinguish its histological phenotypes and to serve as a predictor of its prognosis.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_180
Retinoblastoma; Differentiation; p16INK4a; Immunohistochemistry
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques chronically receiving ethanol results in significantly higher plasma viral loads and more rapid progression to end-stage disease. We thus hypothesized that the increased plasma viral load in ethanol treated SIV-infected macaques would negatively correlate with antigen-specific immune responses.
Rhesus macaques were administered ethanol or sucrose (n=12 per group) by indwelling gastric catheters for 3 months, and then intravenously infected with SIVMAC251. Peripheral blood T and B-cells immunophenotyping and quantification was performed. Plasma was examined for viremia, levels of SIV-Env-specific binding, and neutralizing antibodies. Virus-specific IFNγ and TNFα cytokine responses to SIV-Nef, Gag or Env peptide pools were measured in peripheral blood CD8+ T-cells.
Macaques receiving ethanol had both higher plasma viremia and virus-specific cellular immune responses compared to the sucrose-treated group. The emergence of virus-specific cytokine responses temporally correlated with the decline in mean plasma viral load after 14 days post infection in all SIV infected animals. However, neither the breadth and specificity nor the magnitude of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses correlated with early post peak reductions in plasma viral loads. In fact, increased cytokine responses against Gag, gp120 and gp41 positively correlated with plasma viremia. Levels of SIV envelope-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies were similar over the disease course in both groups of macaques.
Persistently higher antigen-specific cytokine responses in animals receiving ethanol are likely an effect of the higher viral loads and antigen persistence, rather than a cause of the increased viremia.
Human immunodeficiency virus; Simian immunodeficiency virus; AIDS; viral load; Cytokine; IFNγ; TNFα; SIV-specific antibodies; SIV neutralizing titers; chronic ethanol
The study objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative fasting plasma glucose (FPG) thresholds to identify adults at high risk for type 2 diabetes for diabetes preventive intervention.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We used a validated simulation model to examine the change in lifetime quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and medical costs when the FPG threshold was progressively lowered in 5-mg/dL decrements from 120 to 90 mg/dL. The study sample includes nondiabetic adults aged ≥45 years in the United States using 2006–2010 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. High-risk individuals were assumed to receive a lifestyle intervention, as that used in the Diabetes Prevention Program. We calculated cost per QALY by dividing the incremental cost by incremental QALY when lowering the threshold to the next consecutive level. Medical costs were assessed from a health care system perspective. We conducted univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the results using different simulation scenarios and parameters.
Progressively lowering the FPG threshold would monotonically increase QALYs, cost, and cost per QALY. Reducing (in 5-mg/dL decrements) the threshold from 120 to 90 mg/dL cost $30,100, $32,900, $42,300, $60,700, $81,800, and $115,800 per QALY gained, respectively. The costs per QALY gained were lower for all thresholds under a lower-cost and less-effective intervention scenario.
Lowering the FPG threshold leads to a greater health benefit of diabetes prevention but reduces the cost-effectiveness. Using the conventional benchmark of $50,000 per QALY, a threshold of 105 mg/dL or higher would be cost effective. A lower threshold could be selected if the intervention cost could be lowered.
A rat model of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitides reveals crescentic glomerulonephritis as seen in human renal biopsies and diffuse lung hemorrhage that is not well documented in human lung biopsies. A 64-year-old male, with shortness of breath and mild elevation of serum creatinine, was found to have a positive serum test for ANCA, but negative antiglomerular basement membrane antibody. A renal biopsy showed pauci-immune type of crescentic glomerulonephritis and focal arteritis. The prior lung wedge biopsy was retrospectively reviewed to show diffuse hemorrhage and hemosiderosis with focal giant cells. In addition, small arteries revealed subtle neutrophil aggregation, and margination along vascular endothelium, but no definitive vasculitis. The pathology of ANCA associated vasculitides results from activated neutrophils by ANCA and subsequent activation of the alternative complement cascade with endothelial injury, neutrophil aggregation and margination. Our findings, after the correlation between lung biopsy and renal biopsy, imply that the top differential diagnosis in the lung biopsy should be microscopic polyangiitis when diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis are present in this ANCA-positive patient.
Drug co-prescription (or drug combination) is a therapeutic strategy widely used as it may improve efficacy and reduce side-effect (SE). Since it is impractical to screen all possible drug combinations for every indication, computational methods have been developed to predict new combinations. In this study, we describe a novel approach that utilizes clinical SEs from post-marketing surveillance and the drug label to predict 1,508 novel drug-drug combinations. It outperforms other prediction methods, achieving an AUC of 0.92 compared to an AUC of 0.69 in a previous method, on a much larger drug combination set (245 drug combinations in our dataset compared to 75 in previous work.). We further found from the feature selection that three FDA black-box warned serious SEs, namely pneumonia, haemorrhage rectum, and retinal bleeding, contributed mostly to the predictions and a model only using these three SEs can achieve an average area under curve (AUC) at 0.80 and accuracy at 0.91, potentially with its simplicity being recognized as a practical rule-of-three in drug co-prescription or making fixed-dose drug combination. We also demonstrate this performance is less likely to be influenced by confounding factors such as biased disease indications or chemical structures.
To investigate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of hypoxia-inducible factor1 α (HIF-1α) and the susceptibility to cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and its outcome after surgical treatment.
A total of 230 CSM patients and 284 healthy controls were recruited. All patients received anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACF) and were followed for 12 months. The genotypes for two HIF-1α variants (1772C>T and 1790G>A) were determined.
In the present study, we found that the HIF-1α polymorphism at 1790G>A significantly affects the susceptibility to CSM and its clinical features, including severity and onset age. In addition, the 1790A>G polymorphism also determines the prognosis of CSM patients after ACF treatment. The GG genotype of 1790G>A polymorphism is associated with a higher risk to develop CSM, higher severity and earlier onset age. More importantly, we found that the 1790G>A polymorphism determines the clinical outcome in CSM patients who underwent ACF treatment.
Our findings suggest that the HIF-1α 1790G>A polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to CSM and can be used as predictor for the clinical outcome in CSM patients receiving ACF treatment.
Three structurally defined QS-21-based immune adjuvant candidates (2a-2c) have been synthesized. Application of the two-stage activation glycosylation approach utilizing allyl glycoside building blocks improved the synthetic accessibility of the new adjuvants. The efficient synthesis and establishment of the stand-alone adjuvanticity of the examined synthetic adjuvant (2b) open the door to the pursuit of a new series of structurally defined QS-saponin based synthetic adjuvants.
Numerous theoretical and experimental efforts have been paid to describe and understand the dislocation and void nucleation processes that are fundamental for dynamic fracture modeling of strained metals. To date an essential physical picture on the self-organized atomic collective motions during dislocation creation, as well as the essential mechanisms for the void nucleation obscured by the extreme diversity in structural configurations around the void nucleation core, is still severely lacking in literature. Here, we depict the origin of dislocation creation and void nucleation during uniaxial high strain rate tensile processes in face-centered-cubic (FCC) ductile metals. We find that the dislocations are created through three distinguished stages: (i) Flattened octahedral structures (FOSs) are randomly activated by thermal fluctuations; (ii) The double-layer defect clusters are formed by self-organized stacking of FOSs on the close-packed plane; (iii) The stacking faults are formed and the Shockley partial dislocations are created from the double-layer defect clusters. Whereas, the void nucleation is shown to follow a two-stage description. We demonstrate that our findings on the origin of dislocation creation and void nucleation are universal for a variety of FCC ductile metals with low stacking fault energies.
AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of methylation of genes in stool samples for diagnosing colorectal tumours.
METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese Journals Full-Text Database and Wanfang Journals Full-Text Database were searched to find relevant original articles about methylated genes to be used in diagnosing colorectal tumours. A quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool (QADAS) was used to evaluate the quality of the included articles, and the Meta-disc 1.4 and SPSS 13.0 software programs were used for data analysis.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria, and 4484 patients were included. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) were 73% (95%CI: 71%-75%) and 92% (95%CI: 90%-93%), respectively. For adenoma, the sensitivity and specificity were 51% (95%CI: 47%-54%) and 92% (95%CI: 90%-93%), respectively. Pooled diagnostic performance of SFRP2 methylation for CRC provided the following results: the sensitivity was 79% (95%CI: 75%-82%), the specificity was 93% (95%CI: 90%-96%), the diagnostic OR was 47.57 (95%CI: 20.08-112.72), the area under the curve was 0.9565. Additionally, the results of accuracy of SFRP2 methylation for detecting colorectal adenomas were as follows: sensitivity was 43% (95%CI: 38%-49%), specificity was 94% (95%CI: 91%-97%), the diagnostic OR was 11.06 (95%CI: 5.77-21.18), and the area under the curve was 0.9563.
CONCLUSION: Stool-based DNA testing may be useful for noninvasively diagnosing colorectal tumours and SFRP2 methylation is a promising marker that has great potential in early CRC diagnosis.
Colorectal carcinoma; Colorectal adenoma; Stool; Methylation; Meta-analysis
Increasing evidence indicates cancer-related inflammatory biomarkers show great promise for predicting the outcome of cancer patients. The lymphocyte- monocyte ratio (LMR) was demonstrated to be independent prognostic factor mainly in hematologic tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of LMR in operable lung cancer. We retrospectively enrolled a large cohort of patients with primary lung cancer who underwent complete resection at our institution from 2006 to 2011. Inflammatory biomarkers including lymphocyte count and monocyte count were collected from routinely performed preoperative blood tests and the LMR was calculated. Survival analyses were calculated for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). A total of 1453 patients were enrolled in the study. The LMR was significantly associated with OS and DFS in multivariate analyses of the whole cohort (HR = 1.522, 95% CI: 1.275–1.816 for OS, and HR = 1.338, 95% CI: 1.152–1.556 for DFS). Univariate subgroup analyses disclosed that the prognostic value was limited to patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR: 1.824, 95% CI: 1.520–2.190), in contrast to patients with small cell lung cancer (HR: 1.718, 95% CI: 0.946–3.122). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that LMR was still an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC. LMR can be considered as a useful independent prognostic marker in patients with NSCLC after complete resection. This will provide a reliable and convenient biomarker to stratify high risk of death in patients with operable NSCLC.
Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 was first identified in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, in association with major epidemics of cholera in both countries; cases were noted shortly thereafter in China. We characterized 211 V. cholerae O139 isolates that were isolated at multiple sites in China between 1993 and 2012 from patients (n = 92) and the environment (n = 119). Among clinical isolates, 88 (95.7%) of 92 were toxigenic, compared with 47 (39.5%) of 119 environmental isolates. Toxigenic isolates carried the El Tor CTX prophage and toxin-coregulated pilus A gene (tcpA), as well as the Vibrio seventh pandemic island I (VSP-I) and VSP-II. Among a subset of 42 toxigenic isolates screened by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), all were in the same sequence type as a clinical isolate (MO45) from the original Indian outbreak. Nontoxigenic isolates, in contrast, generally lacked VSP-I and -II, and fell within13 additional sequence types in two clonal complexes distinct from the toxigenic isolates. In further pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (with NotI digestion) studies, toxigenic isolates formed 60 pulsotypes clustered in one group, while the nontoxigenic isolates formed 43 pulsotypes which clustered into 3 different groups. Our data suggest that toxigenic O139 isolates from widely divergent geographic locations, while showing some diversity, have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure across a 20-year time span. Nontoxigenic isolates, in contrast, exhibited greater diversity, with multiple clonal lineages, than did their toxigenic counterparts.
Insulin is widely used in treating diabetes, but still needs to be administered by needle injection. This study investigated a new needle-free approach for insulin delivery. A portable powder needleless injection (PNI) device with an automatic mechanical unit was designed. Its efficiency in delivering insulin was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The skin irritation caused by the device was investigated and the results were analyzed in relation to aerodynamic parameters. Inorganic salt-carried insulin powders had hypoglycemic effects, while raw insulin powders were not effective when delivered by PNI, indicating that salt carriers play an important role in the delivery of insulin via PNI. The relative delivery efficiency of phosphate-carried insulin powder using the PNI device was 72.25%. A safety assessment test showed that three key factors (gas pressure, cylinder volume, and nozzle distance) were related to the amount of skin irritation caused by the PNI device. Optimized injection conditions caused minimal skin lesions and are safe to use in practice. The results suggest that PNI has promising prospects as a novel technology for delivering insulin and other biological drugs.
Powder needleless injection; Insulin; Transdermal drug delivery; Skin irritation
The present study aimed to examine the changes in mesenteric lymph during the development of sepsis and to identify the distinct proteins involved, as targets for further study. The sepsis animal model was constructed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The mesenteric lymph was collected from 28 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were randomly divided into the following four groups (n=7 per group): CLP-6 h, CLP-24 h, sham-6 h and sham-24 h groups. Capillary high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed to analyze the proteome in mesenteric lymph. A comprehensive bioinformatic analysis was then conducted to investigate the distinct proteins. Compared with the sham group, 158 distinct proteins were identified in the lymph samples from the CLP group. Five of these proteins associated with the same lipid metabolism pathway were selected, apolipoprotein E (ApoE), annexin A1 (Anxa1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), S100a8 and S100a9. The expression of ApoE, Anxa1, NGAL, S100a8 and S100a9 were all elevated in the progression of sepsis. The five proteins were reported to be closely associated with disease development and may be a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. In conclusion, identifying proteome changes in mesenteric lymph provides a novel perspective to understand the pathological mechanisms underlying sepsis.
lymph; proteome; sepsis; cecal ligation and puncture; bioinformation
The SULT1A1 Arg213His (rs9282861) polymorphism is reported to be associated with many kinds of cancer risk. However, the findings are conflicting. For better understanding this SNP site and cancer risk, we summarized available data and performed this meta-analysis.
Data were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge and CNKI. The association was assessed by odd ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI).
A total of 53 studies including 16733 cancer patients and 23334 controls based on the search criteria were analyzed. Overall, we found SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism can increase cancer risk under heterozygous (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01–1.18, P = 0.040), dominant (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.01–1.19, P = 0.021) and allelic (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.02–1.16, P = 0.015) models. In subgroup analyses, significant associations were observed in upper aero digestive tract (UADT) cancer (heterozygous model: OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.11–2.35, P = 0.012; dominant model: OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.13–2.35, P = 0.009; allelic model: OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.11, P = 0.012) and Indians (recessive model: OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.22–3.07, P = 0.005) subgroups. Hospital based study also showed marginally significant association. In the breast cancer subgroup, ethnicity and publication year revealed by meta-regression analysis and one study found by sensitivity analysis were the main sources of heterogeneity. The association between SULT1A1 Arg213His and breast cancer risk was not significant. No publication bias was detected.
The present meta-analysis suggests that SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism plays an important role in carcinogenesis, which may be a genetic factor affecting individual susceptibility to UADT cancer. SULT1A1 Arg213His didn't show any association with breast cancer, but the possible risk in Asian population needs further investigation.
Artificial guidance channels containing Schwann cells can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve over long distances. However, primary Schwann cells are not suitable for autotransplantation. Under specific conditions, skin-derived progenitors can be induced to differentiate into Schwann cells. Therefore, adult rat dorsal skin (dermis)-derived progenitors were isolated and induced to differentiate with DMEM/F12 containing B27, neuregulin 1, and forskolin. Immunofluorescence staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed that the resultant cells were indeed Schwann cells. Artificial guidance channels containing skin-derived progenitors, Schwann cells originating from skin-derived progenitors, or primary Schwann cells were used to bridge 5 mm sciatic nerve defects. Schwann cells originating from skin-derived progenitors significantly promoted sciatic nerve axonal regeneration. The significant recovery of injured rat sciatic nerve function after the transplantation of Schwann cells originating from skin-derived progenitors was confirmed by electromyogram. The therapeutic effect of Schwann cells originating from skin-derived progenitors was better than that of skin-derived progenitors. These findings indicate that Schwann cells originating from skin-derived precursors can promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats.
nerve regeneration; skin-derived precursors; Schwann cells; peripheral nerve injury; cell transplantation; NSFC grant; neural regeneration
A total of 330 clinical Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroups from China dating between 1961 and 2010 were investigated. By phenotypic biotyping and genetic analysis, during the seventh pandemic of V. cholerae O1 in China, the isolates of hybrid biotype (mixed classical phenotypes) were present during the entire1961-2010 period, while El Tor genetic shifts appeared in 1992 and replaced the prototype El Tor from 2002 to 2010.
To discuss the prognostic significant of autophagy related proteins (ARPs) in retinoblastoma (RB) and to find the molecular marker to distinguish retinocytoma (RC) and RB by investigating the different expression profiling of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3B) and other ARPs in RC and RB.
Specimens with retinocytoma region (RCR) or mainly composed with Flexner-Winterstein rosettes (FWR) were screen out from 219 paraffin-embedded RB samples and respectively taken as RCR group and FWR group. Others were taken as undifferentiated (UD) group. Immunochemistry (IHC) of LC3B and electronic microscopy was used to identify autophagy. The IHC scores of LC3B and other ARPs, such as Beclin, PTEN, p27, p16INK4a, mTOR and BCL-2 were compared and correlation analysis was applied to find potential proteins which may involve in autophagy regulation. The prognostics significance of LC3B was evaluated by comparing the high risk features (HRFs) in 3 groups of total 219 samples.
Twenty-one specimens with RCR and 36 specimens mainly composed with FWR were screen out. RCR cell had a high level of LC3B and lots of autophagic vacuoles. Beclin, PTEN, p27 had positive correlation with LC3, and p16INK4a had negative correlation, while the expression of mTOR and BCL-2 in RCR and RB region did not show any difference. Cases with RCR had lower rate of HRFs than undifferentiated cases.
ARPs had different expression pattern between RCR and other pathological types of RB, and could be ideal markers to distinguish RC from RB. Our finding indicated cases with RCR had favorable prognosis just like those with FWR.
autophagy related protein; retinoblastoma; retinocytoma; LC3B; prognosis
By performing quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, we investigate the equation of states, electrical and optical properties of the expanded beryllium at densities two to one-hundred lower than the normal solid density, and temperatures ranging from 5000 to 30000 K. With decreasing the density of Be, the optical response evolves from the one characteristic of a simple metal to the one of an atomic fluid. By fitting the optical conductivity spectra with the Drude-Smith model, it is found that the conducting electrons become localized at lower densities. In addition, the negative derivative of the electrical resistivity on temperature at density about eight lower than the normal solid density demonstrates that the metal to nonmetal transition takes place in the expanded Be. To interpret this transition, the electronic density of states is analyzed systematically. Furthermore, a direct comparison of the Rosseland opacity obtained by using QMD and the standard opacity code demonstrates that QMD provides a powerful tool to validate plasma models used in atomic physics approaches in the warm dense matter regime.
WRAP53, including α, β and γ isoforms, plays an important role not only in the stability of p53 mRNA, but also in the assembly and trafficking of the telomerase holoenzyme. It has been considered an oncogene and is thought to promote the survival of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to detect the role of TCAB1 (except WRAP53α) in the occurrence and development of head and neck carcinomas.
Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the TCAB1 expression in clinical specimen sections and performed western blotting to check the TCAB1 expression levels in cell lines. TCAB1 was depleted using shRNA lentivirus and the knockdown efficiency was assessed using q-PCR and Western blotting. We performed CCK-8 assays and flow cytometry to check the cell proliferation potential and used the trans-well assay to test the invasion ability in vitro. Xenografts were used to detect the tumor formation potential in vivo. Moreover, we performed cDNA microarray to investigate the candidate factors involved in this process.
We observed a notable overexpression of TCAB1 in head and neck carcinoma clinical specimens as well as in carcinoma cell lines. Knockdown of TCAB1 decreased the cellular proliferation potential and invasion ability in vitro. cDNA microarray analysis suggested the possible involvement of several pathways and factors associated with tumorigenesis and carcinoma development in the TCAB1-mediated regulation of cancers. Furthermore, the xenograft assay confirmed that the depletion of TCAB1 would inhibit tumor formation in nude mice. The immunohistochemistry results of the mice tumor tissue sections revealed that the cells in shTCAB1 xenografts showed decreased proliferation potential and increased apoptotic trend, meanwhile, the angiogenesis was inhibited in the smaller tumors form shTCAB1 cells.
Our study demonstrated that depletion of TCAB1 decreased cellular proliferation and invasion potential both in vitro and in vivo. The data indicated that TCAB1 might facilitate the occurrence and development of head and neck carcinomas. In future, TCAB1 might be useful as a prognostic biomarker or a potential target for the diagnosis and therapy of head and neck carcinomas.
TCAB1; Head and neck cancers; Proliferation; Invasion; Biomarker
Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells have been implicated as important cells in antitumor responses. Our previous research has shown that high mobility group nucleosomal-binding domain 2 (HMGN2) could be released by IL-2 and PHA stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and also induced tumor cells apoptosis at low doses. In this study, we isolated and cultured PBMCs and CD8+ T cells to analyze the expression and antitumor effects of HMGN2.
PBMCs from healthy donors were isolated using Human Lymphocyte Separation tube. CD8+ T cells were separated from the PBMCs using MoFlo XDP high-speed flow cytometry sorter. Activation of PBMCs and CD8+ T cells were achieved by stimulating with Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or tumor antigen. In addition, the methods of ELISA, intracellular staining, and fluorescence-labeling assays were used.
PHA induced PBMCs to release high levels of HMGN2, and CD8+ T cells was the major cell population in PBMCs that release HMGN2 after PHA activation. Tumor antigen-activated CD8+ T cells also released high levels of HMGN2. Supernatants of tumor antigen-activated CD8+ T cells were able to kill tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. This antitumor effect could be significantly blocked by using an anti-HMGN2 antibody. Fluorescence-labeling assays showed that the supernatant proteins of activated CD8+ T cells could be transported into tumor cells, and the transport visibly decreased after HMGN2 was depleted by anti-HMGN2 antibody.
These results suggest that HMGN2 is an anti-tumor effector molecule of CD8+ T cells.
HMGN2; PMBC; CD8+ T cells; Antitumor activity; Anti-tumor effector molecule
Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in promoting the generation of marginal zone (MZ) B cells at the expense of follicular (FO) B cells during periphery B cell maturation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesize that Notch favors the generation of MZ B cells by down-regulating E protein activity. Here, we demonstrated that expression of Id2 and ankyrin-repeat SOCS box-containing protein 2 (Asb2) was elevated in MZ B cells and by Notch signaling. Id2 inhibits the DNA binding activity of E proteins whereas Asb2 facilitates E protein ubiquitination. Next, we examined the phenotypes of splenic B cells in mice expressing constitutively active Notch1 and/or two gain-of-function mutants of E proteins that counteract Id2-mediated inhibition or Notch-induced degradation. We found that up-regulation of E proteins promoted the formation of FO B cells while it suppressed the maturation of MZ B cells. In contrast, excessive amounts of Notch1 stimulated the differentiation of MZ B cells and inhibited the production of FO B cells. More interestingly, the effects of Notch1 were reversed by gain of E protein function. Furthermore, high levels of Bcl-6 expression in FO B cells was shown to be diminished by Notch signaling and restored by E proteins. In addition, E proteins facilitated and Notch hindered the differentiation of transitional B cells. Taken together, it appears that Notch regulates peripheral B cell differentiation, at least in part, through opposing E protein function.
A hexanucleotide GGGGCC repeat expansion in the noncoding region of the C9ORF72 gene is the most common genetic abnormality in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The function of the C9ORF72 protein is unknown, as is the mechanism by which the repeat expansion could cause disease. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-differentiated neurons from C9ORF72 ALS patients revealed disease-specific (1) intranuclear GGGGCCexp RNA foci, (2) dysregulated gene expression, (3) sequestration of GGGGCCexp RNA binding protein ADARB2, and (4) susceptibility to excitotoxicity. These pathological and pathogenic characteristics were confirmed in ALS brain and were mitigated with antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapeutics to the C9ORF72 transcript or repeat expansion despite the presence of repeat-associated non-ATG translation (RAN) products. These data indicate a toxic RNA gain-of-function mechanism as a cause of C9ORF72 ALS and provide candidate antisense therapeutics and candidate human pharmacodynamic markers for therapy.