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1.  Detection accuracy of condylar bony defects in Promax 3D cone beam CT images scanned with different protocols 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2013;42(5):20120241.
To investigate and compare the detection accuracy of bony defects on the condylar surface of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in cone beam CT (CBCT) images scanned with standard and large view protocols on the same machine.
21 dry human skulls with 42 TMJs were scanned with the large view and standard view protocols of the CBCT scanner Promax 3D (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland). Seven observers evaluated all the images for the presence or absence of defects on the surface of the condyle. Using the macroscopic examination of condylar defects as the gold standard, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed.
Macroscopic examination revealed that, of the 42 condyles, 18 were normal and 24 had a defect on the surface of the condyles. Areas under the ROC curves for the large view and the standard view group of CBCT images were 0.739 and 0.720, respectively, and no significant difference was found between the two groups of images (p = 0.902). Neither the interobserver nor the intraobserver variability were significant.
The two scanning protocols provided by the CBCT scanner Promax 3D were reliable and comparable with detection of condylar defects.
PMCID: PMC3635775  PMID: 23420852
temporomandibular joint; mandibular condyle; radiology; cone beam computed tomography
2.  Effects of Sand Burial on Survival, Growth, Gas Exchange and Biomass Allocation of Ulmus pumila Seedlings in the Hunshandak Sandland, China 
Annals of Botany  2004;94(4):553-560.
• Background and Aims In the last decade, the number of young plants of Ulmus pumila in the Hunshandak Sandland has decreased sharply because of severe sand burial, and their ecological protective function has been weakened. In order to develop an understanding of the tolerance of U. pumila to sand burial and to suggest reasonable measures to protect the sparse-elm–grassland ecosystem, the effects of burial on the survival, growth, photosynthesis and biomass allocation in U. pumila were studied.
• Methods Seedlings were buried at five different depths in pot experiments: no burial (control), partial burial (33 % and 67 % stem height), and complete burial (100 % and 133 % stem height). Growth analyses and measurements of photosynthesis were carried after the plants had been uncovered.
• Key Results All the plants survived partial burial, but about 30 % and 80 % of the seedlings died as a result of the 100 % and 133 % sand burial treatments, respectively. The numbers of newly produced leaves and branches, and the height of the stems of the seedlings in the 33 % and 67 % burial treatments during the period of the experiment were significantly greater than those in the control. Furthermore, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were also elevated by the partial burial, but not affected by burial time. This might be attributed to the increased root length, which improved water acquisition. The biomass and biomass allocation of the seedlings were significantly changed by the burial treatments and burial times. The biomass was enhanced by partial burial but was reduced by complete burial at each burial time. However, the biomass allocation was not significantly changed by the 33 % and 67 % sand burial treatments 2 or 4 weeks following the burial.
• Conclusions Ulmus pumila was shown to be tolerant to partial sand burial, but must be protected from complete burial.
PMCID: PMC4242228  PMID: 15329332
Biomass allocation; Ulmus pumila; gas exchange; growth; Hunshandak Sandland; sand burial
3.  Genetic Classification of “Rickettsia heilongjiangii” and “Rickettsia hulinii,” Two Chinese Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2000;38(9):3498-3501.
To determine the phylogenetic position of two new rickettsial strains isolated from ticks in China, 16S ribosomal DNA, gltA, and ompA (apart from the tandem repeat units) genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The phylogenetic relationships between these strains and other rickettsiae were inferred from the comparison of sequences of the three genes by the parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum-likelihood methods. The results demonstrated that the 054 strain, a rickettsia pathogenic in humans, and the HL-93 strain were related and clustered together with Rickettsia japonica. Significant statistical bootstrap values (100 and 92%) supported the nodes in this cluster. Based on previous genotypic and antigenic data and the phylogenetic analysis presented here, the 054 and HL-93 strains should be considered as new species, and we formally propose that they be named “Rickettsia heilongjiangii” and “Rickettsia hulinii,” respectively.
PMCID: PMC87418  PMID: 10970415
5.  A retrospective cohort study of leukemia and other cancers in benzene workers 
A retrospective cohort study was carried out in 1982–1983 among 28,460 benzene-exposed workers (15,643 males, 12,817 females) from 233 factories and 28,257 control workers (16,621 males, 12,366 females) from 83 factories in 12 large cities in China. All-cause mortality was significantly higher among the exposed (265.46/100,000 person-years) than among the unexposed (139.06/100,000 person-years), as was mortality from all malignant neoplasms (123.21/100,000 versus 54.7/100,000, respectively). For certain cancers, increased mortality was noted among benzene-exposed males in comparison with that among unexposed males; the standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were elevated for leukemia (SMR = 5.74), lung cancer (SMR = 2.31), primary hepatocarcinoma (SMR = 1.12), and stomach cancer (SMR = 1.22). For females only leukemia occurred in excess among the exposed. Risk of leukemia rose as duration to exposure to benzene increased up to 15 years, and then declined with additional years of exposure. Leukemia occurred among some workers with as little as 6 to 10 ppm average exposure and 50 ppm-years (or possibly less) cumulative lifetime exposure (based on all available measurements for the exposed work units). Among the 30 leukemia cases identified in the exposed cohort, the proportion of subjects with acute lymphocytic leukemia was substantially lower and the proportion with acute nonlymphocytic leukemias was higher than in the general population. During 1972 to 1981, the annual incidence of leukemia ranged from 5.83 to 28.33 per 100,000 with higher rates occurring in the interval 1977 to 1981 than in the earlier years of the study period. Future studies should evaluate more precisely the relationship between exposure levels, job title, and development of leukemia among cases and noncases within the exposed cohort.
PMCID: PMC1568128  PMID: 2792042
6.  Leukaemia in benzene workers: a retrospective cohort study. 
A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 233 benzene factories and 83 control factories in 12 cities in China. The benzene cohort and the control cohort consisted of 28,460 benzene exposed workers (178,556 person-years in 1972-81) and 28,257 control workers (199,201 person-years). Thirty cases of leukaemia (25 dead and 5 alive) were detected in the former and four cases (all dead) in the latter. The leukaemia mortality rate was 14/100,000 person-years in the benzene cohort and 2/100,000 person-years in the control cohort; the standardized mortality ratio was 5.74 (p less than 0.01 by U test). The average latency of benzene leukaemia was 11.4 years. Most (76.6%) cases of benzene leukaemia were of the acute type. The mortality due to benzene leukaemia was high in organic synthesis plants followed by painting and rubber synthesis industries. The concentration of benzene to which patients with a leukaemia were exposed ranged from 10 to 1000 mg/m3 (mostly from 50 to 500 mg/m3). Of the 25 cases of leukaemia, seven had a history of chronic benzene poisoning before the leukaemia developed.
PMCID: PMC1007793  PMID: 3814544
7.  Internal fluorescence labeling with fluorescent deoxynucleotides in two-label peak-height encoded DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1994;22(19):3997-4001.
Fluorescently labeled deoxynucleotides were used for internal labeling of DNA sequencing fragments generated in a two-color peak-height encoded protocol. Sequenase and a manganese-containing buffer were used to generate uniform peak heights. Tetramethyl rhodamine - dATP was used in a labeling step, followed by termination with ddATP and ddCTP in a 3:1 ratio. Fluorescein - dATP was used in a second reaction, followed by termination with ddGTP and ddTTP in a 3:1 ratio. The fragments were pooled and separated by capillary gel electrophoresis. The results were compared with peak-height encoded sequencing based on fluorescently labeled primers. The dye-labeled primers produced higher resolution separations for shorter fragments. However, dye-labeled primer fragments suffered from an earlier onset of biased reptation and produced shorter sequencing reads. Fragments from 50 to at least 500 bases in length could be sequenced with the internal labels.
PMCID: PMC308401  PMID: 7937123

Results 1-7 (7)