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1.  Complications in ankle arthroscopy 
To determine the complication rate for ankle arthroscopy.
A review of a consecutive series of patients undergoing ankle arthroscopy in our hospital between 1987 and 2006 was undertaken. Anterior ankle arthroscopy was performed by means of a 2-portal dorsiflexion method with intermittent soft tissue distraction. Posterior ankle arthroscopy was performed by means of a two-portal hindfoot approach. Complications were registered in a prospective national registration system. Apart from this complication registry, patient records, outpatient charts and operative reports were reviewed. Patients with a complication were asked to visit our hospital for clinical examination and assessment of permanent damage and persisting complaints.
An overall complication rate of 3.5 % in 1,305 procedures was found. Neurological complications (1.9 %) were related to portal placement. Age was a significant risk factor for the occurrence of complications. Most complications were transient and resolved within 6 months. Complications did not lead to functional limitations. Residual complaints did not influence daily activities.
Our complication rate is less than half of what has been reported in literature (3.5 vs 10.3 %). The use of the dorsiflexion method for anterior ankle arthroscopy can prevent a significant number of complications. Posterior ankle arthroscopy by means of a two-portal hindfoot approach is a safe procedure with a complication rate that compares favourably to that of anterior ankle arthroscopy.
Level of evidence
Retrospective prognostic study, Level II.
PMCID: PMC3402678  PMID: 22669362
Ankle arthroscopy; Non-invasive distraction; Complications
2.  Novel metallic implantation technique for osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(4):495-502.
Background and purpose
A metallic inlay implant (HemiCAP) with 15 offset sizes has been developed for the treatment of localized osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome. The aim of this study was to test the following hypotheses: (1) a matching offset size is available for each talus, (2) the prosthetic device can be reproducibly implanted slightly recessed in relation to the talar cartilage level, and (3) with this implantation level, excessive contact pressures on the opposite tibial cartilage are avoided.
The prosthetic device was implanted in 11 intact fresh-frozen human cadaver ankles, aiming its surface 0.5 mm below cartilage level. The implantation level was measured at 4 margins of each implant. Intraarticular contact pressures were measured before and after implantation, with compressive forces of 1,000–2,000 N and the ankle joint in plantigrade position, 10° dorsiflexion, and 14° plantar flexion.
There was a matching offset size available for each specimen. The mean implantation level was 0.45 (SD 0.18) mm below the cartilage surface. The defect area accounted for a median of 3% (0.02–18) of the total ankle contact pressure before implantation. This was reduced to 0.1% (0.02–13) after prosthetic implantation.
These results suggest that the implant can be applied clinically in a safe way, with appropriate offset sizes for various talar domes and without excessive pressure on the opposite cartilage.
PMCID: PMC2917574  PMID: 20515434
3.  Osteochondral defects in the ankle: why painful? 
Osteochondral defects of the ankle can either heal and remain asymptomatic or progress to deep ankle pain on weight bearing and formation of subchondral bone cysts. The development of a symptomatic OD depends on various factors, including the damage and insufficient repair of the subchondral bone plate. The ankle joint has a high congruency. During loading, compressed cartilage forces its water into the microfractured subchondral bone, leading to a localized high increased flow and pressure of fluid in the subchondral bone. This will result in local osteolysis and can explain the slow development of a subchondral cyst. The pain does not arise from the cartilage lesion, but is most probably caused by repetitive high fluid pressure during walking, which results in stimulation of the highly innervated subchondral bone underneath the cartilage defect. Understanding the natural history of osteochondral defects could lead to the development of strategies for preventing progressive joint damage.
PMCID: PMC2855020  PMID: 20151110
Osteochondral defect; Cartilage; Ankle joint; Subchondral cyst; Natural history; Pain
4.  Treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus: a systematic review 
The aim of this study was to summarize all eligible studies to compare the effectiveness of treatment strategies for osteochondral defects (OCD) of the talus. Electronic databases from January 1966 to December 2006 were systematically screened. The proportion of the patient population treated successfully was noted, and percentages were calculated. For each treatment strategy, study size weighted success rates were calculated. Fifty-two studies described the results of 65 treatment groups of treatment strategies for OCD of the talus. One randomized clinical trial was identified. Seven studies described the results of non-operative treatment, 4 of excision, 13 of excision and curettage, 18 of excision, curettage and bone marrow stimulation (BMS), 4 of an autogenous bone graft, 2 of transmalleolar drilling (TMD), 9 of osteochondral transplantation (OATS), 4 of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), 3 of retrograde drilling and 1 of fixation. OATS, BMS and ACI scored success rates of 87, 85 and 76%, respectively. Retrograde drilling and fixation scored 88 and 89%, respectively. Together with the newer techniques OATS and ACI, BMS was identified as an effective treatment strategy for OCD of the talus. Because of the relatively high cost of ACI and the knee morbidity seen in OATS, we conclude that BMS is the treatment of choice for primary osteochondral talar lesions. However, due to great diversity in the articles and variability in treatment results, no definitive conclusions can be drawn. Further sufficiently powered, randomized clinical trials with uniform methodology and validated outcome measures should be initiated to compare the outcome of surgical strategies for OCD of the talus.
PMCID: PMC2809940  PMID: 19859695
Ankle; Osteochondral lesion; Defect; Talus; Systematic review; Arthroscopy
5.  A soccer player with idiopathic osteonecrosis of the complete lateral talar dome: a case report 
We report a 13-year-old soccer player with osteonecrosis of the talus and a large carticular fragment. The defect was revitalized with curettage and drilling and filled with autologous bone graft followed by the fixation of the carticular fragment with two conventional lag screws. Screw placement was such that they could be removed arthroscopically. Healing was uneventful. Eighteen months postoperative hardware was indeed removed arthroscopically. He returned to his former competitive level without restrictions or complaints.
PMCID: PMC2714895  PMID: 19421741
Ankle; Arthroscopy; Osteonecrosis; Fragment fixation

Results 1-5 (5)