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1.  Antiretroviral Drug Resistance and Routine Therapy, Cameroon 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2006;12(6):1001-1004.
Among 128 patients routinely receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic in Cameroon, 16.4% had drug resistance after a median of 10 months. Of these, 12.5% had resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 10.2% to non-NRTIs, and 2.3% to protease inhibitors.
doi:10.3201/eid1206.050860
PMCID: PMC3298273  PMID: 16707062
HIV; antiretroviral; resistance; routine care setting; Africa; dispatch
2.  Performance of the Celera Diagnostics ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System for Sequence-Based Analysis of Diverse Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Strains 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(6):2711-2717.
The Celera Diagnostics ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System is a Food and Drug Administration-cleared, integrated system for sequence-based analysis of drug resistance mutations in subtype B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease and reverse transcriptase (RT). We evaluated the performance of this system for the analysis of diverse HIV-1 strains. Plasma samples were obtained from 126 individuals from Uganda, Cameroon, South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, and Thailand with viral loads ranging from 2.92 to >6.0 log10 copies/ml. HIV-1 genotyping was performed with the ViroSeq system. HIV-1 subtyping was performed by using phylogenetic methods. PCR products suitable for sequencing were obtained for 125 (99%) of the 126 samples. Genotypes including protease (amino acids 1 to 99) and RT (amino acids 1 to 321) were obtained for 124 (98%) of the samples. Full bidirectional sequence data were obtained for 95 of those samples. The sequences were categorized into the following subtypes: A1/A2 (16 samples), B (12 samples), C (13 samples), D (11 samples), CRF01_AE (9 samples), F/F2 (9 samples), G (7 samples), CRF02_AG (32 samples), H (1 sample), and intersubtype recombinant (14 samples). The performances of the individual sequencing primers were examined. Genotyping of duplicate samples in a second laboratory was successful for 124 of the 126 samples. The identity level for the sequence data from two laboratories ranged from 98 to 100% (median, 99.8%). The ViroSeq system performs well for the analysis of plasma samples with diverse non-B subtypes. The availability of this genotyping system should facilitate studies of HIV-1 drug resistance in non-subtype B strains of HIV-1.
doi:10.1128/JCM.42.6.2711-2717.2004
PMCID: PMC427844  PMID: 15184457
3.  Simplified Strategy for Detection of Recombinant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Group M Isolates by gag/env Heteroduplex Mobility Assay 
Journal of Virology  2000;74(1):363-370.
We developed a heteroduplex mobility assay in the gag gene (gag HMA) for the identification of group M subtypes A to H. The assay covers the region coding for amino acid 132 of p24 to amino acid 20 of p7 (according to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] ELI, 460 bp). The gag HMA was compared with sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of an evaluation panel of 79 HIV-1 group M isolates isolated from infected individuals from different geographic regions. Application of gag HMA in combination with env HMA on 252 HIV-1- positive plasma samples from Bénin, Cameroon, Kenya, and Zambia revealed a high prevalence of a variety of intersubtype recombinants in Yaoundé, Cameroon (53.8%); Kisumu, Kenya (26.8%); and Cotonou, Bénin (41%); no recombinants were identified among the samples from Ndola, Zambia. The AGIbNG circulating recombinant form, as determined by gag HMA, was found to be the most common intersubtype recombinant in Yaoundé (39.4%) and Cotonou (38.5%). Using a one-tube reverse transcriptase PCR protocol, this gag HMA in combination with env HMA is a useful tool for rapidly monitoring the prevalence of the various genetic subtypes as well as of recombinants of HIV-1. Moreover, this technology can easily be applied in laboratories in developing countries.
PMCID: PMC111547  PMID: 10590125
4.  Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Intergroup (M/O) Recombination in Cameroon 
Journal of Virology  1999;73(8):6810-6820.
Here we describe, for the first time, recombinants between two highly divergent major groups of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), M and O, within a Cameroonian woman infected with three different HIV-1 strains, a group O virus, a subtype D virus, and a recently reported IBNG (A/G)-like recombinant virus. Using nested extra-long PCR amplification, we sequenced from the pol region to the env region including accessory genes of the viral genome obtained from the patient’s uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells and examined the phylogenetic position of each gene. Compared with sequential blood samples obtained in 1995 and 1996, there were multiple segmental exchanges between three HIV-1 strains (O, D, and IBNG) and all the recombinants appeared to be derived from a common M/O ancestor. Importantly, recombination between groups M and O occurred, even though the homology between these two groups is 69, 76, 68, and 55% in the gag, pol, vif-vpr, and env regions, respectively. Recombination between strains with such distant lineages may contribute substantially to generating new HIV-1 variants.
PMCID: PMC112766  PMID: 10400779

Results 1-4 (4)