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Applied and Environmental Microbiology (1)
Developmental cell (1)
Molecular Biology of the Cell (1)
Gladfelter, Amy S. (2)
Lee, ChangHwan (2)
Zhang, Huaiying (2)
Anderson, Cori A. (1)
Baker, Amy E. (1)
Borsuk, Mark E. (1)
Gerstenberger, John (1)
Kabeche, Ruth (1)
Kelly, Courtney M. (1)
Kendall, Alexxy (1)
Koenig, Aaron B. (1)
Liu, HuiZhou (1)
Occhipinti, Patricia (1)
Roberts, Samantha (1)
Shan, GuoBin (1)
Xing, JianMin (1)
Zhang, HuaiYing (1)
Year of Publication
Biodesulfurization of Dibenzothiophene by Microbial Cells Coated with Magnetite Nanoparticles
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Microbial cells of Pseudomonas delafieldii were coated with magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and then immobilized by external application of a magnetic field. Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a coprecipitation method followed by modification with ammonium oleate. The surface-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles were monodispersed in an aqueous solution and did not precipitate in over 18 months. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the average size of the magnetic particles was found to be in the range from 10 to 15 nm. TEM cross section analysis of the cells showed further that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were for the most part strongly absorbed by the surfaces of the cells and coated the cells. The coated cells had distinct superparamagnetic properties. The magnetization (δs) was 8.39 emu · g−1. The coated cells not only had the same desulfurizing activity as free cells but could also be reused more than five times. Compared to cells immobilized on Celite, the cells coated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles had greater desulfurizing activity and operational stability.
Ploidy variation in multinucleate cells changes under stress
Anderson, Cori A.
Kelly, Courtney M.
Koenig, Aaron B.
Gladfelter, Amy S.
Molecular Biology of the Cell
Aneuploidy and polyploidy can be beneficial or deleterious, depending on the context. In multinucleate fungal cells, mixed polyploidies can coexist in a common cytoplasm, but stress favors a return to haploid nuclei. Very low levels of aneuploidy are present, suggesting that there is limited buffering of ploidy variation despite a common cytosol.
Ploidy variation is found in contexts as diverse as solid tumors, drug resistance in fungal infection, and normal development. Altering chromosome or genome copy number supports adaptation to fluctuating environments but is also associated with fitness defects attributed to protein imbalances. Both aneuploidy and polyploidy can arise from multinucleate states after failed cytokinesis or cell fusion. The consequences of ploidy variation in syncytia are difficult to predict because protein imbalances are theoretically buffered by a common cytoplasm. We examined ploidy in a naturally multinucleate fungus, Ashbya gossypii. Using integrated lac operator arrays, we found that chromosome number varies substantially among nuclei sharing a common cytoplasm. Populations of nuclei range from 1N to >4N, with different polyploidies in the same cell and low levels of aneuploidy. The degree of ploidy variation increases as cells age. In response to cellular stress, polyploid nuclei diminish and haploid nuclei predominate. These data suggest that mixed ploidy is tolerated in these syncytia; however, there may be costs associated with variation as stress homogenizes the genome content of nuclei. Furthermore, the results suggest that sharing of gene products is limited, and thus there is incomplete buffering of ploidy variation despite a common cytosol.
Protein Aggregation Behavior Regulates Cyclin Transcript Localization and Cell-Cycle Control
Baker, Amy E.
Borsuk, Mark E.
Gladfelter, Amy S.
Little is known about the active positioning of transcripts outside of embryogenesis or highly polarized cells. We show here that a specific G1 cyclin transcript is highly clustered in the cytoplasm of large multinucleate cells. This heterogeneous cyclin transcript localization results from aggregation of an RNA-binding protein, and deletion of a polyglutamine stretch in this protein results in random transcript localization. These multinucleate cells are remarkable in that nuclei cycle asynchronously despite sharing a common cytoplasm. Notably, randomization of cyclin transcript localization significantly diminishes nucleus-to-nucleus differences in the number of mRNAs and synchronizes cell-cycle timing. Thus, nonrandom cyclin transcript localization is important for cell-cycle timing control and arises due to polyQ-dependent behavior of an RNA-binding protein. There is a widespread association between polyQ expansions and RNA-binding motifs, suggesting that this is a broadly exploited mechanism to produce spatially variable transcripts and heterogeneous cell behaviors.
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