Background: MicroRNA (miRNA) is small endogenous, single strand RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level through several mechanisms to affect key cellular event including male germ cells differentiation, proliferation, development and apoptosis. Mutation and/or aberrant expression of miRNAs have been associated with progression of various disorders, including infertility.
Objective: The purpose of this research was to study the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ(, hsa-mir-21 and, hsa-mir-22 expression level in oligospermic infertile and control fertile men and correlation between them.
Materials and Methods: In this study, the change in mir-21, mir-22 expression and their common target gene (ERβ) expression levels were evaluated in oligospermic infertile men (n= 43) compared with 43 age matched healthy control by Real-Time PCR methods.
Results: Expression analysis by qRT-PCR test on miRNA have identified that mir-21, mir-22 levels were significantly higher than those in normal controls (p<0.0001) and ERβ expression level significantly decreased in comparison with the normal group (p<0.0001).
Conclusion: Our study showed that mir-21 and mir-22 are indirectly involved in spermatogenesis by regulating of the estrogen receptor and might have a diagnostic and prognostic value in men infertility.
mir-21; mir-22; microRNA; Fertility; Oligospermia
Current discoveries of different forms of carbon nanostructures have motivated research on their applications in various fields. They hold promise for applications in medicine, gene, and drug delivery areas. Many different production methods for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been introduced; functionalization, filling, doping, and chemical modification have been achieved, and characterization, separation, and manipulation of individual CNTs are now possible. Parameters such as structure, surface area, surface charge, size distribution, surface chemistry, and agglomeration state as well as purity of the samples have considerable impact on the reactivity of carbon nanotubes. Otherwise, the strength and flexibility of carbon nanotubes make them of potential use in controlling other nanoscale structures, which suggests they will have a significant role in nanotechnology engineering.
Carbon nanostructures; Flexibility; Toxicity; Drug delivery; Nanotubes
Purpose: Despite significant improvements in treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), the emergence of leukemic stem cell (LSC) concept questioned efficacy of current therapeutical protocols. Remaining issue on CML includes finding and targeting of the key genes responsible for self-renewal and proliferation of LSCs. Nucleostemin (NS) is a new protein localized in the nucleolus of most stem cells and tumor cells which regulates their self-renewal and cell cycle progression. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of NS knocking down in K562 cell line as an in vitro model of CML.
Methods: NS gene silencing was performed using a specific small interfering RNA (NS-siRNA). The gene expression level of NS was evaluated by RT-PCR. The viability and growth rate of K562 cells were determined by trypan blue exclusion test. Cell cycle distribution of the cells was analyzed by flow cytometry.
Results: Our results showed that NS knocking down inhibited proliferation and viability of K562 cells in a time-dependent manner. Cell cycle studies revealed that NS depletion resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest at short times of transfection (24 h) followed with apoptosis at longer times (48 and 72 h), suggest that post-G1 arrest apoptosis is occurred in K562 cells.
Conclusion: Overall, these results point to essential role of NS in K562 cells, thus, this gene might be considered as a promising target for treatment of CML.
Apoptosis; Cell cycle; Nucleostemin; K562; RNA interference
Objective(s): Estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) mediates estrogen action in regulation of different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis. It has a key role in spermatogenesis. Estrogen receptor alpha knock-out (ER koα) male mice were infertile and severe impairment in spermatogenesis and seminiferous tubules was observed. Recently, it has been reported that microRNA (miRNA) mir-100 and let-7b were predicted to target ERα gene. MiRNA are small, endogenous, single stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and have been implicated in various disease states. It has been proved that some miRNAs expression is tissue- and disease-specific, giving potential for identifying miRNAs as a diagnostic tool.
Materials and Methods: In this study, the change in the expression levels of mir-100, let-7b and ERα expression levels were evaluated in oligospermic infertile patients (n=43) compared to control fertile subjects (n=43). After washing and separating sperms, total RNA was isolated and then cDNA was synthesized. The expression levels of mir-100 and let-7b and ERα were evaluated by real time PCR.
Results: Mir-100, let-7b levels were significantly higher than those in control group (P=0.008 and P=0.009, respectively). We have found that, ERα level was significantly decreased in comparison with normal group (P< 0.0001).
Conclusion: Changes in mir-100, let-7b and ERα expression levels in oligospermic patients may be associated with the susceptibility and progression of infertility. The results of this study indicate that miRNA can have a key role in spermatogenesis and might have a diagnostic and prognostic value in men infertility.
Fertility; Has-mir-100; Has-let-7b; MicroRNA
Leptin plays the role of mitogenic factor in the breast carcinogenesis. Therefore, it could be considered as a target for breast cancer therapy. Leptin gene expression could be modulated by activation of estrogen receptors. Silibinin is an herbal compound with anti-cancer activity on prostate and colorectal cancers. Based on the fact that targeting of leptin can be considered as a novel strategy for breast cancer therapy, the aim of this study was the investigation of potentiality of silibinin for inhibition of leptin gene expression and secretion, and its link with expression of estrogen receptors. Cytotoxic effect of silibinin on T47D breast cancer cells was investigated by MTT assay test after 24, 48 and 72 h treatments with different concentrations of silibinin. The levels of leptin, estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β genes expression was measured by reverse-transcription real-time PCR. The amount of secreted leptin in the culture medium was determined by ELISA. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Silibinin inhibits growth of T47D cells in a time and dose dependent manner. There was significant difference between control and treated cells in the levels of leptin, estrogen receptor β expression levels and the quantity of secreted leptin was decreased in the treated cells in comparison to control cells. In conclusion, silibinin inhibits the expression and the secretion of leptin and in the future it might probably be a drug candidate for breast cancer therapy through leptin targeting.
Leptin; Silibinin; Breast cancer; T47D cell line
Adipose tissue has characteristics of an endocrine organ which releases a number of adipocyte-specific factors, known as adipocytokines. It has recently suggested that adipocytokines might play a role in pathogenesis and progression of certain cancers, especially in gastric cancer. This study has managed to investigate endogenous and/or exogenous expression of Visfatin and Resistin in gastric cancer cell line.
Cell culture and semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction has performed to measure mRNA and protein expression of Resistin and Visfatin in gastric cancer cell lines. ELISA test has performed for cell lysate and supernatant of cell culture to measure Resistin and Visfatin protein expression and secretion.
Human gastric cancer cell line (AGS cell line) has found to express Visfatin mRNA and protein but Resistin mRNA and protein has not expressed.
Visfatin has expressed endogenously in AGS human gastric cancer cells. Conversely Resistin has no expression. The results of this study has suggested that expression of adipocytokine proteins in real samples, could be a biomarker for gastric cancer.
Visfatin; Nampt; Resistin; Gastric cancer; AGS cell line
Liposomes, sphere-shaped vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers, were first described in the mid-60s. Today, they are a very useful reproduction, reagent, and tool in various scientific disciplines, including mathematics and theoretical physics, biophysics, chemistry, colloid science, biochemistry, and biology. Since then, liposomes have made their way to the market. Among several talented new drug delivery systems, liposomes characterize an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present, several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles to ‘second-generation liposomes’, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. This paper summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations in respect to industrial applicability and regulatory requirements concerning liposomal drug formulations based on FDA and EMEA documents.
Liposomes; Glycolipids; Drug formulations; Drug delivery systems
Leptin, a protein released from adipose tissue, could have significant role in pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
This study aimed to evaluate variations in serum leptin levels in non-obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Patients and Methods
We studied forty-one patients with type 2 diabetes. Fasting lipid profile, Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), serum leptin, insulin, and glucose levels were measured by standard methods.
The serum leptin level in type 2 diabetic patients (19.32 ± 11.43 ng/mL) was significantly lower than that in non-diabetic subjects (32.16 ± 11.02 ng/mL). Serum leptin level was strongly and positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.658, P < 0.0001) and calculated body fat percentage (r = 0.431, P < 0.0001) in all the study subjects with a better corrlation in the control subjcts compared to control cases (r = 0.661 for BMI and r = 0.466 for body fat). On the other hand, leptin showed a positive and significant correlation with insulin and HOMA- β (homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function) in both groups. Furthermore, leptin related to homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.422, P = 0.006) was observed only in T2DM subjects. Leptin showed negative correlation with waist to hip ratio in diabetic (r = -0.407, P =0.008) and non-diabetic subjects (r = -0.318, P =0.049). In the regression model, BMI, HOMA-β, and gender were independent predictors of leptin in all subjects. However, in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects, β-cell function and insulin were independent predictors, respectively (P =0.01).
It is speculated that lower serum leptin levels in diabetic patients may be a consequence of male gender. Moreover, results suggest that serum leptin level in women is influenced differently than that in men.
Leptin; Type 2 Diabetes; Body Mass Index
Introduction: Nowadays, using drug delivery is an essential method to improve cancer therapy through decreasing drug toxicity and increasing efficiency of treatment. Silibinin (C25H22O10), a polyphenolic flavonoid which is isolated from the milk thistle plant, has various applications in cancer therapy but it has hydrophobic structure with low water solubility and bioavailability. To increase the effect of silibinin, silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 was prepared to determine the inhibitory effect of this nanodrug on Telomerase gene expression.
Methods: The rate of silibinin loaded into PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 was measured. Then, the cytotoxic effect of silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 was determined by Methyl Thiazol Tetrazolium (MTT) assay. After that, inhibition of Telomerase gene expression was indicated through Real-time PCR.
Results: Data analysis from MTT assay showed that silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 had dose dependent cytotoxic effect on T47D cell line. MTT assay showed no cytotoxic effect of free PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 on T47D breast cancer cell line. Real Time PCR analysis showed that the level of telomerase gene expression more efficiently decreased with silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 than with free silibinin alone.
Conclusion: The present study indicates that this nanodrug causes down-regulation of Telomerase gene expression in cancer cells. Therefore, PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 could be an appropriate carrier for hydrophobic agents such as silibinin to improve their action in cancer therapy.
Telomerase; Breast Cancer; Silibinin; PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4; Real-Time PCR; MTT Assay
Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-methyl methacrylic acid, PNIPAAm-MAA)-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using silane-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a template for radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide and methacrylic acid. Properties of these nanoparticles, such as size, drug-loading efficiency, and drug release kinetics, were evaluated in vitro for targeted and controlled drug delivery. The resulting nanoparticles had a diameter of 100 nm and a doxorubicin-loading efficiency of 75%, significantly higher doxorubicin release at 40°C compared with 37°C, and pH 5.8 compared with pH 7.4, demonstrating their temperature and pH sensitivity, respectively. In addition, the particles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. In vitro cytotoxicity testing showed that the PNIPAAm-MAA-coated magnetic nanoparticles had no cytotoxicity and were biocompatible, indicating their potential for biomedical application.
magnetic nanoparticles; drug loading; doxorubicin release; biocompatibility
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are attractive materials that have been widely used in medicine for drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, and therapeutic applications. In our study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and the anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride, were encapsulated into poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) poly (ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles for local treatment. The magnetic properties conferred by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles could help to maintain the nanoparticles in the joint with an external magnet.
A series of PLGA:PEG triblock copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of D, L-lactide and glycolide with different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG2000, PEG3000, and PEG4000) as an initiator. The bulk properties of these copolymers were characterized using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, the resulting particles were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry.
The doxorubicin encapsulation amount was reduced for PLGA:PEG2000 and PLGA:PEG3000 triblock copolymers, but increased to a great extent for PLGA:PEG4000 triblock copolymer. This is due to the increased water uptake capacity of the blended triblock copolymer, which encapsulated more doxorubicin molecules into a swollen copolymer matrix. The drug encapsulation efficiency achieved for Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with PLGA:PEG2000, PLGA:PEG3000, and PLGA:PEG4000 copolymers was 69.5%, 73%, and 78%, respectively, and the release kinetics were controlled. The in vitro cytotoxicity test showed that the Fe3O4-PLGA:PEG4000 magnetic nanoparticles had no cytotoxicity and were biocompatible.
There is potential for use of these nanoparticles for biomedical application. Future work includes in vivo investigation of the targeting capability and effectiveness of these nanoparticles in the treatment of lung cancer.
superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; triblock copolymer; doxorubicin encapsulation; water uptake; drug encapsulation efficiency
Diabetic retinopathy is a serious microvascular disorder of the retina. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, induced by high glucose levels and hypoxia, is a main feature in retinopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between vitreous and serum VEGF levels and control of diabetes and microalbuminuria in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Sixty-five patients were enrolled in this case-control study, comprising 30 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (cases) and 35 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (controls). The vitreous VEGF level was compared with the serum VEGF level in both groups. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), microalbuminuria, serum creatinine, and stage of nephropathy and retinopathy were also measured in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and the relationship between these parameters and serum and vitreous VEGF levels was investigated.
Mean vitreous and serum VEGF levels were significantly higher in cases compared with controls (P = 0.001, P = 0.011, respectively). There was also a significant correlation between vitreous and serum VEGF levels (P = 0.012, r = 0.453). VEGF levels in patients with well controlled blood glucose (P = 0.039), on drug treatment (P = 0.045) and at an early stage of nephropathy (P = 0.042) were significantly lower. There was a significant correlation between VEGF and albumin to creatinine ratio (P = 0.017, r = 0.432).
Serum and vitreous VEGF levels was significantly lower in patients on oral therapy, in those with well controlled glycemia, and in those with early-stage retinopathy. Administration of anti-VEGF had a good effect in reducing the progression of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
proliferative diabetic retinopathy; vascular endothelial growth factor; vitreous body
Adiponectin is an adipocyte secreted protein with important biological functions Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes This study aimed to evaluate serum adiponectin level in obese subjects with type II diabetes and its correlation with metabolic parameters
This cross-sectional study was performed on 40 obese subjects with type II diabetes and 40 non-diabetic obese control subjects Fasting lipid profile was measured by the enzymatic methods The NycoCard HbA1c protocol was used to measure HbAlc The Serum adiponectin, insulin and glucose levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay and glucose oxidase methods respectively
Type II diabetes was associated with hypoadiponectinemia, in both men and women Serum adiponectin level in non-diabetic subjects (6.44 ± 2.47 μg/ml) was significantly higher than diabetics (4.55 ± 1.88 μg/ml) Furthermore, serum adiponectin concentration in females was significantly higher than males in non-diabetics (7.18 ± 2.68 vs 5.61 ± 0.57) and diabetic groups (5.18 ± 2.08 vs 3.99 ± 1.5) There was a negative and significant correlation between serum adiponectin level with waist (r = -0.451, p = 0.003), waist to hip ratio (r = -0.404, p = 0.01) and BMI (r = - 0.322, p = 0.042) and a positive correlation with HDL (r = 0.337, p = 0.034) in non-diabetic group In diabetic group, there was only found a negative correlation between adiponectin and waist size (r = -0.317, p = 0.046)
Obesity and type II diabetes are associated with low serum adiponectin concentration
Adiponectin; Type II diabetes; Obese; BMI
There is growing evidence that damage to spermatozoa by reactive oxygen species play a key role in male infertility. The aim of this study was to assess seminal plasma free 8-Isoprostane levels in men with asthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia compared to normozoospermic males and its correlation with seminal parameters. The case group consisted of men with asthenozoospermia (n=15), asthenoteratozoospermia (n=16) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (n=15). The control group consisted of 16 males with normozoospermia. After Purification of Free 8-Isoprostane by affinity column, its concentration was measured by enzyme immunoassay method. Free 8-Isoprostane evaluation showed significantly greater values in the total case group (n=46) versus control group (18.23±3.56 vs 2.6±0.38 ng/ml). In each case group free 8-Isoprostane also showed a significant increasing compared to normozoospermic males. Free 8-Isoprostane showed an inversely significant correlation with sperm motility and sperm morphology. Lipid peroxidation could have significant role in etiology of sperm abnormalities. Measurement of 8-Isoprostane can be used as a specific biomarker for assessing lipid peoxidation in sperm.
Isoprostane; Reactive Oxygen Species; Lipid peroxidation; Semen; Sperm
There is growing evidence that damage to spermatozoa by reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in male infertility. The aim of the present study was to assess seminal plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), free 8-Isoprostane and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in men with asthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia compared with normozoospermic males.
The patients consisted of 46 men with seminal parameters abnormalities. The patients were grouped into asthenozoospermic (n = 15), asthenoteratozoospermic (n = 16) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (n = 15). The control group consisted of 16 healthy males with normozoospermia. Catalase activity was measured by Aebi spectrophotometeric method. Levels of TAC and SOD were measured by commercially available colorimetric assays. Level of free 8-Isoprostane was assessed by commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method. Differences between groups were assessed using Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Coefficients of correlation were calculated using Spearman's correlation analysis. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed with statistical significance assessed at the p value < 0.05 level with 95% confidence intervals
Levels of catalase and TAC were significantly lower in patients than the control group. No significant changes were seen in SOD activities. Levels of free 8-Isoprostane were significantly higher in patients than the control group. Furthermore, asthenozoospermic, asthenoteratozoospermic and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic groups had significantly lower values of catalase activity and TAC when compared to normozoospermic males. Levels of free 8-Isoprostane were significantly higher in all patients subgroups than the control group. Levels of catalase and TAC were positively correlated with sperm motility and morphology. Free 8-Isoprostane levels showed an inverse correlation with sperm motility and morphology.
Decreasing seminal plasma antioxidants levels, especially catalase and TAC, could have significant role in etiology of impaired sperm function. Measurement of 8-Isoprostane may be used as a specific biomarker for assessing oxidative stress on sperm.
Despite the knowledge on the antiatherogenic effects of exercise, the mechanism by which exercise reduces atherogenic risk remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that chronic exercise-induced oxidative stress may increase plasma total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant defense in the red cells. For 8 weeks, 60 male Dutch rabbits were fed rabbit chow with or without the addition of 2% cholesterol. The animals were further divided into rest and exercise groups (n = 15 for each group). Animals in exercise groups ran on a rodent treadmill at 15 m/min for 10 to 60 minutes gradually for 5 days per week for a total of 8 weeks. At the end of experiments, blood samples were collected and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in red blood cells. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol (T-SH) levels were measured in plasma. Thoracic aorta and carotid arteries were isolated for histological examination to evaluate atherosclerosis. Eight weeks of chronic exercise reduced atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions in all the arteries studied, along with positive changes in cholesterol profile, especially increase of serum HDL-C level. Plasma MDA, TAC and T-SH concentrations were enhanced by exercise in both control and hypercholesterolemic diet groups. Erythrocyte catalase activity was significantly increased by chronic exercise (p < 0.05), whereas total SOD activity rose with exercise only in the control group. Surprisingly, GPX activity was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in response to exercise in the control group and also in the high cholesterol diet group. Exercise is a useful tool for the prevention and regression of atherosclerosis which is evident by our findings of the enhancement of plasma TAC and positive change in serum cholesterol profile. However, the effect of exercise on red cell antioxidant activities is limited in the hypercholesterolemic animals compared to control animals, possibly in part because of alterations in the ability to adapt to exercise-induced oxidative stress in high cholesterol diet.
Key PointsPlasma MDA, TAC and T-SH concentrations were enhanced by exercise in both control and high cholesterol diet groups.GPX activity was significantly reduced in response to exercise in the control group and also in the high cholesterol diet group.Eight weeks of chronic exercise reduced atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions in all the arteries studied.
Chronic exercise; antioxidant; malondialdehyde; thiol; atherosclerosis
It has been proposed that oxidative stress plays an important role in male infertility. The aims of this study were to compare seminal plasma levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total (sum of free and bound) homocysteine (tHcy) from normozoospermic vs. asthenozoospermic men, and to examine the relationships between tHcy and lipid peroxidation products. The study was a case-control study with a simple random sampling. The case group was consisted of 15 asthenozoospermic males. This group was compared with 15 normozoospermic men. Seminal plasma levels of 15-F2α-isoprostane and tHcy were measured using commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. MDA levels were determined by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare two groups. Coefficients of correlation were calculated using Spearman’s correlation analysis. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed with statistical significance assessed at the p value <0.05 level. MDA levels were higher in asthenozoospermic subjects than in control subjects (0.72±0.06 μM vs. 0.40±0.06 μM; p<0.05). No differences were seen in 15-F2α-isoprostane levels in asthenozoospermic subjects and controls (65.00±3.20 pg/ml vs. 58.17±4.12 pg/ml; p>0.05). Interestingly, tHcy levels were to be slightly higher in asthenozoospermic subjects than in controls (6.18±1.17 μM vs. 4.8±0.52 μM). Sperm motility was inversely correlated with seminal plasma 15-F2α-isoprostane and MDA levels, respectively (p<0.05). In summary, seminal plasma levels of 15-F2α-isoprostane and tHcy showed no significant difference between normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men. Sperm motility was not correlated with seminal plasma levels of tHcy. No relationship was found between tHcy and lipid peroxidation.
15-F2α-isoprostane; Asthenozoospermia; Homocysteine; Lipid peroxidation; Malondialdehyde; Normozoospermia; Seminal plasma
Pregnancy is associated with significant, but reversible changes in thyroid function studies, which are among the most profound seen as a result of a normal physiologic state. The present study was carried out to find out alterations in thyroid function tests in each trimester in normal pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant women in Tabriz-Iran. A case-control study designed with 229 normal pregnant women that randomly selected from the first (64 samples), the second (92 samples), and the third (73 samples) trimesters and 250 randomly selected non-pregnant healthy female controls. Age range in both groups was 16–40 years. Thyroid function tests carried out by measuring serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxin (FT4, TT4), and free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3) by commercially available radio immunoassay kits. We found that mean TT4 increased progressively during pregnancy. Our study showed increasing in serum levels of TT3 in the second trimester and then declining during the third trimester compared with non-pregnant women. We showed that FT4 strongly decreased during the third trimester. Free T3 showed declining in the second and third trimesters. Mean TSH did not show significant difference in each trimester compared with non-pregnant women. The thyroid function tests in pregnancy should be interpreted against gestational age-related reference intervals to avoid mis-interpretation of thyroid function during pregnancy.
FT3; FT4; Pregnancy; TT3; TT4; TSH